TTF2TFM(1)                  General Commands Manual                 TTF2TFM(1)

       ttf2tfm - build TeX metric files from a TrueType font

       ttf2tfm ttffile[.ttf|.ttc] [-c caps-height-factor]
               [-e extension-factor] [-E encoding-id] [-f font-index] [-l]
               [-L ligature-file[.sfd]] [-n] [-N] [-O] [-p inencfile[.enc]]
               [-P platform-id] [-q] [-r old-glyphname new-glyphname]
               [-R replacement-file[.rpl]] [-s slant-factor]
               [-t outencfile[.enc]] [-T inoutencfile[.enc]] [-u]
               [-v vplfile[.vpl]] [-V scvplfile[.vpl]] [-w] [-x]
               [-y vertical-shift-factor] [tfmfile[.tfm]]
       ttf2tfm --version | --help

       This program extracts the metric and kerning information of a  TrueType
       font  and converts it into metric files usable by TeX (quite similar to
       afm2tfm which is part of the dvips package;  please  consult  its  info
       files  for  more details on the various parameters (especially encoding

       Since a TrueType font often contains more than 256 glyphs,  some  means
       are  necessary  to map a subset of the TrueType glyphs onto a TeX font.
       To do this, two mapping tables are needed: the first (called `input' or
       `raw'  encoding) maps the TrueType font to a raw TeX font (this mapping
       table is used by both ttf2tfm and ttf2pk), and the second (called `out-
       put'  or `virtual' encoding) maps the raw TeX font to another (virtual)
       TeX font, providing all kerning and ligature information needed by TeX.

       This two stage mapping has the advantage that one raw font can  be  ac-
       cessed  with  various LaTeX encodings (e.g. T1 and OT1) via the virtual
       font mechanism, and just one PK file is necessary.

       For CJKV (Chinese/Japanese/Korean/old Vietnamese)  fonts,  a  different
       mechanism is provided (see SUBFONT DEFINITION FILES below).

       Most  of  the  command line switch names are the same as in afm2tfm for
       convenience.  One or more space characters between an  option  and  its
       value is mandatory; options can't be concatenated.  For historical rea-
       sons, the first parameter can not be a switch  but  must  be  the  font

       -c caps-height-factor
              The height of small caps made with the -V switch.  Default value
              of this real number is 0.8 times the height of uppercase glyphs.

              Will be ignored in subfont mode.

       -e extension-factor
              The extension factor to  stretch  the  characters  horizontally.
              Default  value of this real number is 1.0; if less than 1.0, you
              get a condensed font.

       -E encoding-id
              The TrueType encoding ID.  Default value  of  this  non-negative
              integer is 1.

              Will be ignored if -N is used.

       -f font-index
              The  font  index in a TrueType Collection.  Default is the first
              font (index 0).  [TrueType collections are usually found in some
              CJK  fonts;  e.g. the first font index specifies glyphs and met-
              rics for horizontal writing, and the second font index does  the
              same  for  vertical  writing.  TrueType collections usually have
              the extension `.ttc'.]

              Will be ignored for ordinary TrueType fonts.

       -l     Create ligatures in subfonts between first and second  bytes  of
              all   the   original   character   codes.   Example:   Character
              code 0xABCD maps to character position 123 in subfont 45.   Then
              a ligature in subfont 45 between position 0xAB and 0xCD pointing
              to character 123 will be produced.  The fonts of the Korean HLa-
              TeX  package  use this feature.  Note that this option generates
              correct ligatures only for TrueType fonts where the  input  cmap
              is  identical  to  the output encoding.  In case of HLaTeX, TTFs
              must have platform ID 3 and encoding ID 5.

              Will be ignored if not in subfont mode.

       -L ligature-file
              Same as -l, but character codes for ligatures are  specified  in
              ligature-file.   For  example,  `-L KS-HLaTeX' generates correct
              ligatures for the Korean HLaTeX package regardless of the  plat-
              form and encoding ID of the used TrueType font (the file KS-HLa-
              TeX.sfd is part of the ttf2pk package).

              Ligature files have the same format and extension as SFD  files.
              This option will be ignored if not in subfont mode.

       -n     Use PS names (of glyphs) of the TrueType font.  Only glyphs with
              a valid entry in the selected cmap are used.

              Will be ignored in subfont mode.

       -N     Use only PS names of the TrueType font.  No cmap is  used,  thus
              the  switches  -E  and -P have no effect, causing a warning mes-

              Will be ignored in subfont mode.

       -O     Use octal values for all character codes in the VPL file  rather
              than names; this is useful for symbol or CJK fonts where charac-
              ter names such as `A' are meaningless.

       -p inencfile
              The input encoding file name for the TTF->raw TeX mapping.  This
              parameter   has   to  be  specified  in  a  map  file  (default:
     recorded in ttf2pk.cfg for successive ttf2pk calls.

              Will be ignored in subfont mode.

       -P platform-id
              The TrueType platform ID.  Default value  of  this  non-negative
              integer is 3.

              Will be ignored if -N is used.

       -q     Make  ttf2tfm quiet.  It suppresses any informational output ex-
              cept warning and error messages.  For CJK fonts, the output  can
              get quite large if you don't specify this switch.

       -r old-glyphname new-glyphname
              Replaces  old-glyphname with new-glyphname.  This switch is use-
              ful if you want to give an unnamed glyph (i.e.,  a  glyph  which
              can  be  represented  with `.gXXX' or `.cXXX' only) a name or if
              you want to rename an already existing glyph  name.   You  can't
              use   the   `.gXXX'   or   `.cXXX'  glyph  name  constructs  for
              new-glyphname; multiple occurrences of -r are possible.

              If in subfont mode or if no encoding  file  is  specified,  this
              switch is ignored.

       -R replacement-file
              Use  this switch if you have many replacement pairs; they can be
              collected in a file which should have `.rpl' as extension.   The
              syntax  used in such replacement files is simple: Each non-empty
              line must contain a pair `old-glyphname new-glyphname' separated
              by  whitespace  (without  the  quotation marks).  A percent sign
              starts a line comment; you can continue a line on the next  line
              with a backslash as the last character.

              If  in  subfont  mode  or if no encoding file is specified, this
              switch is ignored.

       -s slant-factor
              The obliqueness factor to slant the font, usually  much  smaller
              than 1.   Default  of  this  real number is 0.0; if the value is
              larger than zero, the characters slope to the  right,  otherwise
              to the left.

       -t outencfile
              The  output  encoding  file  name for the virtual font(s).  Only
              characters in the raw TeX font are used.

              Will be ignored in subfont mode.

       -T inoutencfile
              This is equivalent to `-p inoutencfile -t inoutencfile'.

              Will be ignored in subfont mode.

       -u     Use only those characters specified in the output encoding,  and
              no  others.  By default, ttf2tfm tries to include all characters
              in the virtual font, even those not present in the encoding  for
              the  virtual font (it puts them into otherwise-unused positions,
              rather arbitrarily).

              Will be ignored in subfont mode.

       -v vplfile
              Output a VPL file in addition to the TFM file.  If no output en-
              coding  file  is specified, ttf2tfm uses a default font encoding
              (cmtt10).  Note: Be careful to use different names for the  vir-
              tual font and the raw font!

              Will be ignored in subfont mode.

       -V scvplfile
              Same  as  -v,  but  the virtual font generated is a pseudo small
              caps font obtained by scaling uppercase  letters  by 0.8  (resp.
              the  value  specified  with -c) to typeset lowercase.  This font
              handles accented letters and retains proper kerning.

              Will be ignored in subfont mode.

       -w     Generate PostScript encoding vectors containing  glyph  indices,
              primarily used to embed TrueType fonts in pdfTeX.  ttf2tfm takes
              the TFM names and replaces the suffix with .enc;  that  is,  for
              files    foo01.tfm,   foo02.tfm, ...   it   creates   foo01.enc,
              foo02.enc, ... at the same place.

              Will be ignored if not in subfont mode.

       -x     Rotate all glyphs by 90 degrees counter-clockwise.  If no -y pa-
              rameter is given, the rotated glyphs are shifted down vertically
              by 0.25em.

              Will be ignored if not in subfont mode.

       -y vertical-shift-factor
              Shift down rotated glyphs by the given amount (the unit is em).

              Ignored if not in subfont mode or glyphs are not rotated.

              Shows the current version of ttf2tfm and the  used  file  search
              library (e.g.  kpathsea).

       --help Shows usage information.

       If no TFM file name is given, the name of the TTF file is used, includ-
       ing the full path and replacing the extension with `.tfm'.

       Contrary to Type 1 PostScript fonts (but similar to the new  CID  Post-
       Script font format), most TrueType fonts have more than one native map-
       ping table, also called `cmap', which maps the (internal) TTF glyph in-
       dices  to  the  (external)  TTF character codes.  Common examples are a
       mapping table to Unicode encoded character positions, and the  standard
       Macintosh mapping.

       To  specify  a TrueType mapping table, use the options -P and -E.  With
       -P you specify the platform ID; defined values are:

       platform        platform ID (pid)
       Apple Unicode   0
       Macintosh       1
       ISO             2
       Microsoft       3

       The encoding ID depends on the platform.  For pid=0, we ignore  the  -E
       parameter  (setting  it to zero) since the mapping table is always Uni-
       code version 2.0.  For pid=1, the following  table  lists  the  defined

              platform ID = 1

       script          encoding ID (eid)
       Roman           0
       Japanese        1
       Chinese         2
       Korean          3
       Arabic          4
       Hebrew          5
       Greek           6
       Russian         7
       Roman Symbol    8
       Devanagari      9
       Gurmukhi        10
       Gujarati        11
       Oriya           12
       Bengali         13
       Tamil           14
       Telugu          15
       Kannada         16
       Malayalam       17
       Sinhalese       18
       Burmese         19
       Khmer           20
       Thai            21

       Laotian         22
       Georgian        23
       Armenian        24
       Maldivian       25
       Tibetan         26
       Mongolian       27
       Geez            28
       Slavic          29
       Vietnamese      30
       Sindhi          31
       Uninterpreted   32

       Here are the ISO encoding IDs:

              platform ID = 2

       encoding     encoding ID (eid)
       ASCII        0
       ISO 10646    1
       ISO 8859-1   2

       And finally, the Microsoft encoding IDs:

              platform ID = 3

       encoding              encoding ID (eid)
       Symbol                0
       Unicode 2.0           1
       Shift JIS             2
       GB 2312 (1980)        3
       Big 5                 4
       KS X 1001 (Wansung)   5
       KS X 1001 (Johab)     6
       UCS-4                 10

       The  program  will abort if you specify an invalid platform/encoding ID
       pair.  It will then show the possible pid/eid pairs.  Please note  that
       most  fonts  have  at most two or three cmaps, usually corresponding to
       the pid/eid pairs (1,0), (3,0), or (3,1) in case of Latin based  fonts.
       Valid Microsoft fonts should have a (3,1) mapping table, but some fonts
       exist (mostly Asian fonts) which have a (3,1) cmap not encoded in  Uni-
       code.   The  reason for this strange behavior is the fact that some old
       MS Windows versions will reject fonts having a  non-(3,1)  cmap  (since
       all  non-Unicode  Microsoft  encoding IDs are for Asian MS Windows ver-

       The -P and -E options of ttf2tfm must be equally specified for  ttf2pk;
       the corresponding parameters in a map file are `Pid' and `Eid', respec-

       The default pid/eid pair is (3,1).

       Similarly, an -f option must be specified as `Fontindex' parameter in a
       map file.

       If  you  use the -N switch, all cmaps are ignored, using only the Post-
       Script names in the TrueType font.  The corresponding option in  a  map
       file  is  `PS=Only'.  If you use the -n switch, the default glyph names
       built into ttf2tfm are replaced with the PS glyph names  found  in  the
       font.   In many cases this is not what you want because the glyph names
       in the font are often incorrect or non-standard.  The corresponding op-
       tion in a map file is `PS=Yes'.

       Single replacement glyph names specified with -r must be given directly
       as `old-glyphname new-glyphname' in a map file; -R is equivalent to the
       `Replacement' option.

       You must specify the encoding vectors from the TrueType font to the raw
       TeX font and from the raw TeX font to the virtual TeX font  exactly  as
       with  afm2tfm, but you have more possibilities to address the character
       codes.  [With `encoding vector' a mapping  table  with  256 entries  in
       form  of a PostScript vector is meant; see the file T1-WGL4.enc of this
       package for an example.]  With afm2tfm, you must access each glyph with
       its Adobe glyph name, e.g. `/quotedsingle' or `/Acircumflex'.  This has
       been extended with ttf2tfm; now you can (and sometimes must) access the
       code  points  and/or  glyphs  directly,  using the following syntax for
       specifying the character position in decimal, octal, or hexadecimal no-
       tation: `/.c<decimal-number>', `/.c0<octal-number>', or `/.c0x<hexadec-
       imal-number>'.  Examples: `/.c72', `/.c0646', `/.c0x48'.  To  access  a
       glyph  index directly, use the character `g' instead of `c' in the just
       introduced notation.  Example: `/.g0x32'.  [Note: The `.cXXX'  notation
       makes no sense if -N is used.]

       For  pid/eid  pairs  (1,0) and (3,1), both ttf2tfm and ttf2pk recognize
       built-in default Adobe glyph names; the former follows the names  given
       in Appendix E of the book `Inside Macintosh', volume 6, the latter uses
       the names given in the TrueType Specification (WGL4, a Unicode subset).
       Note  that  Adobe  names  for a given glyph are often not unique and do
       sometimes differ, e.g., many PS fonts have the glyph `mu', whereas this
       glyph  is called `mu1' in the WGL4 character set to distinguish it from
       the real Greek letter mu.  Be also  aware  that  OpenType  (i.e.  True-
       Type 2.0)  fonts  use  an  updated WGL4 table; we use the data from the
       latest published TrueType specification (1.66).   You  can  find  those
       mapping tables in the source code file ttfenc.c.

       On the other hand, the switches -n and -N makes ttf2tfm read in and use
       the PostScript names in the TrueType font itself (stored in the  `post'
       table) instead of the default Adobe glyph names.

       Use  the -r switch to remap single glyph names and -R to specify a file
       containing replacement glyph name pairs.

       If you don't select an input encoding,  the  first  256 glyphs  of  the
       TrueType font with a valid entry in the selected cmap will be mapped to
       the TeX raw font (without the -q option, ttf2tfm  prints  this  mapping
       table  to standard output), followed by all glyphs not yet addressed in
       the selected cmap.  However, some code points  for  the  (1,0)  pid/eid
       pair  are  omitted  since  they do not represent glyphs useful for TeX:
       0x00 (null), 0x08 (backspace), 0x09 (horizontal tabulation), 0x0d (car-
       riage  return),  and  0x1d  (group separator).  The `invalid character'
       with glyph index 0 will be omitted too.

       If you select the -N switch, the first 256 glyphs of the TrueType  font
       with  a valid PostScript name will be used in case no input encoding is
       specified.  Again, some glyphs are omitted:   `.notdef',  `.null',  and

       If  you don't select an  output encoding, ttf2tfm uses the same mapping
       table as afm2tfm would use (you can find it in  the  source  code  file
       texenc.c);  it  corresponds  to  TeX typewriter text.  Unused positions
       (either caused by empty code points in the  mapping  table  or  missing
       glyphs  in  the TrueType font) will be filled (rather arbitrarily) with
       characters present in the input encoding but not specified in the  out-
       put encoding (without the -q option ttf2tfm prints the final output en-
       coding to standard output).  Use the -u option if you want only  glyphs
       in  the virtual font which are defined in the output encoding file, and
       nothing more.

       One feature missing in afm2tfm has been added which is  needed  by  La-
       TeX's  T1  encoding:  ttf2tfm will construct the glyph `Germandbls' (by
       simply concatenating two `S' glyphs) even for normal fonts if possible.
       It appears in the glyph list as the last item, marked with an asterisk.
       Since this isn't a real glyph it will be available only in the  virtual

       For  both  input  and output encoding, an empty code position is repre-
       sented by the glyph name `/.notdef'.

       In encoding files, you can use `\' as the final character of a line  to
       indicate  that  the input is continued on the next line.  The backslash
       and the following newline character will be removed.

       CJKV (Chinese/Japanese/Korean/old  Vietnamese)  fonts  usually  contain
       several  thousand glyphs; to use them with TeX it is necessary to split
       such large fonts into subfonts.  Subfont definition files (usually hav-
       ing the extension `.sfd') are a simple means to do this smoothly.

       A  subfont file name usually consists of a prefix, a subfont infix, and
       a postfix (which is empty in most cases), e.g.

         ntukai23 -> prefix: ntukai, infix: 23, postfix: (empty)

       Here the syntax of a line in an SFD file, describing one subfont:

       <whitespace> <infix> <whitespace> <ranges> <whitespace>

       <infix> :=
              anything except whitespace.  It is best to use only alphanumeri-
              cal characters.

       <whitespace> :=
              space,  formfeed,  carriage return, horizontal and vertical tabs
              -- no newline characters.

       <ranges> :=
              <ranges> <whitespace> <codepoint> |
              <ranges> <whitespace> <range> |
              <ranges> <whitespace> <offset> <whitespace> <range>

       <codepoint> :=

       <range> :=
              <number> `_' <number>

       <offset> :=
              <number> `:'

       <number> :=
              hexadecimal (prefix `0x'), decimal, or octal (prefix `0')

       A line can be continued on the next line with a  backslash  ending  the
       line.   The  ranges  must  not overlap; offsets have to be in the range


         The line

           03   10: 0x2349 0x2345_0x2347

         assigns to the code positions 10, 11, 12, and 13 of the subfont  hav-
         ing  the  infix  `03' the character codes 0x2349, 0x2345, 0x2346, and
         0x2347 respectively.

       The SFD files in the distribution are customized for  the  CJK  package
       for LaTeX.

       You  have  to  embed  the  SFD file name into the TFM font name (at the
       place where the infix will appear) surrounded by two `@' signs, on  the
       command  line  resp. a map file; both ttf2tfm and ttf2pk switch then to
       subfont mode.

       It is possible to use more than a single SFD file  by  separating  them
       with  commata and no whitespace; for a given subfont, the first file is
       scanned for an entry, then the next file, and  so  on.   Later  entries
       override entries found earlier (possibly only partially).  For example,
       the first SFD file sets up range 0x10-0xA0, and the next  one  modifies
       entries  0x12  and  0x25.  As can be easily seen, this algorithm allows
       for adding and replacing, but not for removing entries.

       Subfont mode disables the options -n, -N, -p, -r, -R, -t, -T,  -u,  -v,
       -V and -w for ttf2tfm; similarly, no `Encoding' or `Replacement' param-
       eter is allowed in a map file.  Single replacement glyph names are  ig-
       nored too.

       ttf2tfm  will  create  all subfont TFM files specified in the SFD files
       (provided the subfont contains glyphs) in one run.


         The call

           ttf2tfm ntukai.ttf ntukai@Big5,Big5-supp@

         will use Big5.sfd and  Big5-supp.sfd,  producing  all  subfont  files
         ntukai01.tfm, ntukai02.tfm, etc.

       ttf2tfm returns 0 on success and 1 on error; warning and error messages
       are written to standard error.

       Both ttf2pk and ttf2tfm use either the kpathsea,  emtexdir,  or  MiKTeX
       library  for searching files (emtexdir will work only on operating sys-
       tems which have an MS-DOSish background, i.e.  MS-DOS,  OS/2,  Windows;
       MikTeX is specific to MS Windows).

       As  a  last  resort, both programs can be compiled without a search li-
       brary; the searched files must be then  in  the  current  directory  or
       specified  with a path.  Default extensions will be appended also (with
       the exception that only `.ttf' is appended and not `.ttc').

       The actual version of kpathsea is displayed on screen if you  call  ei-
       ther ttf2pk or ttf2tfm with the --version command line switch.

       Here  is  a table of the file type and the corresponding kpathsea vari-
       ables.  TTF2PKINPUTS and TTF2TFMINPUTS are program specific environment
       variables introduced in kpathsea version 3.2:

              .ttf and .ttc   TTFONTS
              ttf2pk.cfg      TTF2PKINPUTS
              .map            TTF2PKINPUTS
              .enc            TTF2PKINPUTS, TTF2TFMINPUTS
              .rpl            TTF2PKINPUTS, TTF2TFMINPUTS
              .tfm            TFMFONTS
              .sfd            TTF2PKINPUTS, TTF2TFMINPUTS

       Please  consult  the  info files of kpathsea for details on these vari-

       You should set the  TEXMFCNF  variable  to  the  directory  where  your
       texmf.cnf configuration file resides.

       Here  is the proper command to find out to which value a kpathsea vari-
       able is set (we use TTFONTS as an example).  This is especially  useful
       if a variable isn't set in texmf.cnf or in the environment, thus point-
       ing to the default value which is hard-coded into the kpathsea library.

              kpsewhich -progname=ttf2tfm -expand-var='$TTFONTS'

       We select the program name also since it is possible to  specify  vari-
       ables  which  are searched only for a certain program -- in our example
       it would be TTFONTS.ttf2tfm.

       A similar but not identical method is to say

         kpsewhich -progname=ttf2tfm -show-path='truetype fonts'

       [A full list of format types  can  be  obtained  by  saying  `kpsewhich
       --help'  on the command line prompt.]  This is exactly how ttf2tfm (and
       ttf2pk) searches for files; the disadvantage is that all variables  are
       expanded which can cause very long strings.

       Here the list of suffixes and their related environment variables to be
       set in autoexec.bat (resp. in config.sys for OS/2):

              .ttf and .ttc   TTFONTS
              ttf2pk.cfg      TTFCFG
              .map            TTFCFG
              .enc            TTFCFG
              .rpl            TTFCFG
              .tfm            TEXTFM
              .sfd            TTFCFG

       If one of the variables isn't set, a warning message is  emitted.   The
       current  directory will always  be searched.  As usual, one exclamation
       mark appended to a directory path causes subdirectories one level  deep
       to  be  searched,  two exclamation marks cause all subdirectories to be
       searched.  Example:


       Constructions like `c:\fonts!!\truetype' aren't possible.

       Both ttf2tfm and ttf2pk have been fully integrated into MiKTeX.  Please
       refer  to  the documentation of MiKTeX for more details on file search-

       Many vptovf implementations allow only 100 bytes  for  the  TFM  header
       (the limit is 1024 in the TFM file format itself): 8 bytes for checksum
       and design size, 40 bytes for the family name, 20 bytes for the  encod-
       ing,  and 4 bytes for a face byte.  There remain only 28 bytes for some
       additional information which is used by ttf2tfm for  an  identification
       string (which is essentially a copy of the command line), and this lim-
       it is always exceeded.

       The optimal solution is to increase the value  of  max_header_bytes  in
       the  file vptovf.web (and probably pltotf.web too) to, say, 400 and re-
       compile vptovf (and pltotf).  Otherwise you'll get some (harmless)  er-
       ror messages like

         This HEADER index is too big for my present table size

       which can be safely ignored.

       ttf2pk(1), afm2tfm(1), vptovf(1),
       the info pages for dvips and kpathsea

       ttf2tfm is part of the FreeType 1 package, a high quality TrueType ren-
       dering library.

       Werner LEMBERG <>
       Frederic LOYER <>

FreeType2 version                 27-Jun-2013                       TTF2TFM(1)
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