fields


SYNOPSIS
           {
               package Foo;
               use fields qw(foo bar _Foo_private);
               sub new {
                   my Foo $self = shift;
                   unless (ref $self) {
                       $self = fields::new($self);
                       $self->{_Foo_private} = "this is Foo's secret";
                   }
                   $self->{foo} = 10;
                   $self->{bar} = 20;
                   return $self;
               }
           }

           my $var = Foo->new;
           $var->{foo} = 42;

           # this will generate an error
           $var->{zap} = 42;

           # subclassing
           {
               package Bar;
               use base 'Foo';
               use fields qw(baz _Bar_private);        # not shared with Foo
               sub new {
                   my $class = shift;
                   my $self = fields::new($class);
                   $self->SUPER::new();                # init base fields
                   $self->{baz} = 10;                  # init own fields
                   $self->{_Bar_private} = "this is Bar's secret";
                   return $self;
               }
           }

DESCRIPTION
       The "fields" pragma enables compile-time verified class fields.

       NOTE: The current implementation keeps the declared fields in the
       %FIELDS hash of the calling package, but this may change in future
       versions.  Do not update the %FIELDS hash directly, because it must be
       created at compile-time for it to be fully useful, as is done by this
       pragma.

       Only valid for perl before 5.9.0:

       If a typed lexical variable holding a reference is used to access a
       hash element and a package with the same name as the type has declared
       class fields using this pragma, then the operation is turned into an
       array access at compile time.

       which are as compact and as fast arrays to access. This only works as
       long as the objects are accessed through properly typed variables. If
       the objects are not typed, access is only checked at run time.

       The following functions are supported:

       new  perl before 5.9.0:  fields::new() creates and blesses a pseudo-
           hash comprised of the fields declared using the "fields" pragma
           into the specified class.

            perl 5.9.0 and higher:  fields::new() creates and blesses a
           restricted-hash comprised of the fields declared using the "fields"
           pragma into the specified class.

           This function is usable with or without pseudo-hashes.  It is the
           recommended way to construct a fields-based object.

           This makes it possible to write a constructor like this:

               package Critter::Sounds;
               use fields qw(cat dog bird);

               sub new {
                   my $self = shift;
                   $self = fields::new($self) unless ref $self;
                   $self->{cat} = 'meow';                          # scalar element
                   @$self{'dog','bird'} = ('bark','tweet');        # slice
                   return $self;
               }

       phash
            before perl 5.9.0:

           fields::phash() can be used to create and initialize a plain
           (unblessed) pseudo-hash.  This function should always be used
           instead of creating pseudo-hashes directly.

           If the first argument is a reference to an array, the pseudo-hash
           will be created with keys from that array.  If a second argument is
           supplied, it must also be a reference to an array whose elements
           will be used as the values.  If the second array contains less
           elements than the first, the trailing elements of the pseudo-hash
           will not be initialized.  This makes it particularly useful for
           creating a pseudo-hash from subroutine arguments:

               sub dogtag {
                  my $tag = fields::phash([qw(name rank ser_num)], [@_]);
               }

           fields::phash() also accepts a list of key-value pairs that will be
           used to construct the pseudo hash.  Examples:

               my $tag = fields::phash(name => "Joe",
                                       rank => "captain",



perl v5.14.2                      2011-09-26                     fields(3perl)
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