wnb()  provides a window-based interface for browsing the WordNet data-
       base, allowing synsets and relations to be displayed as formatted text.
       For each search word, different searches are available based on syntac-
       tic category and information available in the database.

       wnb is written in Tcl/Tk, which is available for Unix and Windows plat-
       forms.   This  allows  the  same  code to work on all supported WordNet
       platforms without modification.

       wnb() was developed with the philosophy that only  those  searches  and
       buttons  that  are  applicable at the current time are displayed.  As a
       result, the appearance of the interface changes as it is used.  Use the
       standard windowing system mouse functions to open and close the WordNet
       Browser Window, move the window, and change its size.

       The WordNet Browser Window contains the following areas,  from  top  to

       Menubar             A  menubar runs along the top of the browser window
                           with pulldown menus and button entitled File,  His-
                           tory, Options, and Help.

       Search Word Entry   Below the Menubar is a line for entering the search
                           word.  A search word can be a single word,  hyphen-
                           ated  string,  or  a collocation.  Case is ignored.
                           Although only uninflected forms of words  are  usu-
                           ally  stored  in  WordNet,  users  may  search  for
                           inflected forms.  WordNet's morphological processor
                           finds the base form automatically.

       Search Selection    Below  the  Search  Word  Entry line is an area for
                           selecting the search type  and  senses  to  search.
                           Until  a search word is entered this area is blank.
                           After a search word is entered, buttons appear cor-
                           responding  to each syntactic category (Noun, Verb,
                           Adjective, Adverb) in which the  search  string  is
                           defined in WordNet.

                           At the right edge of the Search Selection line is a
                           box for entering sense numbers.  When this  box  is
                           empty,  search results for all senses of the search
                           word that match the search type are displayed.  The
                           search  may  be  restricted to one or more specific
                           senses by entering a comma or space separated  list
                           of  sense  numbers  in the Senses box.  These sense
                           numbers remain in  effect  until  either  the  user
                           changes  or  deletes  them, or a new search word is
                           not  in  WordNet,  the  message  "Sorry, no matches
                           found." is displayed.

       The WordNet browser navigates through WordNet in two  steps.   First  a
       search word is entered and an overview of all the senses of the word in
       all syntactic categories is  displayed  in  the  Results  Window.   The
       senses  are grouped by syntactic category, and each synset is annotated
       as described above with synset_offset, lex_filename,  and  sense_number
       as  dictated  by  the advanced search options set.  The overview search
       also indicates how many of the senses in each  syntactic  category  are
       represented  in the tagged texts.  This is a way for the user to deter-
       mine whether a sense's sense number is based on semantic tagging  data,
       or  was arbitrarily assigned.  For each sense that has appeared in such
       texts, the number of semantic tags  to  that  sense  are  indicated  in
       parentheses after the sense number.

       Then,  within a syntactic category, a specific search is selected.  The
       desired search is performed and the search results are displayed in the
       Results Window.  Additional searches on the same word can be performed,
       or a new search word can be entered.

       To enter a search word, click the mouse in the horizontal  box  labeled
       Search  Word, type a single word, hyphenated string, or collocation and
       press RETURN.

       wnb() responds by making a set of Part of Speech buttons appear in  the
       Search Selection line.  Each button corresponds to a syntactic category
       in which the search string is defined in WordNet.  At the same time, an
       Overview  of the synsets for all senses of the search word is displayed
       in the Results Window.  The Overview includes the gloss for each synset
       and  also  indicates  which of the senses have appeared in the semanti-
       cally tagged texts.  For each sense that has appeared  in  such  texts,
       the  number of semantic tags to that sense are indicated in parentheses
       after the sense number.

       The pulldown menus in the Search Selection line list all of the WordNet
       searches  that  can  be  performed  for the search word in that part of
       speech.  To select a search, highlight it by dragging the mouse to  it,
       and  release the mouse while it is highlighted.  Drag the mouse outside
       of the pulldown list and release to hide  the  menu  without  making  a
       selection.   Dragging  the mouse across the Part of Speech buttons dis-
       plays the available searches for each syntactic category.

       To restrict a search to one or more senses within a syntactic category,
       enter  a  comma  or space separated list of sense numbers in the Senses
       box before selecting a search.

       After a search is selected, wnb() performs the search  on  the  WordNet
       database  and  displays  the  formatted  results in the Results Window.
       Whenever search results are  displayed,  a  button  entitled  Redisplay
       Overview  is  present  at the right edge of the Search Word Entry line.
       Clicking on this button redisplays the Overview of all synsets for  the
       search word in the Results Window.
       and the overview for that word will automatically be displayed.

       To select a new search string collocation from text in the Results Win-
       dow, highlight the text with the mouse and press CONTROL-S.

   Interrupting a Search
       When a search is in progress the message "Searching...(press escape  to
       abort)"  is  displayed  in  the  Status  Line.  Note that most searches
       return very quickly, so this message isn't noticeable.   As  indicated,
       pressing  the ESCAPE key will interrupt the search.  The results of the
       search obtained before the time the search  was  interrupted  are  dis-
       played in the Results Window.

   File Menu
              Find keywords by substring
                     Display a popup window for specifying a search of WordNet
                     for words or collocations that contain  a  specific  sub-
                     string.   If  a  search  word is currently entered in the
                     Search Word box, it is used as the  substring  to  search
                     for  by  default.  The Substring Search Window contains a
                     box for entering a substring,  a  pulldown  menu  to  its
                     right  for  specifying  the  part  of speech to search, a
                     large area for displaying the search results, and  action
                     buttons  at  the bottom entitled Search, Save, Print Dis-

                     Once  a  substring  is  entered  and  a  part  of  speech
                     selected,  clicking  on the Search button causes a search
                     to be done for all words and collocations in WordNet,  in
                     that  syntactic  category,  that  contain  the  substring
                     according to the following criteria:

                     1. The substring can appear at the beginning or end of  a
                     word, hyphenated string o collocation.

                     2. The substring can appear in the middle of a hyphenated
                     string or collocation, but only delimited on  both  sides
                     by spaces or hyphens.

                     The  search  results  are  displayed in the large buffer.
                     Clicking on an item from the search results  list  causes
                     wnb() to automatically enter that word in the Search Word
                     box of the WordNet Browser Window and perform  the  Over-
                     view search.

                     Clicking  the  Save  button  generates a popup dialog for
                     specifying  a  filename  to  save  the  substring  search
                     results  to.  Clicking the Print button generates a popup
                     dialog in which a print command can be specified.

                     Selecting Dismiss closes the Substring Search Window.


              Exit   Does what you would expect.

       This  pulldown  menu  contains  a  list of the last searches performed.
       Selecting an item from this list performs that search again.  The maxi-
       mum  number  of  searches  stored  in the list can be adjusted from the
       Options menu.  The default is 10.

              Show help with each search
                     When this checkbox is selected search  results  are  pre-
                     ceded  by  some explanatory text about the type of search
                     selected. This is off by default.

              Show descriptive gloss
                     When this checkbox is selected, synset glosses  are  dis-
                     played  in  all  search results.  This is set by default.
                     Note that glosses are always displayed in the Overview.

              Wrap Lines
                     When this checkbox is selected, lines in the Results Win-
                     dow  that  are  wider  than  the window are automatically
                     wrapped.  This is set by default.   If  not  selected,  a
                     horizontal  scroll bar is present if any lines are longer
                     than the width of the window.

              Set advanced search options...
                     Selecting this item displays a popup window  for  setting
                     the  following search options:  Lexical file information;
                     Synset location in database file; Sense number.   Choices
                     for each are:

                          Don't show (default)
                          Show with searches
                          Show with searches and overview

                     When  lexical  file information is shown, the name of the
                     lexicographer  file  is  printed  before   each   synset,
                     enclosed  in angle brackets (<  ...  >).  When both lexi-
                     cal file information and synset location information  are
                     displayed, the synset location information appears first.
                     If within one lexicographer file more than one sense of a
                     word  is  entered, an integer lex_id is appended onto all
                     but one of the word's instances to uniquely identify  it.
                     In  each  synset,  each  word having a non-zero lex_id is
                     printed with the lex_id value printed immediately follow-
                     ing  the  word.   If  both  lexicographer information and
                     sense numbers are displayed, lex_ids, if present, precede
                     sense numbers.

                     When  synset  location  is  shown, the byte offset of the
                     synset in the database "data" file corresponding  to  the
                     previous searches to be kept on the History list  can  be

              Set font...
                     Display  a  popup  window for setting the font (typeface)
                     and font size to use for the Results Window.  Choices for
                     typeface  are:  Courier,  Helvetica, and Times (default).
                     Font size can be small, medium (default), or large.

              Save current options as default
                     Save the currently set options.  Next time the browser is
                     started, these options will be used as the user defaults.

              Help on using the WordNet browser
                     Display this manual page.

              Help on WordNet terminology
                     Display the wngloss(7WN) manual page.

              Display the WordNet license
                     Display  the  WordNet copyright notice and license agree-

              About the WordNet browser
                     Information about this application.

       Clicking on any word in the Results Window while holding down the SHIFT
       key  on the keyboard causes the browser to replace Search Word with the
       word and display its Overview and available searches.  Clicking on  any
       word  in  the Results Window with the middle mouse button does the same

       Pressing the CONTROL-S keys causes the browser to do as  above  on  the
       text that is currently highlighted.  Under Unix, this will work even if
       the highlighted text is in another window.  This  works  on  hyphenated
       strings and collocations, as well as individual words.

       Pressing the CONTROL-G keys displays the Substring Search Window.

       The  results  of  a search of the WordNet database are displayed in the
       Results Window.  Horizontal and vertical scroll bars  are  present  for
       scrolling through the search results.

       All  searches  other  than  the  Overview  list all senses matching the
       search results in the following  general  format.   Items  enclosed  in
       italicized square brackets ([ ... ]) may not be present.

       If a search cannot be performed on some senses of searchstr, the search
       results are headed by a string of the form:
            X of Y senses of searchstr
              cographer file that the synset comes from, word1  is  the  first
              word in the synset (note that this is not necessarily the search
              word) and sense_number is the WordNet sense number  assigned  to
              the preceding word.  synset_offset, lex_filename, and sense_num-
              ber are generated if the appropriate Options are specified.

              The synsets matching the search selected are printed below  each
              sense's  synset  output described above.  Each line of output is
              preceded by a marker (usually =>), then a synset,  formatted  as
              described  above.   If  a search traverses more one level of the
              tree, then successive lines are indented by spaces corresponding
              to  its level in the hierarchy.  Glosses are displayed in paren-
              theses at the end of each synset if the  appropriate  Option  is
              set.  Each synset is printed on one line.

              Senses  are ordered from most to least frequently used, with the
              most common sense numbered 1.  Frequency of use is determined by
              the  number  of  times a sense is tagged in the various semantic
              concordance texts.  Senses that are not semantically tagged fol-
              low the ordered senses. Note that this ordering is only an esti-
              mate based on usage in a small corpus.

              Verb senses can be grouped by similarity of meaning, rather than
              ordered  by  frequency  of  use.  When the "Synonyms, grouped by
              similarity" search is selected, senses that are close in meaning
              are  printed  together, with a line of dashes indicating the end
              of a group.  See wngroups(7WN) for a discussion how  senses  are

              The  output  of  the "Derivationally Related Forms" search shows
              word forms that are morphologically related to  searchstr.  Each
              word  form  pointed  to from searchstr is displayed, preceded by
              RELATED TO-> and the syntactic category of the  link,  followed,
              on the next line, by its synset.  Printed after the word form is
              #n where n indicates  the  WordNet  sense  number  of  the  term
              pointed to.

              The  "Domain" and "Domain Terms" searches show the domain that a
              synset has been classified in and, conversely, all of the  terms
              that  have  been  assigned  to  a  specific domain.  A domain is
              either a TOPIC, REGION or USAGE, as reflected  in  the  specific
              pointer  character  stored in the database, and displayed in the
              output.  A Domain search on a term shows  the  domain,  if  any,
              that  each  synset  containing searchstr has been classified in.
              The output display shows  the  domain  type  (TOPIC,  REGION  or
              USAGE),  followed by the syntactic category of the domain synset
              and the terms in the synset.  Each term is followed by #n  where
              n  indicates the WordNet sense number of the term.  The converse
              search, Domain Terms, shows all of the synsets  that  have  been
              placed into the domain searchstr, with analogous markers.

              When the "Sentence Frames" search is specified, sample illustra-
              tive sentences and generic sentence frames are displayed.  If  a
              sample  sentence  is  found, the base form of the search word is
              adjective in relation to the  noun  may  be  restricted  to  the
              prenominal, postnominal or predicative position.  Where present,
              these restrictions are noted in parentheses.

              When an adjective is a participle of a verb,  the  output  indi-
              cates the verb and displays its synset.

              When an adverb is derived from an adjective, the specific adjec-
              tival sense on which it is based is indicated.

              The morphological transformations performed by the  search  code
              may result in more than one word to search for.  wnb() automati-
              cally performs the requested search on all of  the  strings  and
              returns  the results grouped by word.  For example, the verb saw
              is both the present tense of saw and  the  past  tense  of  see.
              When  there  is more than one word to search for, search results
              are grouped by word.

       If the WordNet database files cannot be opened, error messages are dis-
       played.  This is usually corrected by setting the environment variables
       described below to the proper location of the WordNet database for your

       WNHOME              Base    directory    for   WordNet.    Default   is

       WNSEARCHDIR         Directory in which the WordNet  database  has  been
                           installed.  Default is WNHOME/dict.

                           Base  directory  for  WordNet.   Default is C:\Pro-
                           gram Files\WordNet\3.0.

                           User's default browser options.

       index.pos           database index files

       data.pos            database data files

       *.vrb               files of sentences illustrating the use of verbs

       pos.exc             morphology exception lists

       wnintro(1WN),  wn(1WN),  wnintro(3WN),  lexnames(5WN),   senseidx(5WN),
       wndb(5WN), wninput(5WN), morphy(7WN), wngloss(7WN), wngroups(7WN).

       Please reports bugs to wordnet@princeton.edu.
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