twopi

       neato - filter for drawing undirected graphs
       twopi - filter for radial layouts of graphs
       circo - filter for circular layout of graphs
       fdp - filter for drawing undirected graphs
       sfdp - filter for drawing large undirected graphs
       patchwork - filter for tree maps

SYNOPSIS
       dot [options] [files]
       neato [options] [files]
       twopi [options] [files]
       circle [options] [files]
       fdp [options] [files]
       sfdp [options] [files]
       patchwork [options] [files]

DESCRIPTION
       These  are a collection of programs for drawing graphs.  There is actu-
       ally only one main program; the specific layout algorithms  implemented
       as  plugins.  Thus,  they  largely  share  all of the same command-line
       options.  dot draws directed graphs.  It works well on DAGs  and  other
       graphs that can be drawn as hierarchies.

       neato  draws  undirected graphs using ``spring'' models (see Kamada and
       Kawai, Information Processing Letters 31:1, April 1989).

       twopi draws graphs using a radial layout (see G.  Wills,  Symposium  on
       Graph  Drawing  GD'97, September, 1997).  Basically, one node is chosen
       as the center and put at the origin.  The remaining nodes are placed on
       a  sequence  of  concentric  circles  centered about the origin, each a
       fixed radial distance from the previous circle.  All nodes  distance  1
       from  the  center  are placed on the first circle; all nodes distance 1
       from a node on the first circle are placed on the second circle; and so
       forth.

       circo  draws graphs using a circular layout (see Six and Tollis, GD '99
       and ALENEX '99, and Kaufmann and Wiese, GD '02.)  The  tool  identifies
       biconnected  components  and draws the nodes of the component on a cir-
       cle. The block-cutpoint tree is then laid out using a recursive  radial
       algorithm.  Edge  crossings within a circle are minimized by placing as
       many edges on the circle's perimeter as possible.   In  particular,  if
       the component is outerplanar, the component will have a planar layout.

       If  a  node belongs to multiple non-trivial biconnected components, the
       layout puts the node in one of them. By default, this is the first non-
       trivial component found in the search from the root component.

       fdp  draws  undirected  graphs using a ``spring'' model. It relies on a
       force-directed approach in the spirit of Fruchterman and Reingold  (cf.
       Software-Practice & Experience 21(11), 1991, pp. 1129-1164).

       sfdp  also draws undirected graphs using the ``spring'' model described
       above, but it uses a multi-scale approach to produce layouts  of  large
       graphs in a reasonably short time.
       for example: ``dot -Tpng:'' and to force a particular variant, use, for
       example: ``dot -Tpng:gd''

       Traditionally, Graphviz supports the following:
       -Tps (PostScript),
       -Tsvg -Tsvgz (Structured Vector Graphics),
       -Tfig (XFIG graphics),
       -Tpng -Tgif (bitmap graphics),
       -Timap (imagemap files for httpd servers for each node or edge that has
       a non-null "href" attribute.),
       -Tcmapx (client-side imagemap for use in html and xhtml).
       Additional  less  common  or more special-purpose output formats can be
       found at //http://www.graphviz.org/content/output-formats.

       Alternative plugins providing support for a given output format can  be
       found from the error message resulting from appending a ':' to the for-
       mat. e.g. -Tpng: The first plugin listed is always the default.

       The -P switch can be used to produce a graph  of  all  output  variants
       supported by plugins in the local installation of graphviz.

GRAPH FILE LANGUAGE
       Here  is  a  synopsis  of  the  graph file language, normally using the
       extension .gv, for graphs:

       [strict] (graph|digraph) name { statement-list }
       is the top-level graph. If the graph is strict, then multiple edges are
       not  allowed  between  the  same  pairs  of nodes.  If it is a directed
       graph, indicated by digraph, then the edgeop must be "->". If it is  an
       undirected graph then the edgeop must be "--".

       Statements may be:

       name=val;
       node [name=val];
       edge [name=val];
       Set  default graph, node, or edge attribute name to val.  Any subgraph,
       node, or edge appearing after this inherits the new default attributes.

       n0 [name0=val0,name1=val1,...];
       Creates node n0 (if it does not already exist) and sets its  attributes
       according to the optional list.

       n0 edgeop n1 edgeop ... edgeop nn [name0=val0,name1=val1,...];
       Creates  edges  between nodes n0, n1, ..., nn and sets their attributes
       according to the optional list.  Creates nodes as necessary.

       [subgraph name] { statement-list }
       Creates a subgraph.  Subgraphs may be used in place of n0, ...,  nn  in
       the  above statements to create edges.  [subgraph name] is optional; if
       missing, the subgraph is assigned an internal name.

       Comments may be /*C-like*/ or //C++-like.


  Graph Attributes
       size="x,y" specifies the maximum bounding box of drawing in inches.

       ratio=f  sets  the aspect ratio to f which may be a floating point num-
       ber, or one of the keywords fill, compress, or auto.

       layout=engine indicates the preferred layout  engine  ("dot",  "neato",
       fdp"  etc)  overriding  the default from the basename of the command or
       the -K commandline option.

       margin=f sets the page margin (included in the page size).

       nodesep=f sets the minimum separation between nodes.

       ranksep=f sets the minimum separation between ranks.

       ordering=out constrains order of out-edges in a subgraph  according  to
       their file sequence.

       rankdir=LR|RL|BT requests a left-to-right, right-to-left, or bottom-to-
       top, drawing.

       rank=same (or min or max) in a subgraph constrains the rank  assignment
       of  its nodes.   If a subgraph's name has the prefix cluster, its nodes
       are drawn in a distinct rectangle  of  the  layout.   Clusters  may  be
       nested.

       rotate=90  sets landscape mode.  (orientation=land is backward compati-
       ble but obsolete.)

       center=n a non-zero value centers the drawing on the page.

       color=colorvalue sets foreground color (bgcolor for background).

       href="url" the default url for image map files;  in  PostScript  files,
       the  base URL for all relative URLs, as recognized by Acrobat Distiller
       3.0 and up.

       URL="url" ("URL" is a synonym for "href".)

       stylesheet="file.css" includes a reference to a stylesheet in -Tsvg and
       -Tsvgz outputs.  Ignored by other formats.

       splines  If  set  to true, edges are drawn as splines.  If set to poly-
       line, edges are drawn as polylines.  If set to ortho, edges  are  drawn
       as  orthogonal  polylines.   In  all  of these cases, the nodes may not
       overlap.  If splines=false or splines=line, edges  are  drawn  as  line
       segments.   The  default  is true for dot, and false for all other lay-
       outs.


       (neato-specific attributes)
       start=val.  Requests random initial placement and seeds the random num-
       ranksep=val.  Specifies  the  radial  distance  in  inches  between the
       sequence of rings. The default is 0.75.

       overlap=mode. This specifies what twopi should do if any nodes overlap.
       If  mode  is  "false",  the program uses Voronoi diagrams to adjust the
       nodes to eliminate overlaps. If mode is "scale",  the  layout  is  uni-
       formly scaled up, preserving node sizes, until nodes no longer overlap.
       The latter technique removes overlaps  while  preserving  symmetry  and
       structure,  while  the  former  removes  overlaps  more  compactly  but
       destroys symmetries.  If mode is "true" (the default), no repositioning
       is done.


       (circo-specific attributes)
       root=nodename.  Specifies  the  name  of  a  node occurring in the root
       block. If the graph is disconnected, the root  node  attribute  can  be
       used to specify additional root blocks.

       mindist=value.  Sets  the  minimum separation between all nodes. If not
       specified then circo uses a default value of 1.0.


       (fdp-specific attributes)
       K=val. Sets the default ideal node separation in the layout.

       maxiter=val. Sets the maximum number of iterations used to  layout  the
       graph.

       start=val. Adjusts the random initial placement of nodes with no speci-
       fied position.  If val is is an integer, it is used as the seed for the
       random  number  generator.   If val is not an integer, a random system-
       generated integer, such as the process ID or current time, is  used  as
       the seed.

  Node Attributes
       height=d  or  width=d  sets  minimum  height  or  width.  Adding fixed-
       size=true forces these to be the actual size (text labels are ignored).

       shape=record polygon epsf builtin_shape
       builtin_polygon can be plaintext ellipse oval circle egg  triangle  box
       diamond  trapezium  parallelogram  house hexagon octagon note tab box3d
       component, among others.  (Polygons are defined or modified by the fol-
       lowing  node attributes: regular, peripheries, sides, orientation, dis-
       tortion and skew.)  epsf uses the node's  shapefile  attribute  as  the
       path  name  of an external EPSF file to be automatically loaded for the
       node shape.

       See http://www.graphviz.org/content/node-shapes for a complete descrip-
       tion of node shapes.

       label=text  where  text  may include escaped newlines \n, \l, or \r for
       center, left, and right justified lines.  The string '\N' value will be
       replaced  by  the node name.  The string '\G' value will be replaced by
       the graph name.  Record labels may contain recursive box  lists  delim-
       style=filled and fillcolor is not specified.

       fillcolor=colorvalue  sets  the  fill  color when style=filled.  If not
       specified, the fillcolor when style=filled defaults to be the  same  as
       the outline color.

       fontcolor=colorvalue sets the label text color.

       A  colorvalue  may  be  "h,s,v"  (hue, saturation, brightness) floating
       point numbers between 0 and 1, or an X11 color name such as white black
       red  green  blue yellow magenta cyan or burlywood, or a "#rrggbb" (red,
       green, blue, 2 hex characters each) value.

       style=filled solid dashed dotted bold invis or any Postscript code.

       href="url" sets the url for the node in imagemap,  PostScript  and  SVG
       files.  The substrings '\N' and '\G' are substituted in the same manner
       as for the node label attribute.  Additionally the  substring  '\L'  is
       substituted with the node label string.

       URL="url" ("URL" is a synonym for "href".)

       target="target"  is  a target string for client-side imagemaps and SVG,
       effective when nodes have a URL.  The target string is used  to  deter-
       mine  which  window  of the browser is used for the URL.  Setting it to
       "_graphviz" will open a new window if it doesn't already exist, or  re-
       use it if it does.  If the target string is empty, the default, then no
       target attribute is included in the output.  The  substrings  '\N'  and
       '\G'  are  substituted  in  the  same  manner  as  for  the  node label
       attribute.  Additionally the substring '\L'  is  substituted  with  the
       node label string.

       tooltip="tooltip"  is  a  tooltip  string for client-side imagemaps and
       SVG, effective when nodes have a URL.  The tooltip string  defaults  to
       be the same as the label string, but this attribute permits nodes with-
       out labels to still have tooltips thus permitting denser  graphs.   The
       substrings  '\N' and '\G' are substituted in the same manner as for the
       node label attribute.  Additionally the substring '\L'  is  substituted
       with the node label string.

       The following attributes apply only to polygon shape nodes:

       regular=n  if n is non-zero then the polygon is made regular, i.e. sym-
       metric about the x and y axis,  otherwise  the  polygon  takes  on  the
       aspect ratio of the label.  builtin_polygons that are not already regu-
       lar are made regular by  this  attribute.   builtin_polygons  that  are
       already  regular  are  not affected (i.e.  they cannot be made asymmet-
       ric).

       peripheries=n sets the number of periphery lines drawn around the poly-
       gon.    This   value  supersedes  the  number  of  periphery  lines  of
       builtin_polygons.

       sides=n sets the number of sides to the  polygon.  n<3  results  in  an

       skew=f sets the amount of right-displacement of the top  and  left-dis-
       placement  of  the bottom of the polygon (relative to its orientation).
       Floating point values between -1 and +1 are suggested.  This  attribute
       is ignored by builtin_polygons.


       (circo-specific attributes)
       root=true/false.  This  specifies  that  the block containing the given
       node be treated as the root of the spanning tree in the layout.


       (fdp-specific attributes)
       pin=val. If val is "true", the node will remain at  its  initial  posi-
       tion.


  Edge Attributes
       minlen=n  where  n is an integer factor that applies to the edge length
       (ranks for normal edges, or minimum node separation for flat edges).

       weight=n where n is the integer cost of the edge.  Values greater  than
       1 tend to shorten the edge.  Weight 0 flat edges are ignored for order-
       ing nodes.

       label=text where text may include escaped newlines \n, \l,  or  \r  for
       centered,  left,  or  right  justified lines.  If the substring '\T' is
       found in a label it will be replaced by the  tail_node  name.   If  the
       substring '\H' is found in a label it will be replaced by the head_node
       name.  If the substring '\E' value is found  in  a  label  it  will  be
       replaced  by:  tail_node_name->head_node_name  If the substring '\G' is
       found in a label it will  be  replaced  by  the  graph  name.   or  by:
       tail_node_name--head_node_name for undirected graphs.

       fontsize=n sets the label type size to n points.

       fontname=name sets the label font family name.

       fontcolor=colorvalue sets the label text color.

       style=solid dashed dotted bold invis

       color=colorvalue sets the line color for edges.

       color=colorvaluelist  a ':' separated list of colorvalue creates paral-
       lel edges, one edge for each color.

       dir=forward back both none controls arrow direction.

       tailclip,headclip=false disables endpoint shape clipping.

       href="url" sets the url for the node in imagemap,  PostScript  and  SVG
       files.  The substrings '\T', '\H', '\E' and '\G' are substituted in the
       same manner as for the edge label  attribute.   Additionally  the  sub-
       tive when edges have a URL.  The tooltip string defaults to be the same
       as the edge label string.  The substrings '\T', '\H', '\E' and '\G' are
       substituted  in the same manner as for the edge label attribute.  Addi-
       tionally the substring '\L' is substituted with the edge label string.

       arrowhead,arrowtail=none, normal, inv, dot, odot, invdot, invodot, tee,
       empty, invempty, open, halfopen, diamond, odiamond, box, obox, crow.

       arrowsize                                 (norm_length=10,norm_width=5,
       inv_length=6,inv_width=7,dot_radius=2)

       headlabel,taillabel=string for port labels.   labelfontcolor,labelfont-
       name,labelfontsize  for  head  and  tail  labels.  The substrings '\T',
       '\H', '\E' and '\G' are substituted in the same manner as for the  edge
       label  attribute.   Additionally the substring '\L' is substituted with
       the edge label string.

       headhref="url" sets the url for the head port in  imagemap,  PostScript
       and  SVG  files.   The substrings '\T', '\H', '\E' and '\G' are substi-
       tuted in the same manner as for the edge label attribute.  Additionally
       the substring '\L' is substituted with the edge label string.

       headURL="url" ("headURL" is a synonym for "headhref".)

       headtarget="headtarget"  is  a  target string for client-side imagemaps
       and SVG, effective when edge heads have a URL.  The  headtarget  string
       is  used  to determine which window of the browser is used for the URL.
       If the  headtarget  string  is  empty,  the  default,  then  headtarget
       defaults  to  the  same  value  as target for the edge.  The substrings
       '\T', '\H', '\E' and '\G' are substituted in the same manner as for the
       edge  label  attribute.  Additionally the substring '\L' is substituted
       with the edge label string.

       headtooltip="tooltip" is a tooltip  string  for  client-side  imagemaps
       effective  when  head ports have a URL.  The tooltip string defaults to
       be the same as the headlabel string.  The substrings  '\T',  '\H',  and
       '\E'  are  substituted  in  the  same  manner  as  for  the  edge label
       attribute.  Additionally the substring '\L'  is  substituted  with  the
       edge label string.

       tailhref="url"  sets  the url for the tail port in imagemap, PostScript
       and SVG files.  The substrings '\T', '\H', '\E' and  '\G'  are  substi-
       tuted in the same manner as for the edge label attribute.  Additionally
       the substring '\L' is substituted with the edge label string.

       tailURL="url" ("tailURL" is a synonym for "tailhref".)

       tailtarget="tailtarget" is a target string  for  client-side  imagemaps
       and  SVG,  effective when edge tails have a URL.  The tailtarget string
       is used to determine which window of the browser is used for  the  URL.
       If  the  tailtarget  string  is  empty,  the  default,  then tailtarget
       defaults to the same value as target  for  the  edge.   The  substrings
       '\T', '\H', '\E' and '\G' are substituted in the same manner as for the
       edge label attribute.  Additionally the substring '\L'  is  substituted
       decorate draws line from edge to label.

       samehead,sametail  aim  edges  having  the same value to the same port,
       using the average landing point.

       constraint=false causes an edge to be ignored for rank assignment.

       layer=id or id:id or "all" sets the edge's active  layers.   The  empty
       string means no layers (invisible).


       (neato-specific attributes)
       w=f  sets the weight (spring constant) of an edge to the given floating
       point value.  The default is 1.0; greater values  make  the  edge  tend
       more toward its optimal length.

       len=f sets the optimal length of an edge.  The default is 1.0.

       (fdp-specific attributes)
       weight=f  sets the weight of an edge to the given floating point value.
       The default is 1.0; greater values make the edge tend more  toward  its
       optimal length.

COMMAND-LINE OPTIONS
       -G sets a default graph attribute.
       -N sets a default node attribute.
       -E  sets  a  default edge attribute.  Example: -Gsize="7,8" -Nshape=box
       -Efontsize=8

       -lfile loads custom PostScript library  files.   Usually  these  define
       custom  shapes  or  styles.   If  -l  is  given by itself, the standard
       library is omitted.

       -Tlang sets the output language as described above.


       -n[1|2] (no-op) If set, neato assumes nodes  have  already  been  posi-
       tioned  and  all  nodes  have a pos attribute giving the positions.  It
       then performs an  optional  adjustment  to  remove  node-node  overlap,
       depending on the value of the overlap attribute, computes the edge lay-
       outs, depending on the value of the splines attribute,  and  emits  the
       graph  in  the  appropriate  format.  If num is supplied, the following
       actions occur:
           num = 1
       Equivalent to -n.
           num > 1
       Use node positions as specified, with no adjustment to remove node-node
       overlaps,  and  use  any  edge  layouts  already  specified  by the pos
       attribute.  neato computes an edge layout for any edge  that  does  not
       have  a  pos attribute.  As usual, edge layout is guided by the splines
       attribute.

       -Klayout override the default layout  engine  implied  by  the  command
       name.
       -qlevel set level of message suppression. The default is 1.

       -sfscale scale input by fscale, the default is 72.

       -y invert y coordinate in output.

       -V (version) prints version information and exits.

       -? prints the usage and exits.

       A complete description of the available  command-line  options  can  be
       found at http://www.graphviz.org/content/command-line-invocation.

EXAMPLES
       digraph test123 {
               a -> b -> c;
               a -> {x y};
               b [shape=box];
               c [label="hello\nworld",color=blue,fontsize=24,
                    fontname="Palatino-Italic",fontcolor=red,style=filled];
               a -> z [label="hi", weight=100];
               x -> z [label="multi-line\nlabel"];
               edge [style=dashed,color=red];
               b -> x;
               {rank=same; b x}
       }

       graph test123 {
               a -- b -- c;
               a -- {x y};
               x -- c [w=10.0];
               x -- y [w=5.0,len=3];
       }

CAVEATS
       Edge splines can overlap unintentionally.

       Flat  edge  labels  are  slightly broken.  Intercluster edge labels are
       totally broken.

       Because unconstrained optimization is employed, node boxes can possibly
       overlap  or  touch unrelated edges.  All existing spring embedders seem
       to have this limitation.

       Apparently reasonable attempts to pin nodes or adjust edge lengths  and
       weights can cause instability.

AUTHORS
       Stephen C. North <north@research.att.com>
       Emden R. Gansner <erg@research.att.com>
       John C. Ellson <ellson@research.att.com>
       Yifan Hu <yifanhu@research.att.com>

       The   bitmap   driver   (PNG,   GIF   etc)   is   by   Thomas  Boutell,

       dotty(1),tcldot(n),xcolors(1),libgraph(3).

       E. R. Gansner, S. C. North,  K.  P.  Vo,  "DAG  -  A  Program  to  Draw
       Directed  Graphs",  Software - Practice and Experience 17(1), 1988, pp.
       1047-1062.
       E. R. Gansner, E. Koutsofios, S. C. North,  K. P. Vo, "A Technique  for
       Drawing  Directed  Graphs,"  IEEE Trans. on Soft. Eng. 19(3), 1993, pp.
       214-230.
       S. North and E.  Koutsofios,  "Applications  of  graph  visualization",
       Graphics Interface 94, pp. 234-245.
       E.R.  Gansner  and  E. Koutsofios and S. C. North, "Drawing Graphs with
       dot," Available at http://www.graphviz.org/pdf/dotguide.pdf.
       S.     C.     North,     "NEATO     User's     Manual".       Available
       http://www.graphviz.org/pdf/neatoguide.pdf.




                                 12 July 2013                           DOT(1)
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