SYSTEMD-ANALYZE(1)              systemd-analyze             SYSTEMD-ANALYZE(1)

       systemd-analyze - Analyze system boot-up performance

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] [time]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] blame

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] critical-chain [UNIT...]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] plot [> file.svg]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] dot [PATTERN...] [>]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] dump

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] set-log-level LEVEL

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] set-log-target TARGET

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] verify [FILES...]

       systemd-analyze may be used to determine system boot-up performance
       statistics and retrieve other state and tracing information from the
       system and service manager, and to verify the correctness of unit

       systemd-analyze time prints the time spent in the kernel before
       userspace has been reached, the time spent in the initial RAM disk
       (initrd) before normal system userspace has been reached, and the time
       normal system userspace took to initialize. Note that these
       measurements simply measure the time passed up to the point where all
       system services have been spawned, but not necessarily until they fully
       finished initialization or the disk is idle.

       systemd-analyze blame prints a list of all running units, ordered by
       the time they took to initialize. This information may be used to
       optimize boot-up times. Note that the output might be misleading as the
       initialization of one service might be slow simply because it waits for
       the initialization of another service to complete.

       systemd-analyze critical-chain [UNIT...]  prints a tree of the
       time-critical chain of units (for each of the specified UNITs or for
       the default target otherwise). The time after the unit is active or
       started is printed after the "@" character. The time the unit takes to
       start is printed after the "+" character. Note that the output might be
       misleading as the initialization of one service might depend on socket
       activation and because of the parallel execution of units.

       systemd-analyze plot prints an SVG graphic detailing which system
       services have been started at what time, highlighting the time they
       spent on initialization.

       systemd-analyze dot generates textual dependency graph description in
       dot format for further processing with the GraphViz dot(1) tool. Use a
       command line like systemd-analyze dot | dot -Tsvg > systemd.svg to
       generate a graphical dependency tree. Unless --order or --require is
       passed, the generated graph will show both ordering and requirement
       dependencies. Optional pattern globbing style specifications (e.g.
       *.target) may be given at the end. A unit dependency is included in the
       graph if any of these patterns match either the origin or destination

       systemd-analyze dump outputs a (usually very long) human-readable
       serialization of the complete server state. Its format is subject to
       change without notice and should not be parsed by applications.

       systemd-analyze set-log-level LEVEL changes the current log level of
       the systemd daemon to LEVEL (accepts the same values as --log-level=
       described in systemd(1)).

       systemd-analyze set-log-target TARGET changes the current log target of
       the systemd daemon to TARGET (accepts the same values as --log-target=,
       described in systemd(1)).

       systemd-analyze verify will load unit files and print warnings if any
       errors are detected. Files specified on the command line will be
       loaded, but also any other units referenced by them. This command works
       by prepending the directories for all command line arguments at the
       beginning of the unit load path, which means that all units files found
       in those directories will be used in preference to the unit files found
       in the standard locations, even if not listed explicitly.

       If no command is passed, systemd-analyze time is implied.

       The following options are understood:

           Operates on the user systemd instance.

           Operates on the system systemd instance. This is the implied

       --order, --require
           When used in conjunction with the dot command (see above), selects
           which dependencies are shown in the dependency graph. If --order is
           passed, only dependencies of type After= or Before= are shown. If
           --require is passed, only dependencies of type Requires=,
           Requisite=, Wants= and Conflicts= are shown. If neither is passed,
           this shows dependencies of all these types.

       --from-pattern=, --to-pattern=
           When used in conjunction with the dot command (see above), this
           selects which relationships are shown in the dependency graph. Both
           options require a glob(7) pattern as an argument, which will be
           matched against the left-hand and the right-hand, respectively,
           nodes of a relationship.

           Each of these can be used more than once, in which case the unit
           name must match one of the values. When tests for both sides of the
           relation are present, a relation must pass both tests to be shown.
           When patterns are also specified as positional arguments, they must
           match at least one side of the relation. In other words, patterns
           specified with those two options will trim the list of edges
           matched by the positional arguments, if any are given, and fully
           determine the list of edges shown otherwise.

           When used in conjunction with the critical-chain command (see
           above), also show units, which finished timespan earlier, than the
           latest unit in the same level. The unit of timespan is seconds
           unless specified with a different unit, e.g. "50ms".

           Do not invoke man to verify the existence of man pages listed in

       -H, --host=
           Execute the operation remotely. Specify a hostname, or a username
           and hostname separated by "@", to connect to. The hostname may
           optionally be suffixed by a container name, separated by ":", which
           connects directly to a specific container on the specified host.
           This will use SSH to talk to the remote machine manager instance.
           Container names may be enumerated with machinectl -H HOST.

       -M, --machine=
           Execute operation on a local container. Specify a container name to
           connect to.

       -h, --help
           Print a short help text and exit.

           Print a short version string and exit.

           Do not pipe output into a pager.

       On success, 0 is returned, a non-zero failure code otherwise.

       Example 1. Plots all dependencies of any unit whose name starts with

           $ systemd-analyze dot 'avahi-daemon.*' | dot -Tsvg > avahi.svg
                 $ eog avahi.svg

       Example 2. Plots the dependencies between all known target units

           systemd-analyze dot --to-pattern='*.target' --from-pattern='*.target' | dot -Tsvg > targets.svg
           $ eog targets.svg

       The following errors are currently detected:

       o   unknown sections and directives,

       o   missing dependencies which are required to start the given unit,

       o   man pages listed in Documentation= which are not found in the

       o   commands listed in ExecStart= and similar which are not found in
           the system or not executable.

       Example 3. Misspelt directives

           $ cat ./user.slice


           $ systemd-analyze verify ./user.slice
           [./user.slice:9] Unknown lvalue 'WhatIsThis' in section 'Unit'
           [./user.slice:13] Unknown section 'Service'. Ignoring.
           Error: org.freedesktop.systemd1.LoadFailed:
              Unit different.service failed to load:
              No such file or directory.

           Failed to create user.slice/start: Invalid argument
           user.slice: man nosuchfile(1) command failed with code 16

       Example 4. Missing service units

           $ tail ./a.socket ./b.socket
           ==> ./a.socket <==

           ==> ./b.socket <==

           $ systemd-analyze verify ./a.socket ./b.socket
           Service a.service not loaded, a.socket cannot be started.
           Service b@0.service not loaded, b.socket cannot be started.

           Pager to use when --no-pager is not given; overrides $PAGER.
           Setting this to an empty string or the value "cat" is equivalent to
           passing --no-pager.

           Override the default options passed to less ("FRSXMK").

       systemd(1), systemctl(1)

systemd 229                                                 SYSTEMD-ANALYZE(1)
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