dirname

BASENAME(3)                Linux Programmer's Manual               BASENAME(3)

NAME
       basename, dirname - parse pathname components

SYNOPSIS
       #include <libgen.h>

       char *dirname(char *path);

       char *basename(char *path);

DESCRIPTION
       Warning: there are two different functions basename() - see below.

       The functions dirname() and basename() break a null-terminated pathname
       string into directory and filename  components.   In  the  usual  case,
       dirname()  returns  the string up to, but not including, the final '/',
       and basename() returns the component following the final '/'.  Trailing
       '/' characters are not counted as part of the pathname.

       If  path  does  not  contain  a slash, dirname() returns the string "."
       while basename() returns a copy of path.  If path is  the  string  "/",
       then both dirname() and basename() return the string "/".  If path is a
       null pointer or points to an empty  string,  then  both  dirname()  and
       basename() return the string ".".

       Concatenating  the  string returned by dirname(), a "/", and the string
       returned by basename() yields a complete pathname.

       Both dirname() and basename() may modify the contents of  path,  so  it
       may be desirable to pass a copy when calling one of these functions.

       These  functions  may  return  pointers  to statically allocated memory
       which may be overwritten by subsequent calls.  Alternatively, they  may
       return  a  pointer to some part of path, so that the string referred to
       by path should not be modified or freed until the pointer  returned  by
       the function is no longer required.

       The  following  list  of  examples (taken from SUSv2) shows the strings
       returned by dirname() and basename() for different paths:

              path       dirname   basename
              /usr/lib   /usr      lib
              /usr/      /         usr
              usr        .         usr
              /          /         /
              .          .         .
              ..         .         ..

RETURN VALUE
       Both  dirname()  and  basename()  return  pointers  to  null-terminated
       strings.  (Do not pass these pointers to free(3).)

ATTRIBUTES
       For   an   explanation   of   the  terms  used  in  this  section,  see
       attributes(7).

       +----------------------+---------------+---------+
       |Interface             | Attribute     | Value   |
       +----------------------+---------------+---------+
       |basename(), dirname() | Thread safety | MT-Safe |
       +----------------------+---------------+---------+
CONFORMING TO
       POSIX.1-2001, POSIX.1-2008.

NOTES
       There are two different versions of  basename()  -  the  POSIX  version
       described above, and the GNU version, which one gets after

               #define _GNU_SOURCE         /* See feature_test_macros(7) */
               #include <string.h>

       The  GNU  version  never  modifies  its argument, and returns the empty
       string when path has a trailing slash, and in particular also  when  it
       is "/".  There is no GNU version of dirname().

       With glibc, one gets the POSIX version of basename() when <libgen.h> is
       included, and the GNU version otherwise.

BUGS
       In the glibc implementation, the POSIX versions of these functions mod-
       ify  the  path  argument, and segfault when called with a static string
       such as "/usr/".

       Before glibc 2.2.1, the glibc version of dirname()  did  not  correctly
       handle pathnames with trailing '/' characters, and generated a segfault
       if given a NULL argument.

EXAMPLE
       The following code snippet  demonstrates  the  use  of  basename()  and
       dirname():
           char *dirc, *basec, *bname, *dname;
           char *path = "/etc/passwd";

           dirc = strdup(path);
           basec = strdup(path);
           dname = dirname(dirc);
           bname = basename(basec);
           printf("dirname=%s, basename=%s\n", dname, bname);

SEE ALSO
       basename(1), dirname(1)

COLOPHON
       This  page  is  part of release 4.15 of the Linux man-pages project.  A
       description of the project, information about reporting bugs,  and  the
       latest     version     of     this    page,    can    be    found    at
       https://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/.

GNU                               2017-09-15                       BASENAME(3)
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