int setpgid(pid_t pid, pid_t pgid);
pid_t getpgid(pid_t pid);
pid_t getpgrp(void); /* POSIX.1 version */
pid_t getpgrp(pid_t pid); /* BSD version */
int setpgrp(void); /* System V version */
int setpgrp(pid_t pid, pid_t pgid); /* BSD version */
Feature Test Macro Requirements for glibc (see feature_test_macros(7)):
_XOPEN_SOURCE >= 500 || _XOPEN_SOURCE && _XOPEN_SOURCE_EXTENDED
|| /* Since glibc 2.12: */ _POSIX_C_SOURCE >= 200809L
_SVID_SOURCE || _XOPEN_SOURCE >= 500 ||
_XOPEN_SOURCE && _XOPEN_SOURCE_EXTENDED
|| /* Since glibc 2.19: */ _BSD_SOURCE
setpgrp() (BSD), getpgrp() (BSD) [before glibc 2.19]:
! (_POSIX_SOURCE || _POSIX_C_SOURCE || _XOPEN_SOURCE ||
_XOPEN_SOURCE_EXTENDED || _GNU_SOURCE || _SVID_SOURCE)
All of these interfaces are available on Linux, and are used for get-
ting and setting the process group ID (PGID) of a process. The pre-
ferred, POSIX.1-specified ways of doing this are: getpgrp(void), for
retrieving the calling process's PGID; and setpgid(), for setting a
setpgid() sets the PGID of the process specified by pid to pgid. If
pid is zero, then the process ID of the calling process is used. If
pgid is zero, then the PGID of the process specified by pid is made the
same as its process ID. If setpgid() is used to move a process from
one process group to another (as is done by some shells when creating
pipelines), both process groups must be part of the same session (see
setsid(2) and credentials(7)). In this case, the pgid specifies an
existing process group to be joined and the session ID of that group
must match the session ID of the joining process.
The POSIX.1 version of getpgrp(), which takes no arguments, returns the
PGID of the calling process.
getpgid() returns the PGID of the process specified by pid. If pid is
zero, the process ID of the calling process is used. (Retrieving the
PGID of a process other than the caller is rarely necessary, and the
POSIX.1 getpgrp() is preferred for that task.)
The System V-style setpgrp(), which takes no arguments, is equivalent
to setpgid(0, 0).
Since glibc 2.19, the BSD-specific getpgrp() function is no longer
exposed by <unistd.h>; calls should be replaced with calls to the
POSIX.1 getpgrp() which takes no arguments (if the intent is to obtain
the caller's PGID), or with the getpgid() call shown above.
On success, setpgid() and setpgrp() return zero. On error, -1 is
returned, and errno is set appropriately.
The POSIX.1 getpgrp() always returns the PGID of the caller.
getpgid(), and the BSD-specific getpgrp() return a process group on
success. On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.
EACCES An attempt was made to change the process group ID of one of the
children of the calling process and the child had already per-
formed an execve(2) (setpgid(), setpgrp()).
EINVAL pgid is less than 0 (setpgid(), setpgrp()).
EPERM An attempt was made to move a process into a process group in a
different session, or to change the process group ID of one of
the children of the calling process and the child was in a dif-
ferent session, or to change the process group ID of a session
leader (setpgid(), setpgrp()).
ESRCH For getpgid(): pid does not match any process. For setpgid():
pid is not the calling process and not a child of the calling
setpgid() and the version of getpgrp() with no arguments conform to
POSIX.1-2001 also specifies getpgid() and the version of setpgrp() that
takes no arguments. (POSIX.1-2008 marks this setpgrp() specification
The version of getpgrp() with one argument and the version of setpgrp()
that takes two arguments derive from 4.2BSD, and are not specified by
A child created via fork(2) inherits its parent's process group ID.
The PGID is preserved across an execve(2).
Each process group is a member of a session and each process is a mem-
ber of the session of which its process group is a member.
A session can have a controlling terminal. At any time, one (and only
The setpgid() and getpgrp() calls are used by programs such as bash(1)
to create process groups in order to implement shell job control.
If a session has a controlling terminal, and the CLOCAL flag for that
terminal is not set, and a terminal hangup occurs, then the session
leader is sent a SIGHUP. If the session leader exits, then a SIGHUP
signal will also be sent to each process in the foreground process
group of the controlling terminal.
If the exit of the process causes a process group to become orphaned,
and if any member of the newly orphaned process group is stopped, then
a SIGHUP signal followed by a SIGCONT signal will be sent to each
process in the newly orphaned process group. An orphaned process group
is one in which the parent of every member of process group is either
itself also a member of the process group or is a member of a process
group in a different session (see also credentials(7)).
getuid(2), setsid(2), tcgetpgrp(3), tcsetpgrp(3), termios(3), creden-
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latest version of this page, can be found at
Linux 2014-01-07 SETPGID(2)
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