An System Conforming to
International Standard ISO 8879 --
Standard Generalized Markup Language
spam [ -ehilprvx ] [ -ccatalog_file ] [ -Ddirectory ] [ -ffile ] [
-mmarkup_option ] [ -oentity_name ] [ -wwarning_type ] sysid...
This manual page may be out of date. Consult the HTML documentation
for the most up-to-date information concerning this program.
Spam (SP Add Markup) is an SGML markup stream editor implemented using
the SP parser. Spam parses the SGML document contained in sysid...
and copies to the standard output the portion of the document entity
containing the document instance, adding or changing markup as speci-
fied by the -m options. The -p option can be used to include the SGML
declaration and prolog in the output. The -o option can be used to
output other entities. The -x option can be used to expand entity ref-
For more information about the underlying SGML parser and entity man-
ager, see nsgmls(1).
The following options are available:
-cfile Use the catalog entry file file.
Search directory for files specified in system identifiers.
Multiple -D options are allowed. See nsgmls(1) for more infor-
mation about file searching.
-e Describe open entities in error messages.
-ffile Redirect errors to file. This is useful mainly with shells that
do not support redirection of stderr.
-h Hoist omitted tags out from the start of internal entities. If
the text at the beginning of an internal entity causes a tag to
be implied, the tag will usually be treated as being in that
internal entity; this option will instead cause it to be treated
as being in the entity that referenced the internal entity.
This option makes a difference in conjunction with -momittag or
-iname Pretend that
<!ENTITY % name "INCLUDE">
occurs at the start of the document type declaration subset in
the document entity.
Replace short references by named entity references.
net Change null end-tags into unminimized end-tags, and
change net-enabling start-tags into unminimized start-
Change empty tags into unminimized tags.
Change unclosed tags into unminimized tags.
Add omitted attribute names and vis.
Add literal delimiters omitted from attribute values.
Add omitted attribute specifications.
Add omitted attribute specifications for current
attributes. This option is implied by the attspec
Equivalent to combination of net, emptytag, unclosed,
attname, attvalue and attspec options.
rank Add omitted rank suffixes.
Put reserved names in upper-case.
ms Remove marked section declarations whose effective status
is IGNORE, and replace each marked section declaration
whose effective status is INCLUDE by its marked section.
In the document instance, empty comments will be added
before or after the marked section declaration to ensure
that ignored record ends remain ignored.
Multiple -m options are allowed.
-oname Output the general entity name instead of the document entity.
The output will correspond to the first time that the entity is
referenced in content.
-p Output the part of the document entity containing the SGML dec-
laration (if it was explicitly present in the document entity)
and the prolog before anything else. If this option is speci-
fied two or more times, then all entity references occurring
-wtype Control warnings and errors according to type. See nsgmls(1)
for the allowed values of type.
-x Expand references to entities that are changed. If this option
is specified two or more times, then all references to entities
that contain tags will be expanded.
Omitted tags are added at the point where they are implied by the SGML
parser (except as modified by the -h option); this is often not quite
where they are wanted.
The case of general delimiters is not preserved.
Incorrect results may be produced if a variant concrete syntax is used
which is such that there are delimiters in markup to be added that have
a prefix that is a proper suffix of some other delimiter.
If an entity reference in a default value uses the default entity and
an entity with that name is subsequently defined and that default value
is added to the document instance, then the resulting document may not
be equivalent to the original document. Spam will give a warning when
the first two conditions are met.
James Clark (firstname.lastname@example.org).
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