builtins

       bash defines the following built-in commands: :, ., [, alias, bg, bind,
       break,  builtin,  case,  cd,  command,  compgen,  complete,   continue,
       declare,  dirs, disown, echo, enable, eval, exec, exit, export, fc, fg,
       getopts, hash, help, history, if, jobs, kill, let, local, logout, popd,
       printf,  pushd, pwd, read, readonly, return, set, shift, shopt, source,
       suspend, test, times, trap,  type,  typeset,  ulimit,  umask,  unalias,
       unset, until, wait, while.

BASH BUILTIN COMMANDS
       Unless otherwise noted, each builtin command documented in this section
       as accepting options preceded by - accepts -- to signify the end of the
       options.   The  :, true, false, and test builtins do not accept options
       and do not treat -- specially.  The exit, logout, break, continue, let,
       and  shift builtins accept and process arguments beginning with - with-
       out requiring --.  Other builtins that accept  arguments  but  are  not
       specified  as accepting options interpret arguments beginning with - as
       invalid options and require -- to prevent this interpretation.
       : [arguments]
              No effect; the command does nothing beyond  expanding  arguments
              and  performing any specified redirections.  A zero exit code is
              returned.

        .  filename [arguments]
       source filename [arguments]
              Read and execute commands from filename  in  the  current  shell
              environment  and return the exit status of the last command exe-
              cuted from filename.  If filename  does  not  contain  a  slash,
              filenames  in  PATH  are  used  to find the directory containing
              filename.  The file searched for in PATH need not be executable.
              When  bash  is  not  in  posix  mode,  the  current directory is
              searched if no file is found in PATH.  If the sourcepath  option
              to  the  shopt  builtin  command  is turned off, the PATH is not
              searched.  If any arguments are supplied, they become the  posi-
              tional  parameters  when  filename  is  executed.  Otherwise the
              positional parameters are unchanged.  The return status  is  the
              status  of  the  last  command exited within the script (0 if no
              commands are executed), and false if filename is  not  found  or
              cannot be read.

       alias [-p] [name[=value] ...]
              Alias with no arguments or with the -p option prints the list of
              aliases in the form alias name=value on standard  output.   When
              arguments  are supplied, an alias is defined for each name whose
              value is given.  A trailing space in  value causes the next word
              to be checked for alias substitution when the alias is expanded.
              For each name in the argument list for which no  value  is  sup-
              plied,  the  name  and  value  of  the  alias is printed.  Alias
              returns true unless a name is given for which no alias has  been
              defined.

       bg [jobspec ...]
              Resume  each  suspended  job jobspec in the background, as if it
              had been started with &.  If jobspec is not present, the shell's
              notion  of the current job is used.  bg jobspec returns 0 unless
              variable.  Each non-option argument is a  command  as  it  would
              appear  in  .inputrc, but each binding or command must be passed
              as a separate argument; e.g.,  '"\C-x\C-r":  re-read-init-file'.
              Options, if supplied, have the following meanings:
              -m keymap
                     Use keymap as the keymap to be affected by the subsequent
                     bindings.  Acceptable keymap names are emacs, emacs-stan-
                     dard,  emacs-meta,  emacs-ctlx,  vi, vi-move, vi-command,
                     and vi-insert.  vi is equivalent to vi-command; emacs  is
                     equivalent to emacs-standard.
              -l     List the names of all readline functions.
              -p     Display  readline  function  names and bindings in such a
                     way that they can be re-read.
              -P     List current readline function names and bindings.
              -s     Display readline key sequences bound to  macros  and  the
                     strings  they  output  in such a way that they can be re-
                     read.
              -S     Display readline key sequences bound to  macros  and  the
                     strings they output.
              -v     Display  readline variable names and values in such a way
                     that they can be re-read.
              -V     List current readline variable names and values.
              -f filename
                     Read key bindings from filename.
              -q function
                     Query about which keys invoke the named function.
              -u function
                     Unbind all keys bound to the named function.
              -r keyseq
                     Remove any current binding for keyseq.
              -x keyseq:shell-command
                     Cause shell-command to be  executed  whenever  keyseq  is
                     entered.   When shell-command is executed, the shell sets
                     the READLINE_LINE variable to the contents of  the  read-
                     line  line  buffer and the READLINE_POINT variable to the
                     current location of the insertion point.  If the executed
                     command  changes  the  value  of  READLINE_LINE  or READ-
                     LINE_POINT, those new values will  be  reflected  in  the
                     editing state.
              -X     List  all  key  sequences bound to shell commands and the
                     associated commands in a format that  can  be  reused  as
                     input.

              The  return value is 0 unless an unrecognized option is given or
              an error occurred.

       break [n]
              Exit from within a for, while, until, or select loop.  If  n  is
              specified,  break  n  levels.   n must be >= 1.  If n is greater
              than the number of enclosing  loops,  all  enclosing  loops  are
              exited.   The  return value is 0 unless n is not greater than or
              equal to 1.

       builtin shell-builtin [arguments]
              plied as expr, caller displays the line number, subroutine name,
              and source file corresponding to that position  in  the  current
              execution  call  stack.  This extra information may be used, for
              example, to print a stack trace.  The current frame is frame  0.
              The  return  value is 0 unless the shell is not executing a sub-
              routine call or expr does not correspond to a valid position  in
              the call stack.

       cd [-L|[-P [-e]] [-@]] [dir]
              Change  the  current  directory to dir.  if dir is not supplied,
              the value of the HOME shell variable is the default.  Any  addi-
              tional arguments following dir are ignored.  The variable CDPATH
              defines the search path for the directory containing  dir:  each
              directory  name  in  CDPATH  is  searched  for dir.  Alternative
              directory names in CDPATH are separated by a colon (:).  A  null
              directory  name  in CDPATH is the same as the current directory,
              i.e., ``.''.  If dir begins with a slash (/), then CDPATH is not
              used.  The  -P  option  causes  cd to use the physical directory
              structure by resolving symbolic links while traversing  dir  and
              before processing instances of .. in dir (see also the -P option
              to the set builtin command); the -L option forces symbolic links
              to  be followed by resolving the link after processing instances
              of .. in dir.  If .. appears in dir, it is processed by removing
              the  immediately previous pathname component from dir, back to a
              slash or the beginning of dir.  If the  -e  option  is  supplied
              with  -P,  and  the current working directory cannot be success-
              fully determined after a successful directory  change,  cd  will
              return  an unsuccessful status.  On systems that support it, the
              -@ option presents the extended  attributes  associated  with  a
              file  as  a directory.  An argument of - is converted to $OLDPWD
              before the directory change is attempted.  If a non-empty direc-
              tory  name  from  CDPATH is used, or if - is the first argument,
              and the directory change is successful, the absolute pathname of
              the  new  working  directory  is written to the standard output.
              The return value is  true  if  the  directory  was  successfully
              changed; false otherwise.

       command [-pVv] command [arg ...]
              Run  command  with  args  suppressing  the normal shell function
              lookup. Only builtin commands or commands found in the PATH  are
              executed.   If the -p option is given, the search for command is
              performed using a default value for PATH that is  guaranteed  to
              find  all  of  the  standard  utilities.  If either the -V or -v
              option is supplied, a description of command is printed.  The -v
              option  causes  a single word indicating the command or filename
              used to invoke command to be displayed; the -V option produces a
              more  verbose  description.  If the -V or -v option is supplied,
              the exit status is 0 if command was found, and  1  if  not.   If
              neither option is supplied and an error occurred or command can-
              not be found, the exit status is 127.  Otherwise, the exit  sta-
              tus of the command builtin is the exit status of command.

       compgen [option] [word]
              Generate  possible  completion matches for word according to the
              or no matches were generated.

       complete [-abcdefgjksuv] [-o comp-option] [-DE] [-A action]  [-G  glob-
       pat] [-W wordlist] [-F function] [-C command]
              [-X filterpat] [-P prefix] [-S suffix] name [name ...]
       complete -pr [-DE] [name ...]
              Specify  how arguments to each name should be completed.  If the
              -p option is supplied, or if no options are  supplied,  existing
              completion  specifications are printed in a way that allows them
              to be reused as input.  The -r option removes a completion spec-
              ification  for each name, or, if no names are supplied, all com-
              pletion  specifications.   The  -D  option  indicates  that  the
              remaining  options  and  actions should apply to the ``default''
              command completion; that is, completion attempted on  a  command
              for  which  no  completion  has previously been defined.  The -E
              option indicates that the remaining options and  actions  should
              apply  to  ``empty''  command  completion;  that  is, completion
              attempted on a blank line.

              The process of applying  these  completion  specifications  when
              word  completion  is attempted is described above under Program-
              mable Completion.

              Other options, if specified, have the following  meanings.   The
              arguments  to the -G, -W, and -X options (and, if necessary, the
              -P and -S options) should be quoted to protect them from  expan-
              sion before the complete builtin is invoked.
              -o comp-option
                      The  comp-option  controls  several aspects of the comp-
                      spec's behavior beyond the simple generation of  comple-
                      tions.  comp-option may be one of:
                      bashdefault
                              Perform the rest of the default bash completions
                              if the compspec generates no matches.
                      default Use readline's default  filename  completion  if
                              the compspec generates no matches.
                      dirnames
                              Perform  directory  name completion if the comp-
                              spec generates no matches.
                      filenames
                              Tell readline that the compspec generates  file-
                              names,  so  it can perform any filename-specific
                              processing (like adding  a  slash  to  directory
                              names,  quoting special characters, or suppress-
                              ing trailing spaces).  Intended to be used  with
                              shell functions.
                      noquote Tell  readline  not to quote the completed words
                              if they are filenames (quoting filenames is  the
                              default).
                      nospace Tell   readline  not  to  append  a  space  (the
                              default) to words completed at the  end  of  the
                              line.
                      plusdirs
                              After  any  matches  defined by the compspec are

                      command Command names.  May also be specified as -c.
                      directory
                              Directory names.  May also be specified as -d.
                      disabled
                              Names of disabled shell builtins.
                      enabled Names of enabled shell builtins.
                      export  Names of exported shell variables.  May also  be
                              specified as -e.
                      file    File names.  May also be specified as -f.
                      function
                              Names of shell functions.
                      group   Group names.  May also be specified as -g.
                      helptopic
                              Help topics as accepted by the help builtin.
                      hostname
                              Hostnames,  as  taken from the file specified by
                              the HOSTFILE shell variable.
                      job     Job names, if job control is active.   May  also
                              be specified as -j.
                      keyword Shell  reserved words.  May also be specified as
                              -k.
                      running Names of running jobs, if job control is active.
                      service Service names.  May also be specified as -s.
                      setopt  Valid arguments for the -o  option  to  the  set
                              builtin.
                      shopt   Shell  option  names  as  accepted  by the shopt
                              builtin.
                      signal  Signal names.
                      stopped Names of stopped jobs, if job control is active.
                      user    User names.  May also be specified as -u.
                      variable
                              Names of all shell variables.  May also be spec-
                              ified as -v.
              -C command
                      command  is  executed in a subshell environment, and its
                      output is used as the possible completions.
              -F function
                      The shell function function is executed in  the  current
                      shell  environment.   When the function is executed, the
                      first argument ($1) is the name  of  the  command  whose
                      arguments  are being completed, the second argument ($2)
                      is the word being completed, and the third argument ($3)
                      is  the  word  preceding the word being completed on the
                      current command line.  When it  finishes,  the  possible
                      completions  are retrieved from the value of the COMPRE-
                      PLY array variable.
              -G globpat
                      The pathname expansion pattern globpat  is  expanded  to
                      generate the possible completions.
              -P prefix
                      prefix  is  added at the beginning of each possible com-
                      pletion after all other options have been applied.
              -S suffix
                      suffix is appended to each possible completion after all
                      A  leading  !  in filterpat negates the pattern; in this
                      case, any completion not matching filterpat is removed.

              The return value is true unless an invalid option  is  supplied,
              an  option  other than -p or -r is supplied without a name argu-
              ment, an attempt is made to remove  a  completion  specification
              for a name for which no specification exists, or an error occurs
              adding a completion specification.

       compopt [-o option] [-DE] [+o option] [name]
              Modify  completion  options  for  each  name  according  to  the
              options,  or  for the currently-executing completion if no names
              are supplied.  If no options are given, display  the  completion
              options  for  each name or the current completion.  The possible
              values of option  are  those  valid  for  the  complete  builtin
              described  above.   The  -D  option indicates that the remaining
              options should apply to the ``default'' command completion; that
              is,  completion  attempted  on a command for which no completion
              has previously been defined.  The -E option indicates  that  the
              remaining  options should apply to ``empty'' command completion;
              that is, completion attempted on a blank line.

              The return value is true unless an invalid option  is  supplied,
              an attempt is made to modify the options for a name for which no
              completion specification exists, or an output error occurs.

       continue [n]
              Resume the next iteration of the enclosing for, while, until, or
              select  loop.   If  n  is specified, resume at the nth enclosing
              loop.  n must be >= 1.  If n  is  greater  than  the  number  of
              enclosing  loops,  the  last  enclosing  loop (the ``top-level''
              loop) is resumed.  The return value is 0 unless n is not greater
              than or equal to 1.

       declare [-aAfFgilnrtux] [-p] [name[=value] ...]
       typeset [-aAfFgilnrtux] [-p] [name[=value] ...]
              Declare  variables and/or give them attributes.  If no names are
              given then display the values of variables.  The -p option  will
              display the attributes and values of each name.  When -p is used
              with name arguments, additional options, other than -f  and  -F,
              are  ignored.   When  -p  is supplied without name arguments, it
              will display the attributes and values of all  variables  having
              the attributes specified by the additional options.  If no other
              options  are  supplied  with  -p,  declare  will   display   the
              attributes  and  values  of  all shell variables.  The -f option
              will restrict the display to shell  functions.   The  -F  option
              inhibits  the display of function definitions; only the function
              name and attributes are printed.  If the extdebug  shell  option
              is  enabled  using  shopt,  the source file name and line number
              where the function is defined are displayed  as  well.   The  -F
              option implies -f.  The -g option forces variables to be created
              or modified at the global scope, even when declare  is  executed
              in  a  shell  function.   It is ignored in all other cases.  The
              following options can be used to restrict  output  to  variables
              -n     Give  each  name  the nameref attribute, making it a name
                     reference to another variable.  That  other  variable  is
                     defined by the value of name.  All references and assign-
                     ments to name,  except  for  changing  the  -n  attribute
                     itself,  are  performed  on  the  variable  referenced by
                     name's value.  The -n  attribute  cannot  be  applied  to
                     array variables.
              -r     Make names readonly.  These names cannot then be assigned
                     values by subsequent assignment statements or unset.
              -t     Give each name the  trace  attribute.   Traced  functions
                     inherit  the  DEBUG  and  RETURN  traps  from the calling
                     shell.  The trace attribute has no  special  meaning  for
                     variables.
              -u     When  the  variable  is  assigned a value, all lower-case
                     characters are converted to upper-case.   The  lower-case
                     attribute is disabled.
              -x     Mark  names  for  export  to  subsequent commands via the
                     environment.

              Using `+' instead of `-' turns off the attribute  instead,  with
              the exceptions that +a may not be used to destroy an array vari-
              able and +r will not remove the readonly attribute.   When  used
              in a function, declare and typeset make each name local, as with
              the local command, unless the -g option is supplied.  If a vari-
              able  name  is  followed by =value, the value of the variable is
              set to value.  When using -a or -A and the  compound  assignment
              syntax  to  create array variables, additional attributes do not
              take effect until subsequent assignments.  The return value is 0
              unless  an  invalid option is encountered, an attempt is made to
              define a function using ``-f foo=bar'', an attempt  is  made  to
              assign  a  value  to  a readonly variable, an attempt is made to
              assign a value to an array variable without using  the  compound
              assignment  syntax (see Arrays above), one of the names is not a
              valid shell variable name, an attempt is made to turn off  read-
              only  status for a readonly variable, an attempt is made to turn
              off array status for an array variable, or an attempt is made to
              display a non-existent function with -f.

       dirs [-clpv] [+n] [-n]
              Without  options,  displays  the  list  of  currently remembered
              directories.  The default display  is  on  a  single  line  with
              directory  names  separated by spaces.  Directories are added to
              the list with  the  pushd  command;  the  popd  command  removes
              entries from the list.
              -c     Clears  the  directory  stack  by  deleting  all  of  the
                     entries.
              -l     Produces a listing  using  full  pathnames;  the  default
                     listing format uses a tilde to denote the home directory.
              -p     Print the directory stack with one entry per line.
              -v     Print  the  directory stack with one entry per line, pre-
                     fixing each entry with its index in the stack.
              +n     Displays the nth entry counting from the left of the list
                     shown by dirs when invoked without options, starting with
                     zero.

              marked  so  that  SIGHUP  is  not  sent  to the job if the shell
              receives a SIGHUP.  If no jobspec is  supplied,  the  -a  option
              means  to  remove or mark all jobs; the -r option without a job-
              spec argument restricts operation to running jobs.   The  return
              value is 0 unless a jobspec does not specify a valid job.

       echo [-neE] [arg ...]
              Output  the  args,  separated  by spaces, followed by a newline.
              The return status is 0 unless a write error occurs.   If  -n  is
              specified, the trailing newline is suppressed.  If the -e option
              is given,  interpretation  of  the  following  backslash-escaped
              characters  is  enabled.  The -E option disables the interpreta-
              tion of these escape characters, even on systems where they  are
              interpreted  by  default.  The xpg_echo shell option may be used
              to dynamically determine  whether  or  not  echo  expands  these
              escape  characters  by  default.   echo does not interpret -- to
              mean the end of options.  echo interprets the  following  escape
              sequences:
              \a     alert (bell)
              \b     backspace
              \c     suppress further output
              \e
              \E     an escape character
              \f     form feed
              \n     new line
              \r     carriage return
              \t     horizontal tab
              \v     vertical tab
              \\     backslash
              \0nnn  the  eight-bit  character  whose value is the octal value
                     nnn (zero to three octal digits)
              \xHH   the eight-bit character whose value  is  the  hexadecimal
                     value HH (one or two hex digits)
              \uHHHH the  Unicode (ISO/IEC 10646) character whose value is the
                     hexadecimal value HHHH (one to four hex digits)
              \UHHHHHHHH
                     the Unicode (ISO/IEC 10646) character whose value is  the
                     hexadecimal value HHHHHHHH (one to eight hex digits)

       enable [-a] [-dnps] [-f filename] [name ...]
              Enable  and disable builtin shell commands.  Disabling a builtin
              allows a disk command which has the same name as a shell builtin
              to  be  executed without specifying a full pathname, even though
              the shell normally searches for builtins before  disk  commands.
              If  -n  is  used,  each  name  is disabled; otherwise, names are
              enabled.  For example, to use the test binary found via the PATH
              instead  of  the  shell builtin version, run ``enable -n test''.
              The -f option means to load the new builtin  command  name  from
              shared object filename, on systems that support dynamic loading.
              The -d option will delete a builtin previously loaded  with  -f.
              If no name arguments are given, or if the -p option is supplied,
              a list of shell builtins is printed.  With no other option argu-
              ments,  the  list consists of all enabled shell builtins.  If -n
              is supplied, only disabled builtins are printed.  If -a is  sup-

       exec [-cl] [-a name] [command [arguments]]
              If command is specified, it replaces the shell.  No new  process
              is  created.  The arguments become the arguments to command.  If
              the -l option is supplied, the shell places a dash at the begin-
              ning  of  the  zeroth  argument passed to command.  This is what
              login(1) does.  The -c option causes command to be executed with
              an  empty environment.  If -a is supplied, the shell passes name
              as the zeroth argument to the executed command.  If command can-
              not  be executed for some reason, a non-interactive shell exits,
              unless the execfail shell option is enabled.  In that  case,  it
              returns  failure.   An  interactive shell returns failure if the
              file cannot be executed.  If command is not specified, any redi-
              rections take effect in the current shell, and the return status
              is 0.  If there is a redirection error, the return status is 1.

       exit [n]
              Cause the shell to exit with a status of n.  If  n  is  omitted,
              the exit status is that of the last command executed.  A trap on
              EXIT is executed before the shell terminates.

       export [-fn] [name[=word]] ...
       export -p
              The supplied names are marked for automatic export to the  envi-
              ronment  of subsequently executed commands.  If the -f option is
              given, the names refer to functions.  If no names are given,  or
              if  the  -p  option is supplied, a list of names of all exported
              variables is printed.  The -n option causes the export  property
              to be removed from each name.  If a variable name is followed by
              =word, the value of the variable is set to word.  export returns
              an exit status of 0 unless an invalid option is encountered, one
              of the names is not a valid shell variable name, or -f  is  sup-
              plied with a name that is not a function.

       fc [-e ename] [-lnr] [first] [last]
       fc -s [pat=rep] [cmd]
              The  first  form  selects a range of commands from first to last
              from the history list and  displays  or  edits  and  re-executes
              them.   First  and  last may be specified as a string (to locate
              the last command beginning with that string) or as a number  (an
              index  into the history list, where a negative number is used as
              an offset from the current command  number).   If  last  is  not
              specified  it is set to the current command for listing (so that
              ``fc -l -10'' prints the last 10 commands) and to  first  other-
              wise.   If first is not specified it is set to the previous com-
              mand for editing and -16 for listing.

              The -n option suppresses the command numbers when listing.   The
              -r  option reverses the order of the commands.  If the -l option
              is given, the commands are listed on  standard  output.   Other-
              wise,  the editor given by ename is invoked on a file containing
              those commands.  If ename is not given, the value of the  FCEDIT
              variable  is used, and the value of EDITOR if FCEDIT is not set.
              If neither variable is set, vi is used.  When  editing  is  com-
              plete, the edited commands are echoed and executed.
              form is used, the return status is that of the  command  re-exe-
              cuted,  unless  cmd  does  not  specify a valid history line, in
              which case fc returns failure.

       fg [jobspec]
              Resume jobspec in the foreground, and make it the  current  job.
              If jobspec is not present, the shell's notion of the current job
              is used.  The return value is that of the  command  placed  into
              the  foreground,  or failure if run when job control is disabled
              or, when run with job control enabled, if jobspec does not spec-
              ify  a  valid  job  or  jobspec specifies a job that was started
              without job control.

       getopts optstring name [args]
              getopts is used by shell procedures to parse positional  parame-
              ters.   optstring  contains  the  option characters to be recog-
              nized; if a character is followed by  a  colon,  the  option  is
              expected  to have an argument, which should be separated from it
              by white space.  The colon and question mark characters may  not
              be  used as option characters.  Each time it is invoked, getopts
              places the next option in the shell variable name,  initializing
              name if it does not exist, and the index of the next argument to
              be processed into the variable OPTIND.  OPTIND is initialized to
              1  each  time  the  shell or a shell script is invoked.  When an
              option requires an argument, getopts places that  argument  into
              the  variable OPTARG.  The shell does not reset OPTIND automati-
              cally; it must be  manually  reset  between  multiple  calls  to
              getopts within the same shell invocation if a new set of parame-
              ters is to be used.

              When the end of options is encountered,  getopts  exits  with  a
              return  value  greater than zero.  OPTIND is set to the index of
              the first non-option argument, and name is set to ?.

              getopts normally parses the positional parameters, but  if  more
              arguments are given in args, getopts parses those instead.

              getopts  can  report errors in two ways.  If the first character
              of optstring is a colon, silent error  reporting  is  used.   In
              normal  operation,  diagnostic messages are printed when invalid
              options or missing option arguments  are  encountered.   If  the
              variable  OPTERR  is  set  to  0, no error messages will be dis-
              played, even if the first character of optstring is not a colon.

              If an invalid option is seen, getopts places ? into name and, if
              not  silent,  prints  an  error  message  and unsets OPTARG.  If
              getopts is silent, the  option  character  found  is  placed  in
              OPTARG and no diagnostic message is printed.

              If  a required argument is not found, and getopts is not silent,
              a question mark (?) is placed in name, OPTARG is  unset,  and  a
              diagnostic  message  is  printed.   If getopts is silent, then a
              colon (:) is placed in name and OPTARG  is  set  to  the  option
              character found.
              option  causes  the  shell  to forget the remembered location of
              each name.  If the -t option is supplied, the full  pathname  to
              which  each name corresponds is printed.  If multiple name argu-
              ments are supplied with -t,  the  name  is  printed  before  the
              hashed  full  pathname.   The -l option causes output to be dis-
              played in a format that may be reused as input.  If no arguments
              are  given,  or if only -l is supplied, information about remem-
              bered commands is printed.  The return status is true  unless  a
              name is not found or an invalid option is supplied.

       help [-dms] [pattern]
              Display  helpful information about builtin commands.  If pattern
              is specified, help gives detailed help on all commands  matching
              pattern;  otherwise  help for all the builtins and shell control
              structures is printed.
              -d     Display a short description of each pattern
              -m     Display the description of each pattern in a manpage-like
                     format
              -s     Display only a short usage synopsis for each pattern

              The return status is 0 unless no command matches pattern.

       history [n]
       history -c
       history -d offset
       history -anrw [filename]
       history -p arg [arg ...]
       history -s arg [arg ...]
              With no options, display the command history list with line num-
              bers.  Lines listed with a * have been modified.  An argument of
              n  lists only the last n lines.  If the shell variable HISTTIME-
              FORMAT is set and not null, it is used as a  format  string  for
              strftime(3)  to display the time stamp associated with each dis-
              played history entry.  No intervening blank is  printed  between
              the  formatted  time stamp and the history line.  If filename is
              supplied, it is used as the name of the history  file;  if  not,
              the  value  of HISTFILE is used.  Options, if supplied, have the
              following meanings:
              -c     Clear the history list by deleting all the entries.
              -d offset
                     Delete the history entry at position offset.
              -a     Append the ``new'' history lines (history  lines  entered
                     since  the  beginning of the current bash session) to the
                     history file.
              -n     Read the history lines not already read from the  history
                     file  into  the  current  history  list.  These are lines
                     appended to the history file since the beginning  of  the
                     current bash session.
              -r     Read  the contents of the history file and append them to
                     the current history list.
              -w     Write the current history list to the history file, over-
                     writing the history file's contents.
              -p     Perform  history  substitution  on the following args and
                     display the result on  the  standard  output.   Does  not

              unless an invalid option is encountered, an error  occurs  while
              reading  or  writing the history file, an invalid offset is sup-
              plied as an argument to -d, or the history expansion supplied as
              an argument to -p fails.

       jobs [-lnprs] [ jobspec ... ]
       jobs -x command [ args ... ]
              The first form lists the active jobs.  The options have the fol-
              lowing meanings:
              -l     List process IDs in addition to the normal information.
              -n     Display information only about  jobs  that  have  changed
                     status since the user was last notified of their status.
              -p     List  only  the  process  ID  of  the job's process group
                     leader.
              -r     Display only running jobs.
              -s     Display only stopped jobs.

              If jobspec is given, output is restricted to  information  about
              that  job.   The  return status is 0 unless an invalid option is
              encountered or an invalid jobspec is supplied.

              If the -x option is supplied, jobs replaces any jobspec found in
              command  or  args  with  the corresponding process group ID, and
              executes command passing it args, returning its exit status.

       kill [-s sigspec | -n signum | -sigspec] [pid | jobspec] ...
       kill -l [sigspec | exit_status]
              Send the signal named by sigspec  or  signum  to  the  processes
              named  by  pid or jobspec.  sigspec is either a case-insensitive
              signal name such as SIGKILL (with or without the SIG prefix)  or
              a  signal  number; signum is a signal number.  If sigspec is not
              present, then SIGTERM is assumed.  An argument of -l  lists  the
              signal  names.   If any arguments are supplied when -l is given,
              the names of the signals  corresponding  to  the  arguments  are
              listed, and the return status is 0.  The exit_status argument to
              -l is a number specifying either a signal  number  or  the  exit
              status  of  a process terminated by a signal.  kill returns true
              if at least one signal was successfully sent,  or  false  if  an
              error occurs or an invalid option is encountered.

       let arg [arg ...]
              Each arg is an arithmetic expression to be evaluated (see ARITH-
              METIC EVALUATION above).  If the last arg evaluates  to  0,  let
              returns 1; 0 is returned otherwise.

       local [option] [name[=value] ...]
              For  each  argument, a local variable named name is created, and
              assigned value.  The option can be any of the  options  accepted
              by declare.  When local is used within a function, it causes the
              variable name to have a visible scope restricted to  that  func-
              tion and its children.  With no operands, local writes a list of
              local variables to the standard output.  It is an error  to  use
              local when not within a function.  The return status is 0 unless
              local is used outside a function, an invalid name  is  supplied,
              -n     Copy at most count lines.  If count is 0, all  lines  are
                     copied.
              -O     Begin  assigning  to  array at index origin.  The default
                     index is 0.
              -s     Discard the first count lines read.
              -t     Remove a trailing newline from each line read.
              -u     Read lines from file descriptor fd instead of  the  stan-
                     dard input.
              -C     Evaluate  callback each time quantum lines are read.  The
                     -c option specifies quantum.
              -c     Specify the number of lines read  between  each  call  to
                     callback.

              If  -C  is  specified  without  -c, the default quantum is 5000.
              When callback is evaluated, it is supplied the index of the next
              array element to be assigned and the line to be assigned to that
              element as additional arguments.  callback  is  evaluated  after
              the line is read but before the array element is assigned.

              If  not  supplied  with  an  explicit origin, mapfile will clear
              array before assigning to it.

              mapfile returns successfully unless an invalid option or  option
              argument  is  supplied,  array is invalid or unassignable, or if
              array is not an indexed array.

       popd [-n] [+n] [-n]
              Removes entries from the directory stack.   With  no  arguments,
              removes  the  top directory from the stack, and performs a cd to
              the new top directory.  Arguments, if supplied, have the follow-
              ing meanings:
              -n     Suppresses  the  normal change of directory when removing
                     directories from the stack, so that  only  the  stack  is
                     manipulated.
              +n     Removes  the nth entry counting from the left of the list
                     shown by dirs, starting with zero.  For  example:  ``popd
                     +0'' removes the first directory, ``popd +1'' the second.
              -n     Removes the nth entry counting from the right of the list
                     shown by dirs, starting with zero.  For  example:  ``popd
                     -0''  removes the last directory, ``popd -1'' the next to
                     last.

              If the popd command is successful, a dirs is performed as  well,
              and  the  return  status is 0.  popd returns false if an invalid
              option is encountered, the directory stack is empty, a non-exis-
              tent directory stack entry is specified, or the directory change
              fails.

       printf [-v var] format [arguments]
              Write the formatted arguments to the standard output  under  the
              control  of  the  format.  The -v option causes the output to be
              assigned to the variable var rather than being  printed  to  the
              standard output.

                     format that can be reused as shell input.
              %(datefmt)T
                     causes  printf  to  output the date-time string resulting
                     from using datefmt as a format  string  for  strftime(3).
                     The corresponding argument is an integer representing the
                     number of seconds since the epoch.  Two special  argument
                     values  may  be used: -1 represents the current time, and
                     -2 represents the time the  shell  was  invoked.   If  no
                     argument  is  specified,  conversion behaves as if -1 had
                     been given.  This is an exception  to  the  usual  printf
                     behavior.

              Arguments  to non-string format specifiers are treated as C con-
              stants, except that a leading plus or minus sign is allowed, and
              if  the leading character is a single or double quote, the value
              is the ASCII value of the following character.

              The format is reused as necessary to consume all  of  the  argu-
              ments.  If the format requires more arguments than are supplied,
              the extra format specifications behave as if  a  zero  value  or
              null  string,  as  appropriate,  had  been supplied.  The return
              value is zero on success, non-zero on failure.

       pushd [-n] [+n] [-n]
       pushd [-n] [dir]
              Adds a directory to the top of the directory stack,  or  rotates
              the  stack,  making the new top of the stack the current working
              directory.  With no arguments, exchanges the top two directories
              and  returns 0, unless the directory stack is empty.  Arguments,
              if supplied, have the following meanings:
              -n     Suppresses the normal change  of  directory  when  adding
                     directories  to  the  stack,  so  that  only the stack is
                     manipulated.
              +n     Rotates the stack so that  the  nth  directory  (counting
                     from  the  left  of the list shown by dirs, starting with
                     zero) is at the top.
              -n     Rotates the stack so that  the  nth  directory  (counting
                     from  the  right of the list shown by dirs, starting with
                     zero) is at the top.
              dir    Adds dir to the directory stack at the top, making it the
                     new  current working directory as if it had been supplied
                     as the argument to the cd builtin.

              If the pushd command is successful, a dirs is performed as well.
              If  the first form is used, pushd returns 0 unless the cd to dir
              fails.  With the second form, pushd returns 0 unless the  direc-
              tory  stack  is empty, a non-existent directory stack element is
              specified, or the directory change to the specified new  current
              directory fails.

       pwd [-LP]
              Print  the  absolute  pathname of the current working directory.
              The pathname printed contains no symbolic links if the -P option
              is supplied or the -o physical option to the set builtin command
              words read from the input stream than names, the remaining names
              are assigned empty values.  The characters in IFS  are  used  to
              split  the  line  into words using the same rules the shell uses
              for expansion (described above under Word Splitting).  The back-
              slash  character  (\)  may be used to remove any special meaning
              for the next character read and for line continuation.  Options,
              if supplied, have the following meanings:
              -a aname
                     The words are assigned to sequential indices of the array
                     variable aname, starting at 0.  aname is unset before any
                     new  values  are  assigned.   Other  name  arguments  are
                     ignored.
              -d delim
                     The first character of delim is  used  to  terminate  the
                     input line, rather than newline.
              -e     If the standard input is coming from a terminal, readline
                     (see READLINE above) is used to obtain the  line.   Read-
                     line  uses  the  current (or default, if line editing was
                     not previously active) editing settings.
              -i text
                     If readline is being used  to  read  the  line,  text  is
                     placed into the editing buffer before editing begins.
              -n nchars
                     read  returns after reading nchars characters rather than
                     waiting for a complete line of input, but honor a  delim-
                     iter  if fewer than nchars characters are read before the
                     delimiter.
              -N nchars
                     read returns  after  reading  exactly  nchars  characters
                     rather  than waiting for a complete line of input, unless
                     EOF is encountered or read times out.  Delimiter  charac-
                     ters  encountered  in the input are not treated specially
                     and do not cause read to return until  nchars  characters
                     are read.
              -p prompt
                     Display prompt on standard error, without a trailing new-
                     line, before attempting to read any input.  The prompt is
                     displayed only if input is coming from a terminal.
              -r     Backslash does not act as an escape character.  The back-
                     slash is considered to be part of the line.  In  particu-
                     lar,  a  backslash-newline pair may not be used as a line
                     continuation.
              -s     Silent mode.  If input is coming from a terminal, charac-
                     ters are not echoed.
              -t timeout
                     Cause  read  to time out and return failure if a complete
                     line of input (or a specified number  of  characters)  is
                     not  read within timeout seconds.  timeout may be a deci-
                     mal number with a fractional portion following the  deci-
                     mal  point.   This  option  is  only effective if read is
                     reading input from a terminal,  pipe,  or  other  special
                     file;  it  has no effect when reading from regular files.
                     If read times out, read saves any partial input read into
                     the  specified  variable  name.   If  timeout  is 0, read

       readonly [-aAf] [-p] [name[=word] ...]
              The given names are marked readonly; the values of  these  names
              may  not  be changed by subsequent assignment.  If the -f option
              is supplied, the functions corresponding to  the  names  are  so
              marked.   The  -a  option  restricts  the  variables  to indexed
              arrays; the -A option restricts  the  variables  to  associative
              arrays.   If both options are supplied, -A takes precedence.  If
              no name arguments are given, or if the -p option is supplied,  a
              list of all readonly names is printed.  The other options may be
              used to restrict the output to a subset of the set  of  readonly
              names.   The -p option causes output to be displayed in a format
              that may be reused as input.  If a variable name is followed  by
              =word,  the  value  of  the variable is set to word.  The return
              status is 0 unless an invalid option is encountered, one of  the
              names is not a valid shell variable name, or -f is supplied with
              a name that is not a function.

       return [n]
              Causes a function to stop executing and return the value  speci-
              fied  by n to its caller.  If n is omitted, the return status is
              that of the last command executed  in  the  function  body.   If
              return  is  used  outside  a function, but during execution of a
              script by the .  (source) command, it causes the shell  to  stop
              executing  that script and return either n or the exit status of
              the last command executed within the script as the  exit  status
              of  the script.  If n is supplied, the return value is its least
              significant 8 bits.  The return status is non-zero if return  is
              supplied  a  non-numeric argument, or is used outside a function
              and not during execution of a script by . or source.   Any  com-
              mand  associated  with the RETURN trap is executed before execu-
              tion resumes after the function or script.

       set [--abefhkmnptuvxBCEHPT] [-o option-name] [arg ...]
       set [+abefhkmnptuvxBCEHPT] [+o option-name] [arg ...]
              Without options, the name and value of each shell  variable  are
              displayed in a format that can be reused as input for setting or
              resetting the currently-set variables.  Read-only variables can-
              not  be  reset.  In posix mode, only shell variables are listed.
              The output is sorted according  to  the  current  locale.   When
              options  are specified, they set or unset shell attributes.  Any
              arguments remaining after option processing are treated as  val-
              ues for the positional parameters and are assigned, in order, to
              $1, $2, ...  $n.  Options,  if  specified,  have  the  following
              meanings:
              -a      Automatically  mark  variables  and  functions which are
                      modified or created for export  to  the  environment  of
                      subsequent commands.
              -b      Report  the status of terminated background jobs immedi-
                      ately, rather than before the next primary prompt.  This
                      is effective only when job control is enabled.
              -e      Exit  immediately  if a pipeline (which may consist of a
                      single simple command), a list, or  a  compound  command
                      (see  SHELL  GRAMMAR above),  exits with a non-zero sta-
                      ronment separately (see  COMMAND  EXECUTION  ENVIRONMENT
                      above), and may cause subshells to exit before executing
                      all the commands in the subshell.

                      If a compound command or shell function  executes  in  a
                      context  where -e is being ignored, none of the commands
                      executed within the compound command  or  function  body
                      will  be  affected  by the -e setting, even if -e is set
                      and a command returns a failure status.  If  a  compound
                      command  or  shell function sets -e while executing in a
                      context where -e is ignored, that setting will not  have
                      any  effect  until  the  compound command or the command
                      containing the function call completes.
              -f      Disable pathname expansion.
              -h      Remember the location of commands as they are looked  up
                      for execution.  This is enabled by default.
              -k      All  arguments  in the form of assignment statements are
                      placed in the environment for a command, not just  those
                      that precede the command name.
              -m      Monitor  mode.   Job control is enabled.  This option is
                      on by default for interactive  shells  on  systems  that
                      support  it  (see JOB CONTROL above).  All processes run
                      in a separate process group.  When a background job com-
                      pletes, the shell prints a line containing its exit sta-
                      tus.
              -n      Read commands but do not execute them.  This may be used
                      to  check  a  shell  script  for syntax errors.  This is
                      ignored by interactive shells.
              -o option-name
                      The option-name can be one of the following:
                      allexport
                              Same as -a.
                      braceexpand
                              Same as -B.
                      emacs   Use an emacs-style command line  editing  inter-
                              face.  This is enabled by default when the shell
                              is interactive, unless the shell is started with
                              the  --noediting  option.  This also affects the
                              editing interface used for read -e.
                      errexit Same as -e.
                      errtrace
                              Same as -E.
                      functrace
                              Same as -T.
                      hashall Same as -h.
                      histexpand
                              Same as -H.
                      history Enable command history, as described above under
                              HISTORY.  This option is on by default in inter-
                              active shells.
                      ignoreeof
                              The  effect  is  as   if   the   shell   command
                              ``IGNOREEOF=10''  had  been  executed (see Shell
                              Variables above).

                      pipefail
                              If set, the return value of a  pipeline  is  the
                              value  of  the  last (rightmost) command to exit
                              with a non-zero status, or zero if all  commands
                              in  the pipeline exit successfully.  This option
                              is disabled by default.
                      posix   Change the behavior of bash  where  the  default
                              operation  differs  from  the  POSIX standard to
                              match the standard (posix mode).  See  SEE  ALSO
                              below for a reference to a document that details
                              how posix mode affects bash's behavior.
                      privileged
                              Same as -p.
                      verbose Same as -v.
                      vi      Use a vi-style command line  editing  interface.
                              This also affects the editing interface used for
                              read -e.
                      xtrace  Same as -x.
                      If -o is supplied with no option-name, the values of the
                      current  options are printed.  If +o is supplied with no
                      option-name, a series of set commands  to  recreate  the
                      current  option  settings  is  displayed on the standard
                      output.
              -p      Turn on privileged mode.  In this  mode,  the  $ENV  and
                      $BASH_ENV  files  are not processed, shell functions are
                      not inherited from the environment, and  the  SHELLOPTS,
                      BASHOPTS,  CDPATH,  and  GLOBIGNORE  variables,  if they
                      appear in the environment, are ignored.  If the shell is
                      started  with the effective user (group) id not equal to
                      the real user (group) id, and the -p option is not  sup-
                      plied, these actions are taken and the effective user id
                      is set to the real user id.  If the -p  option  is  sup-
                      plied  at  startup,  the effective user id is not reset.
                      Turning this option off causes the  effective  user  and
                      group ids to be set to the real user and group ids.
              -t      Exit after reading and executing one command.
              -u      Treat unset variables and parameters other than the spe-
                      cial parameters "@" and "*" as an error when  performing
                      parameter  expansion.   If  expansion is attempted on an
                      unset variable or parameter, the shell prints  an  error
                      message,  and, if not interactive, exits with a non-zero
                      status.
              -v      Print shell input lines as they are read.
              -x      After expanding each simple command, for  command,  case
                      command, select command, or arithmetic for command, dis-
                      play the expanded value of PS4, followed by the  command
                      and its expanded arguments or associated word list.
              -B      The  shell performs brace expansion (see Brace Expansion
                      above).  This is on by default.
              -C      If set, bash does not overwrite an  existing  file  with
                      the  >,  >&,  and <> redirection operators.  This may be
                      overridden when creating output files by using the redi-
                      rection operator >| instead of >.
              -E      If set, any trap on ERR is inherited by shell functions,
                      shell  functions,  command  substitutions,  and commands
                      executed in  a  subshell  environment.   The  DEBUG  and
                      RETURN traps are normally not inherited in such cases.
              --      If  no arguments follow this option, then the positional
                      parameters are unset.  Otherwise, the positional parame-
                      ters  are  set  to  the args, even if some of them begin
                      with a -.
              -       Signal the end of options, cause all remaining  args  to
                      be assigned to the positional parameters.  The -x and -v
                      options are turned off.  If there are no args, the posi-
                      tional parameters remain unchanged.

              The  options are off by default unless otherwise noted.  Using +
              rather than - causes  these  options  to  be  turned  off.   The
              options  can  also be specified as arguments to an invocation of
              the shell.  The current set of options may be found in $-.   The
              return status is always true unless an invalid option is encoun-
              tered.

       shift [n]
              The positional parameters from n+1 ... are renamed  to  $1  ....
              Parameters  represented  by  the  numbers  $# down to $#-n+1 are
              unset.  n must be a non-negative number less than  or  equal  to
              $#.   If  n is 0, no parameters are changed.  If n is not given,
              it is assumed to be 1.  If n is greater than $#, the  positional
              parameters  are  not changed.  The return status is greater than
              zero if n is greater than $# or less than zero; otherwise 0.

       shopt [-pqsu] [-o] [optname ...]
              Toggle the values of settings controlling optional shell  behav-
              ior.   The settings can be either those listed below, or, if the
              -o option is used, those available with the -o option to the set
              builtin command.  With no options, or with the -p option, a list
              of all settable options is  displayed,  with  an  indication  of
              whether  or  not each is set.  The -p option causes output to be
              displayed in a form that may be reused as input.  Other  options
              have the following meanings:
              -s     Enable (set) each optname.
              -u     Disable (unset) each optname.
              -q     Suppresses  normal output (quiet mode); the return status
                     indicates whether the optname is set or unset.  If multi-
                     ple  optname arguments are given with -q, the return sta-
                     tus is zero if all optnames are enabled; non-zero  other-
                     wise.
              -o     Restricts  the  values of optname to be those defined for
                     the -o option to the set builtin.

              If either -s or -u is used  with  no  optname  arguments,  shopt
              shows  only  those options which are set or unset, respectively.
              Unless otherwise noted, the shopt options are  disabled  (unset)
              by default.

              The  return  status when listing options is zero if all optnames
              are enabled, non-zero  otherwise.   When  setting  or  unsetting
              cdspell If set, minor errors in the spelling of a directory com-
                      ponent  in  a  cd command will be corrected.  The errors
                      checked for are transposed characters, a missing charac-
                      ter,  and  one  character  too many.  If a correction is
                      found, the corrected filename is printed, and  the  com-
                      mand  proceeds.  This option is only used by interactive
                      shells.
              checkhash
                      If set, bash checks that a command found in the hash ta-
                      ble  exists  before  trying  to execute it.  If a hashed
                      command no longer exists, a normal path search  is  per-
                      formed.
              checkjobs
                      If set, bash lists the status of any stopped and running
                      jobs before exiting an interactive shell.  If  any  jobs
                      are running, this causes the exit to be deferred until a
                      second exit is attempted without an intervening  command
                      (see  JOB  CONTROL  above).   The shell always postpones
                      exiting if any jobs are stopped.
              checkwinsize
                      If set, bash checks the window size after  each  command
                      and,  if necessary, updates the values of LINES and COL-
                      UMNS.
              cmdhist If set, bash attempts to save all lines of  a  multiple-
                      line  command  in  the  same history entry.  This allows
                      easy re-editing of multi-line commands.
              compat31
                      If set, bash changes its behavior to that of version 3.1
                      with  respect  to quoted arguments to the [[ conditional
                      command's =~ operator and locale-specific string compar-
                      ison  when  using  the  [[ conditional command's < and >
                      operators.  Bash versions prior to  bash-4.1  use  ASCII
                      collation and strcmp(3); bash-4.1 and later use the cur-
                      rent locale's collation sequence and strcoll(3).
              compat32
                      If set, bash changes its behavior to that of version 3.2
                      with  respect  to locale-specific string comparison when
                      using the [[ conditional command's  <  and  >  operators
                      (see previous item).
              compat40
                      If set, bash changes its behavior to that of version 4.0
                      with respect to locale-specific string  comparison  when
                      using  the  [[  conditional  command's < and > operators
                      (see description of compat31) and the effect  of  inter-
                      rupting  a  command  list.   Bash versions 4.0 and later
                      interrupt the list as if the shell received  the  inter-
                      rupt;  previous  versions continue with the next command
                      in the list.
              compat41
                      If set, bash, when in posix mode, treats a single  quote
                      in  a  double-quoted  parameter  expansion  as a special
                      character.  The single quotes must match (an  even  num-
                      ber)  and  the  characters between the single quotes are
                      considered quoted.  This is the behavior of  posix  mode
                      in  shell  variable references in words to be completed.
                      This means that dollar  signs  in  variable  names  that
                      expand  to  directories will not be quoted; however, any
                      dollar signs appearing in filenames will not be  quoted,
                      either.   This  is  active only when bash is using back-
                      slashes to quote completed filenames.  This variable  is
                      set  by  default,  which is the default bash behavior in
                      versions through 4.2.
              direxpand
                      If set, bash replaces directory names with  the  results
                      of  word  expansion when performing filename completion.
                      This changes the contents of the readline  editing  buf-
                      fer.   If  not  set,  bash attempts to preserve what the
                      user typed.
              dirspell
                      If set, bash attempts spelling correction  on  directory
                      names  during word completion if the directory name ini-
                      tially supplied does not exist.
              dotglob If set, bash includes filenames beginning with a `.'  in
                      the results of pathname expansion.
              execfail
                      If set, a non-interactive shell will not exit if it can-
                      not execute the file specified as  an  argument  to  the
                      exec  builtin  command.   An  interactive shell does not
                      exit if exec fails.
              expand_aliases
                      If set, aliases are expanded as  described  above  under
                      ALIASES.  This option is enabled by default for interac-
                      tive shells.
              extdebug
                      If set,  behavior  intended  for  use  by  debuggers  is
                      enabled:
                      1.     The -F option to the declare builtin displays the
                             source file name and line number corresponding to
                             each function name supplied as an argument.
                      2.     If  the  command  run by the DEBUG trap returns a
                             non-zero value, the next command is  skipped  and
                             not executed.
                      3.     If  the  command  run by the DEBUG trap returns a
                             value of 2, and the shell is executing in a  sub-
                             routine  (a shell function or a shell script exe-
                             cuted by the . or source  builtins),  a  call  to
                             return is simulated.
                      4.     BASH_ARGC  and BASH_ARGV are updated as described
                             in their descriptions above.
                      5.     Function tracing is enabled:   command  substitu-
                             tion, shell functions, and subshells invoked with
                             ( command ) inherit the DEBUG and RETURN traps.
                      6.     Error tracing is enabled:  command  substitution,
                             shell  functions,  and  subshells  invoked with (
                             command ) inherit the ERR trap.
              extglob If set, the extended pattern matching features described
                      above under Pathname Expansion are enabled.
              extquote
                      default.
              globasciiranges
                      If  set,  range  expressions  used  in  pattern matching
                      bracket expressions (see Pattern Matching above)  behave
                      as  if  in the traditional C locale when performing com-
                      parisons.   That  is,  the  current  locale's  collating
                      sequence  is  not taken into account, so b will not col-
                      late between A and  B,  and  upper-case  and  lower-case
                      ASCII characters will collate together.
              globstar
                      If set, the pattern ** used in a pathname expansion con-
                      text will match all files and zero or  more  directories
                      and  subdirectories.  If the pattern is followed by a /,
                      only directories and subdirectories match.
              gnu_errfmt
                      If set, shell error messages are written in the standard
                      GNU error message format.
              histappend
                      If  set,  the history list is appended to the file named
                      by the value of the HISTFILE  variable  when  the  shell
                      exits, rather than overwriting the file.
              histreedit
                      If  set, and readline is being used, a user is given the
                      opportunity to re-edit a failed history substitution.
              histverify
                      If set, and readline is being used, the results of  his-
                      tory  substitution  are  not  immediately  passed to the
                      shell parser.  Instead, the  resulting  line  is  loaded
                      into the readline editing buffer, allowing further modi-
                      fication.
              hostcomplete
                      If set, and readline is being used, bash will attempt to
                      perform  hostname  completion when a word containing a @
                      is  being  completed  (see  Completing  under   READLINE
                      above).  This is enabled by default.
              huponexit
                      If set, bash will send SIGHUP to all jobs when an inter-
                      active login shell exits.
              interactive_comments
                      If set, allow a word beginning with # to cause that word
                      and  all remaining characters on that line to be ignored
                      in an interactive  shell  (see  COMMENTS  above).   This
                      option is enabled by default.
              lastpipe
                      If  set,  and  job control is not active, the shell runs
                      the last command of a pipeline not executed in the back-
                      ground in the current shell environment.
              lithist If  set,  and  the cmdhist option is enabled, multi-line
                      commands are saved to the history with embedded newlines
                      rather than using semicolon separators where possible.
              login_shell
                      The  shell  sets this option if it is started as a login
                      shell (see INVOCATION above).   The  value  may  not  be
                      changed.
                      Expansion above).
              nocasematch
                      If set, bash  matches  patterns  in  a  case-insensitive
                      fashion when performing matching while executing case or
                      [[ conditional commands.
              nullglob
                      If set, bash allows patterns which match no  files  (see
                      Pathname  Expansion  above)  to expand to a null string,
                      rather than themselves.
              progcomp
                      If set, the programmable completion facilities (see Pro-
                      grammable Completion above) are enabled.  This option is
                      enabled by default.
              promptvars
                      If set, prompt strings undergo parameter expansion, com-
                      mand   substitution,  arithmetic  expansion,  and  quote
                      removal after being expanded as described  in  PROMPTING
                      above.  This option is enabled by default.
              restricted_shell
                      The   shell  sets  this  option  if  it  is  started  in
                      restricted mode (see RESTRICTED SHELL below).  The value
                      may  not be changed.  This is not reset when the startup
                      files are executed, allowing the startup files  to  dis-
                      cover whether or not a shell is restricted.
              shift_verbose
                      If  set,  the shift builtin prints an error message when
                      the shift count exceeds the number of positional parame-
                      ters.
              sourcepath
                      If set, the source (.) builtin uses the value of PATH to
                      find the directory containing the file  supplied  as  an
                      argument.  This option is enabled by default.
              xpg_echo
                      If   set,  the  echo  builtin  expands  backslash-escape
                      sequences by default.

       suspend [-f]
              Suspend the execution of this shell until it receives a  SIGCONT
              signal.  A login shell cannot be suspended; the -f option can be
              used to override this and force the suspension.  The return sta-
              tus  is  0  unless the shell is a login shell and -f is not sup-
              plied, or if job control is not enabled.

       test expr
       [ expr ]
              Return a status of 0 (true) or 1 (false) depending on the evalu-
              ation of the conditional expression expr.  Each operator and op-
              erand must be a separate argument.  Expressions are composed  of
              the  primaries  described  above  under CONDITIONAL EXPRESSIONS.
              test does not accept any options, nor does it accept and  ignore
              an argument of -- as signifying the end of options.

              Expressions  may  be  combined  using  the  following operators,
              listed  in  decreasing  order  of  precedence.   The  evaluation
              based on the number of arguments.

              0 arguments
                     The expression is false.
              1 argument
                     The expression is true if and only if the argument is not
                     null.
              2 arguments
                     If the first argument is !, the expression is true if and
                     only if the second argument is null.  If the first  argu-
                     ment  is  one  of  the unary conditional operators listed
                     above under CONDITIONAL EXPRESSIONS,  the  expression  is
                     true if the unary test is true.  If the first argument is
                     not a valid unary conditional operator, the expression is
                     false.
              3 arguments
                     The following conditions are applied in the order listed.
                     If the second argument is one of the  binary  conditional
                     operators listed above under CONDITIONAL EXPRESSIONS, the
                     result of the expression is the result of the binary test
                     using  the first and third arguments as operands.  The -a
                     and -o operators are  considered  binary  operators  when
                     there  are  three arguments.  If the first argument is !,
                     the value is the negation of the two-argument test  using
                     the second and third arguments.  If the first argument is
                     exactly ( and the third argument is exactly ), the result
                     is  the one-argument test of the second argument.  Other-
                     wise, the expression is false.
              4 arguments
                     If the first argument is !, the result is the negation of
                     the  three-argument  expression composed of the remaining
                     arguments.  Otherwise, the expression is parsed and eval-
                     uated  according  to  precedence  using  the rules listed
                     above.
              5 or more arguments
                     The expression  is  parsed  and  evaluated  according  to
                     precedence using the rules listed above.

              When  used  with  test  or [, the < and > operators sort lexico-
              graphically using ASCII ordering.

       times  Print the accumulated user and system times for  the  shell  and
              for processes run from the shell.  The return status is 0.

       trap [-lp] [[arg] sigspec ...]
              The  command  arg  is  to  be  read  and executed when the shell
              receives signal(s) sigspec.  If arg is absent (and  there  is  a
              single  sigspec)  or  -,  each  specified signal is reset to its
              original disposition (the value it  had  upon  entrance  to  the
              shell).   If arg is the null string the signal specified by each
              sigspec is ignored by the shell and by the commands it  invokes.
              If  arg  is  not present and -p has been supplied, then the trap
              commands associated with each  sigspec  are  displayed.   If  no
              arguments  are  supplied or if only -p is given, trap prints the
              shopt builtin for details of its effect on the DEBUG trap.  If a
              sigspec is RETURN, the command arg is executed each time a shell
              function or a script executed with the . or source builtins fin-
              ishes executing.

              If  a  sigspec  is ERR, the command arg is executed whenever a a
              pipeline (which may consist of a single simple command), a list,
              or a compound command returns a non-zero exit status, subject to
              the following conditions.  The ERR trap is not executed  if  the
              failed command is part of the command list immediately following
              a while or until keyword, part of the test in an  if  statement,
              part of a command executed in a && or || list except the command
              following the final && or ||, any command in a pipeline but  the
              last,  or  if the command's return value is being inverted using
              !.  These are the same conditions obeyed  by  the  errexit  (-e)
              option.

              Signals  ignored  upon  entry  to the shell cannot be trapped or
              reset.  Trapped signals that are not being ignored are reset  to
              their original values in a subshell or subshell environment when
              one is created.  The return status is false if  any  sigspec  is
              invalid; otherwise trap returns true.

       type [-aftpP] name [name ...]
              With  no options, indicate how each name would be interpreted if
              used as a command name.  If the -t option is used, type prints a
              string  which  is  one  of alias, keyword, function, builtin, or
              file if  name  is  an  alias,  shell  reserved  word,  function,
              builtin,  or disk file, respectively.  If the name is not found,
              then nothing  is  printed,  and  an  exit  status  of  false  is
              returned.   If  the  -p  option is used, type either returns the
              name of the disk file that would be executed if name were speci-
              fied as a command name, or nothing if ``type -t name'' would not
              return file.  The -P option forces a PATH search for each  name,
              even if ``type -t name'' would not return file.  If a command is
              hashed, -p and -P print the hashed value, which is not necessar-
              ily  the  file  that appears first in PATH.  If the -a option is
              used, type prints all of the places that contain  an  executable
              named name.  This includes aliases and functions, if and only if
              the -p option is not also used.  The table of hashed commands is
              not  consulted  when  using  -a.  The -f option suppresses shell
              function lookup, as with the command builtin.  type returns true
              if all of the arguments are found, false if any are not found.

       ulimit [-HSTabcdefilmnpqrstuvx [limit]]
              Provides  control  over the resources available to the shell and
              to processes started by it, on systems that allow such  control.
              The -H and -S options specify that the hard or soft limit is set
              for the given resource.  A hard limit cannot be increased  by  a
              non-root  user  once it is set; a soft limit may be increased up
              to the value of the hard limit.  If neither -H nor -S is  speci-
              fied, both the soft and hard limits are set.  The value of limit
              can be a number in the unit specified for the resource or one of
              the special values hard, soft, or unlimited, which stand for the
                     children
              -i     The maximum number of pending signals
              -l     The maximum size that may be locked into memory
              -m     The maximum resident set size (many systems do not  honor
                     this limit)
              -n     The maximum number of open file descriptors (most systems
                     do not allow this value to be set)
              -p     The pipe size in 512-byte blocks (this may not be set)
              -q     The maximum number of bytes in POSIX message queues
              -r     The maximum real-time scheduling priority
              -s     The maximum stack size
              -t     The maximum amount of cpu time in seconds
              -u     The maximum number of processes  available  to  a  single
                     user
              -v     The  maximum  amount  of  virtual memory available to the
                     shell and, on some systems, to its children
              -x     The maximum number of file locks
              -T     The maximum number of threads

              If limit is given, and the -a option is not used, limit  is  the
              new  value  of  the  specified resource.  If no option is given,
              then -f is assumed.  Values are in 1024-byte increments,  except
              for  -t,  which is in seconds; -p, which is in units of 512-byte
              blocks; and -T, -b, -n, and -u, which are unscaled values.   The
              return  status is 0 unless an invalid option or argument is sup-
              plied, or an error occurs while setting a new limit.

       umask [-p] [-S] [mode]
              The user file-creation mask is set to mode.  If mode begins with
              a  digit,  it is interpreted as an octal number; otherwise it is
              interpreted as a symbolic mode mask similar to that accepted  by
              chmod(1).   If mode is omitted, the current value of the mask is
              printed.  The -S option causes the mask to be  printed  in  sym-
              bolic  form;  the  default output is an octal number.  If the -p
              option is supplied, and mode is omitted, the output is in a form
              that may be reused as input.  The return status is 0 if the mode
              was successfully changed or if no mode  argument  was  supplied,
              and false otherwise.

       unalias [-a] [name ...]
              Remove  each  name  from  the list of defined aliases.  If -a is
              supplied, all alias definitions are removed.  The  return  value
              is true unless a supplied name is not a defined alias.

       unset [-fv] [-n] [name ...]
              For  each  name,  remove the corresponding variable or function.
              If the -v option is given, each name refers to a shell variable,
              and  that  variable  is removed.  Read-only variables may not be
              unset.  If -f is specified, each name refers to  a  shell  func-
              tion,  and the function definition is removed.  If the -n option
              is supplied, and name is a variable with the nameref  attribute,
              name  will  be unset rather than the variable it references.  -n
              has no effect if the -f option is supplied.  If no  options  are
              supplied,  each  name refers to a variable; if there is no vari-
              waited  for.  If n is not given, all currently active child pro-
              cesses are waited for, and the return status is zero.  If the -n
              option  is  supplied,  wait  waits  for any job to terminate and
              returns its exit status.  If n specifies a non-existent  process
              or  job, the return status is 127.  Otherwise, the return status
              is the exit status of the last process or job waited for.

SEE ALSO
       bash(1), sh(1)

GNU Bash-2.05a                  2001 October 29               BASH-BUILTINS(7)
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