PTHREAD_JOIN(3) Linux Programmer's Manual PTHREAD_JOIN(3)
pthread_join - join with a terminated thread
int pthread_join(pthread_t thread, void **retval);
Compile and link with -pthread.
The pthread_join() function waits for the thread specified by thread to
terminate. If that thread has already terminated, then pthread_join()
returns immediately. The thread specified by thread must be joinable.
If retval is not NULL, then pthread_join() copies the exit status of
the target thread (i.e., the value that the target thread supplied to
pthread_exit(3)) into the location pointed to by retval. If the target
thread was canceled, then PTHREAD_CANCELED is placed in the location
pointed to by retval.
If multiple threads simultaneously try to join with the same thread,
the results are undefined. If the thread calling pthread_join() is
canceled, then the target thread will remain joinable (i.e., it will
not be detached).
On success, pthread_join() returns 0; on error, it returns an error
A deadlock was detected (e.g., two threads tried to join with
each other); or thread specifies the calling thread.
EINVAL thread is not a joinable thread.
EINVAL Another thread is already waiting to join with this thread.
ESRCH No thread with the ID thread could be found.
For an explanation of the terms used in this section, see
|Interface | Attribute | Value |
|pthread_join() | Thread safety | MT-Safe |
After a successful call to pthread_join(), the caller is guaranteed
that the target thread has terminated. The caller may then choose to
do any clean-up that is required after termination of the thread (e.g.,
freeing memory or other resources that were allocated to the target
Joining with a thread that has previously been joined results in unde-
Failure to join with a thread that is joinable (i.e., one that is not
detached), produces a "zombie thread". Avoid doing this, since each
zombie thread consumes some system resources, and when enough zombie
threads have accumulated, it will no longer be possible to create new
threads (or processes).
There is no pthreads analog of waitpid(-1, &status, 0), that is, "join
with any terminated thread". If you believe you need this functional-
ity, you probably need to rethink your application design.
All of the threads in a process are peers: any thread can join with any
other thread in the process.
pthread_cancel(3), pthread_create(3), pthread_detach(3),
pthread_exit(3), pthread_tryjoin_np(3), pthreads(7)
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Linux 2017-09-15 PTHREAD_JOIN(3)
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