screen




SYNOPSIS
       screen [ -options ] [ cmd [ args ] ]
       screen -r [[pid.]tty[.host]]
       screen -r sessionowner/[[pid.]tty[.host]]



DESCRIPTION
       Screen is a full-screen window manager that multiplexes a physical ter-
       minal between several processes (typically interactive  shells).   Each
       virtual terminal provides the functions of a DEC VT100 terminal and, in
       addition, several control functions from the ISO 6429  (ECMA  48,  ANSI
       X3.64)  and ISO 2022 standards (e.g. insert/delete line and support for
       multiple character sets).  There is a  scrollback  history  buffer  for
       each virtual terminal and a copy-and-paste mechanism that allows moving
       text regions between windows.

       When screen is called, it creates a single window with a  shell  in  it
       (or  the  specified  command) and then gets out of your way so that you
       can use the program as you normally would.  Then, at any time, you  can
       create new (full-screen) windows with other programs in them (including
       more shells), kill existing windows, view a list of windows, turn  out-
       put  logging  on and off, copy-and-paste text between windows, view the
       scrollback history, switch between windows in whatever manner you wish,
       etc.  All  windows  run  their  programs completely independent of each
       other. Programs continue to run when their window is currently not vis-
       ible and even when the whole screen session is detached from the user's
       terminal.  When a program terminates, screen (per  default)  kills  the
       window  that  contained  it.  If this window was in the foreground, the
       display switches to the previous  window;  if  none  are  left,  screen
       exits.

       Everything  you type is sent to the program running in the current win-
       dow.  The only exception to this is the one keystroke that is  used  to
       initiate  a  command  to  the window manager.  By default, each command
       begins with a control-a (abbreviated C-a from now on), and is  followed
       by one other keystroke.  The command character and all the key bindings
       can be fully customized to be anything you like, though they are always
       two characters in length.

       Screen does not understand the prefix "C-" to mean control.  Please use
       the caret notation ("^A" instead of "C-a") as  arguments  to  e.g.  the
       escape  command  or  the -e option.  Screen will also print out control
       characters in caret notation.

       The standard way to create a new window is to type "C-a c".  This  cre-
       ates  a  new window running a shell and switches to that window immedi-
       ately, regardless of the state of the process running  in  the  current
       window.   Similarly,  you can create a new window with a custom command
       in it by first binding the command to a keystroke  (in  your  .screenrc
       file  or  at  the "C-a :" command line) and then using it just like the
       forked from the parent screen process, not from the invoking shell.

       If "/var/run/utmp" is writable by screen, an appropriate record will be
       written  to  this  file for each window, and removed when the window is
       terminated.  This is useful for working with "talk",  "script",  "shut-
       down",  "rsend",  "sccs"  and  other similar programs that use the utmp
       file to determine who you are. As long as screen is active on your ter-
       minal,  the  terminal's  own  record is removed from the utmp file. See
       also "C-a L".



GETTING STARTED
       Before you begin to use screen you'll need to make sure you  have  cor-
       rectly  selected  your  terminal  type, just as you would for any other
       termcap/terminfo program.  (You can do this by using tset for example.)

       If you're impatient and want to get started without doing  a  lot  more
       reading,  you should remember this one command:  "C-a ?".  Typing these
       two characters will display a list of the available screen commands and
       their bindings. Each keystroke is discussed in the section "DEFAULT KEY
       BINDINGS". The manual section "CUSTOMIZATION" deals with  the  contents
       of your .screenrc.

       If your terminal is a "true" auto-margin terminal (it doesn't allow the
       last position on the screen to be updated without scrolling the screen)
       consider  using a version of your terminal's termcap that has automatic
       margins turned off. This will ensure an accurate and optimal update  of
       the  screen  in all circumstances. Most terminals nowadays have "magic"
       margins (automatic margins plus usable last column). This is the  VT100
       style  type  and  perfectly  suited for screen.  If all you've got is a
       "true" auto-margin terminal screen will  be  content  to  use  it,  but
       updating  a  character put into the last position on the screen may not
       be possible until the screen scrolls or the character is moved  into  a
       safe position in some other way. This delay can be shortened by using a
       terminal with insert-character capability.



COMMAND-LINE OPTIONS
       Screen has the following command-line options:

       -a   include all capabilities (with some minor exceptions) in each win-
            dow's  termcap, even if screen must redraw parts of the display in
            order to implement a function.

       -A   Adapt the sizes of all windows to the size of the  current  termi-
            nal.   By  default,  screen  tries to restore its old window sizes
            when attaching to resizable terminals  (those  with  "WS"  in  its
            description, e.g. suncmd or some xterm).

       -c file
            override  the default configuration file from "$HOME/.screenrc" to
            file.
               first.

       -d -RR  Reattach a session and if necessary detach or  create  it.  Use
               the first session if more than one session is available.

       -D -r   Reattach  a  session.  If  necessary detach and logout remotely
               first.

       -D -R   Attach here and now. In detail this means: If a session is run-
               ning,  then  reattach.  If necessary detach and logout remotely
               first.  If it was not running create it and  notify  the  user.
               This is the author's favorite.

       -D -RR  Attach here and now. Whatever that means, just do it.

            Note:  It  is  always a good idea to check the status of your ses-
            sions by means of "screen -list".

       -e xy
            specifies the command character to be x and the character generat-
            ing a literal command character to y (when typed after the command
            character).  The default is "C-a" and `a', which can be  specified
            as  "-e^Aa".  When creating a screen session, this option sets the
            default command character. In a multiuser session all users  added
            will  start off with this command character. But when attaching to
            an already running session, this option changes only  the  command
            character  of  the  attaching  user.  This option is equivalent to
            either the commands "defescape" or "escape" respectively.

       -f, -fn, and -fa
            turns flow-control on, off, or "automatic switching  mode".   This
            can also be defined through the "defflow" .screenrc command.

       -h num
            Specifies the history scrollback buffer to be num lines high.

       -i   will  cause  the interrupt key (usually C-c) to interrupt the dis-
            play immediately when  flow-control  is  on.   See  the  "defflow"
            .screenrc command for details.  The use of this option is discour-
            aged.

       -l and -ln
            turns login mode on or off (for /var/run/utmp updating).  This can
            also be defined through the "deflogin" .screenrc command.

       -ls [match]
       -list [match]
            does  not  start screen, but prints a list of pid.tty.host strings
            and creation timestamps identifying your  screen  sessions.   Ses-
            sions  marked  `detached'  can  be resumed with "screen -r". Those
            marked `attached' are running and have a controlling terminal.  If
            the session runs in multiuser mode, it is marked `multi'. Sessions
            marked as `unreachable' either live on a  different  host  or  are
            `dead'.   An unreachable session is considered dead, when its name
            option:

       -d -m   Start screen in "detached" mode. This creates a new session but
               doesn't  attach  to  it.  This  is  useful  for  system startup
               scripts.

       -D -m   This also starts screen in "detached" mode, but doesn't fork  a
               new process. The command exits if the session terminates.

       -O   selects  a  more optimal output mode for your terminal rather than
            true VT100 emulation (only affects auto-margin  terminals  without
            `LP').   This can also be set in your .screenrc by specifying `OP'
            in a "termcap" command.

       -p number_or_name|-|=|+
            Preselect a window. This is useful when you want to reattach to  a
            specific  window or you want to send a command via the "-X" option
            to a specific window. As with screen's select command, "-" selects
            the  blank  window.  As a special case for reattach, "=" brings up
            the windowlist on the blank window, while a "+" will create a  new
            window.  The  command will not be executed if the specified window
            could not be found.

       -q   Suppress printing of error messages. In combination with "-ls" the
            exit  value  is  as  follows: 9 indicates a directory without ses-
            sions. 10 indicates a directory with running  but  not  attachable
            sessions.  11 (or more) indicates 1 (or more) usable sessions.  In
            combination with "-r" the exit value is as follows:  10  indicates
            that  there  is  no session to resume. 12 (or more) indicates that
            there are 2 (or more) sessions to resume and  you  should  specify
            which one to choose.  In all other cases "-q" has no effect.

       -Q   Some  commands now can be queried from a remote session using this
            flag, e.g.  "screen  -Q  windows".  The  commands  will  send  the
            response  to  the  stdout of the querying process. If there was an
            error in the command, then the querying process will exit  with  a
            non-zero status.

            The commands that can be queried now are:
             echo
             info
             lastmsg
             number
             select
             time
             title
             windows

       -r [pid.tty.host]
       -r sessionowner/[pid.tty.host]
            resumes  a detached screen session.  No other options (except com-
            binations with -d/-D) may be specified, though an optional  prefix
            of  [pid.]tty.host  may  be needed to distinguish between multiple
            detached screen sessions.  The second form is used to  connect  to

       -s program
            sets the default shell to the program specified,  instead  of  the
            value  in  the  environment  variable  $SHELL (or "/bin/sh" if not
            defined).  This can also be defined through the "shell"  .screenrc
            command.

       -S sessionname
            When  creating a new session, this option can be used to specify a
            meaningful name for the session. This name identifies the  session
            for  "screen  -list"  and  "screen -r" actions. It substitutes the
            default [tty.host] suffix.

       -t name
            sets the title (a.k.a.) for the default shell  or  specified  pro-
            gram.  See also the "shelltitle" .screenrc command.

       -T term
            Set  the  $TERM  environment  varible  using  the spcified term as
            opposed to the defualt setting of screen.

       -U   Run screen in UTF-8 mode. This option tells screen that your  ter-
            minal sends and understands UTF-8 encoded characters. It also sets
            the default encoding for new windows to `utf8'.

       -v   Print version number.

       -wipe [match]
            does the same as "screen  -ls",  but  removes  destroyed  sessions
            instead of marking them as `dead'.  An unreachable session is con-
            sidered dead, when its name matches either the name of  the  local
            host,  or the explicitly given parameter, if any.  See the -r flag
            for a description how to construct matches.

       -x   Attach to a not detached screen  session.  (Multi  display  mode).
            Screen  refuses  to attach from within itself.  But when cascading
            multiple screens, loops are not detected; take care.

       -X   Send the specified command to a running screen  session.  You  can
            use  the  -d or -r option to tell screen to look only for attached
            or detached screen sessions. Note that this command  doesn't  work
            if the session is password protected.

       -4   Resolve hostnames only to IPv4 addresses.

       -6   Resolve hostnames only to IPv6 addresses.


DEFAULT KEY BINDINGS
       As  mentioned,  each screen command consists of a "C-a" followed by one
       other character.  For your convenience, all commands that are bound  to
       lower-case  letters  are also bound to their control character counter-
       parts (with the exception of "C-a a"; see below), thus, "C-a c" as well
       as  "C-a  C-c"  can be used to create a window. See section "CUSTOMIZA-
       C-a 9       (select 9)
       C-a -       (select -)    Switch  to  window  number  0  - 9, or to the
                                 blank window.

       C-a tab     (focus)       Switch the input focus to  the  next  region.
                                 See also split, remove, only.

       C-a C-a     (other)       Toggle  to  the  window displayed previously.
                                 Note that this binding defaults to  the  com-
                                 mand  character  typed twice, unless overrid-
                                 den.  For instance, if  you  use  the  option
                                 "-e]x", this command becomes "]]".

       C-a a       (meta)        Send  the  command character (C-a) to window.
                                 See escape command.

       C-a A       (title)       Allow the user to enter a name for  the  cur-
                                 rent window.

       C-a b
       C-a C-b     (break)       Send a break to window.

       C-a B       (pow_break)   Reopen the terminal line and send a break.

       C-a c
       C-a C-c     (screen)      Create  a  new window with a shell and switch
                                 to that window.

       C-a C       (clear)       Clear the screen.

       C-a d
       C-a C-d     (detach)      Detach screen from this terminal.

       C-a D D     (pow_detach)  Detach and logout.

       C-a f
       C-a C-f     (flow)        Toggle flow on, off or auto.

       C-a F       (fit)         Resize the window to the current region size.

       C-a C-g     (vbell)       Toggles screen's visual bell mode.

       C-a h       (hardcopy)    Write a hardcopy of the current window to the
                                 file "hardcopy.n".

       C-a H       (log)         Begins/ends  logging of the current window to
                                 the file "screenlog.n".

       C-a i
       C-a C-i     (info)        Show info about this window.

       C-a k
       C-a C-k     (kill)        Destroy current window.


       C-a space
       C-a n
       C-a C-n     (next)        Switch to the next window.

       C-a N       (number)      Show  the  number  (and title) of the current
                                 window.

       C-a backspace
       C-a C-h
       C-a p
       C-a C-p     (prev)        Switch to the previous window (opposite of C-
                                 a n).

       C-a q
       C-a C-q     (xon)         Send a control-q to the current window.

       C-a Q       (only)        Delete  all regions but the current one.  See
                                 also split, remove, focus.

       C-a r
       C-a C-r     (wrap)        Toggle the current window's line-wrap setting
                                 (turn  the current window's automatic margins
                                 on and off).

       C-a s
       C-a C-s     (xoff)        Send a control-s to the current window.

       C-a S       (split)       Split the current  region  horizontally  into
                                 two new ones.  See also only, remove, focus.

       C-a t
       C-a C-t     (time)        Show system information.

       C-a v       (version)     Display the version and compilation date.

       C-a C-v     (digraph)     Enter digraph.

       C-a w
       C-a C-w     (windows)     Show a list of window.

       C-a W       (width)       Toggle 80/132 columns.

       C-a x
       C-a C-x     (lockscreen)  Lock this terminal.

       C-a X       (remove)      Kill  the  current  region.   See also split,
                                 only, focus.

       C-a z
       C-a C-z     (suspend)     Suspend screen.   Your  system  must  support
                                 BSD-style job-control.

       C-a Z       (reset)       Reset  the virtual terminal to its "power-on"
       C-a esc     (copy)        Enter copy/scrollback mode.

       C-a C-]
       C-a ]       (paste .)     Write the contents of the paste buffer to the
                                 stdin queue of the current window.

       C-a {
       C-a }       (history)     Copy and paste a previous (command) line.

       C-a >       (writebuf)    Write paste buffer to a file.

       C-a <       (readbuf)     Reads the screen-exchange file into the paste
                                 buffer.

       C-a =       (removebuf)   Removes the file used by C-a < and C-a >.

       C-a ,       (license)     Shows where screen comes from, where it  went
                                 to and why you can use it.

       C-a _       (silence)     Start/stop  monitoring the current window for
                                 inactivity.

       C-a |       (split -v)    Split the current region vertically into  two
                                 new ones.

       C-a *       (displays)    Show a listing of all currently attached dis-
                                 plays.



CUSTOMIZATION
       The "socket directory" defaults either to $HOME/.screen  or  simply  to
       /tmp/screens  or  preferably to /var/run/screen chosen at compile-time.
       If screen is installed setuid-root, then the administrator should  com-
       pile  screen  with  an  adequate (not NFS mounted) socket directory. If
       screen is not running setuid-root, the user can specify  any  mode  700
       directory in the environment variable $SCREENDIR.

       When  screen  is  invoked, it executes initialization commands from the
       files "/etc/screenrc" and ".screenrc" in  the  user's  home  directory.
       These  are  the  "programmer's  defaults" that can be overridden in the
       following ways: for the global screenrc file screen  searches  for  the
       environment  variable  $SYSSCREENRC  (this override feature may be dis-
       abled at compile-time). The user specific screenrc file is searched  in
       $SCREENRC,  then  $HOME/.screenrc.   The  command  line option -c takes
       precedence over the above user screenrc files.

       Commands in these files are used to  set  options,  bind  functions  to
       keys,  and to automatically establish one or more windows at the begin-
       ning of your screen session.  Commands are listed one  per  line,  with
       empty lines being ignored.  A command's arguments are separated by tabs
       or spaces, and may be surrounded by single or  double  quotes.   A  `#'
       turns  the rest of the line into a comment, except in quotes.  Unintel-
       ligible lines are warned about and ignored.  Commands may contain  ref-
       values, while others change current settings.

       The following commands are available:

       acladd usernames [crypted-pw]
       addacl usernames

       Enable  users to fully access this screen session. Usernames can be one
       user or a comma separated list of users. This command enables to attach
       to  the screen session and performs the equivalent of `aclchg usernames
       +rwx "#?"'.  executed. To add a user with restricted  access,  use  the
       `aclchg'  command  below.  If an optional second parameter is supplied,
       it should be a crypted password for the named user(s).  `Addacl'  is  a
       synonym to `acladd'.  Multi user mode only.

       aclchg usernames permbits list
       chacl usernames permbits list

       Change permissions for a comma separated list of users. Permission bits
       are represented as `r', `w' and `x'. Prefixing `+' grants  the  permis-
       sion,  `-' removes it. The third parameter is a comma separated list of
       commands and/or windows (specified either by number or title). The spe-
       cial  list `#' refers to all windows, `?' to all commands. if usernames
       consists of a single `*', all known users are affected.  A command  can
       be  executed  when  the user has the `x' bit for it.  The user can type
       input to a window when he has its `w' bit set and no other user obtains
       a  writelock  for  this  window.  Other bits are currently ignored.  To
       withdraw the writelock from another user in window 2: `aclchg  username
       -w+w 2'.  To allow read-only access to the session: `aclchg username -w
       "#"'. As soon as a user's name is known to screen he can attach to  the
       session and (per default) has full permissions for all command and win-
       dows. Execution permission for the acl commands, `at' and others should
       also  be  removed  or  the user may be able to regain write permission.
       Rights of the special username nobody cannot be changed (see  the  "su"
       command).  `Chacl' is a synonym to `aclchg'.  Multi user mode only.

       acldel username

       Remove a user from screen's access control list. If currently attached,
       all the user's displays are detached from the session. He cannot attach
       again.  Multi user mode only.

       aclgrp username [groupname]

       Creates  groups  of  users that share common access rights. The name of
       the group is the username of the group leader. Each member of the group
       inherits  the  permissions  that  are granted to the group leader. That
       means, if a user fails an access check, another check is made  for  the
       group  leader.   A  user  is  removed from all groups the special value
       "none" is used for groupname.  If the second parameter is  omitted  all
       groups the user is in are listed.

       aclumask [[users]+bits |[users]-bits . ]
       umask [[users]+bits |[users]-bits . ]
       activity message

       When any activity occurs in a background window  that  is  being  moni-
       tored, screen displays a notification in the message line.  The notifi-
       cation message can be re-defined by means of  the  "activity"  command.
       Each occurrence of `%' in message is replaced by the number of the win-
       dow in which activity has occurred, and  each  occurrence  of  `^G'  is
       replaced by the definition for bell in your termcap (usually an audible
       bell).  The default message is

                   'Activity in window %n'

       Note that monitoring is off for all windows  by  default,  but  can  be
       altered by use of the "monitor" command (C-a M).

       allpartial on|off

       If  set  to  on,  only  the  current cursor line is refreshed on window
       change.  This affects all windows  and  is  useful  for  slow  terminal
       lines.  The previous setting of full/partial refresh for each window is
       restored with "allpartial off".  This is a global flag that immediately
       takes  effect on all windows overriding the "partial" settings. It does
       not change the default redraw behavior of newly created windows.

       altscreen on|off

       If set to on, "alternate screen" support is enabled in  virtual  termi-
       nals, just like in xterm.  Initial setting is `off'.

       at [identifier][#|*|%] command [args  ]

       Execute  a  command  at  other  displays  or  windows as if it had been
       entered there.  "At" changes the context (the `current window' or `cur-
       rent display' setting) of the command. If the first parameter describes
       a non-unique context, the command will be executed multiple  times.  If
       the  first  parameter  is  of the form `identifier*' then identifier is
       matched against user names.  The command is executed once for each dis-
       play  of  the  selected  user(s). If the first parameter is of the form
       `identifier%' identifier is  matched  against  displays.  Displays  are
       named  after the ttys they attach. The prefix `/dev/' or `/dev/tty' may
       be omitted from the identifier.  If identifier has  a  `#'  or  nothing
       appended  it  is matched against window numbers and titles. Omitting an
       identifier in front of the `#', `*' or `%'-character selects all users,
       displays  or  windows because a prefix-match is performed. Note that on
       the affected display(s) a short message will  describe  what  happened.
       Permission  is  checked  for initiator of the "at" command, not for the
       owners of the affected display(s).  Note that the '#'  character  works
       as  a comment introducer when it is preceded by whitespace. This can be
       escaped by prefixing a '\'.  Permission is checked for the initiator of
       the "at" command, not for the owners of the affected display(s).
       Caveat: When matching against windows, the command is executed at least
       once per window. Commands that change the internal arrangement of  win-
       dows  (like "other") may be called again. In shared windows the command
       will be repeated for each attached display. Beware, when issuing toggle
       ground color.

       Examples:

              attrcolor b "R"

       Change the color to bright red if bold text is to be printed.

              attrcolor u "-u b"

       Use blue text instead of underline.

              attrcolor b ".I"

       Use  bright  colors  for  bold  text.  Most  terminal emulators do this
       already.

              attrcolor i "+b"

       Make bright colored text also bold.

       autodetach on|off

       Sets whether screen will automatically detach upon hangup, which  saves
       all  your running programs until they are resumed with a screen -r com-
       mand.  When turned off, a hangup signal will terminate screen  and  all
       the processes it contains. Autodetach is on by default.

       autonuke on|off

       Sets  whether  a  clear screen sequence should nuke all the output that
       has not been written to the terminal. See also "obuflimit".

       backtick id lifespan autorefresh cmd args
       backtick id

       Program the backtick command with the numerical id id.  The  output  of
       such  a command is used for substitution of the "%`" string escape. The
       specified lifespan is the number of seconds the  output  is  considered
       valid.  After  this  time,  the command is run again if a corresponding
       string escape is encountered.  The autorefresh  parameter  triggers  an
       automatic  refresh  for caption and hardstatus strings after the speci-
       fied number of seconds. Only the last line of output is used  for  sub-
       stitution.
       If both the lifespan and the autorefresh parameters are zero, the back-
       tick program is expected to stay in the background and generate  output
       once  in a while.  In this case, the command is executed right away and
       screen stores the last line of output.  If  a  new  line  gets  printed
       screen will automatically refresh the hardstatus or the captions.
       The  second  form  of the command deletes the backtick command with the
       numerical id id.

       bce [on|off]

       cap (usually an audible bell).  The default message is

                   'Bell in window %n'

       An empty message can be supplied to the "bell_msg" command to  suppress
       output of a message line (bell_msg "").  Without parameter, the current
       message is shown.

       bind [-c class] key [command [args]]

       Bind a command to a key.  By default, most of the commands provided  by
       screen  are  bound to one or more keys as indicated in the "DEFAULT KEY
       BINDINGS" section, e.g. the command to create a new window is bound  to
       "C-c"  and  "c".   The  "bind"  command can be used to redefine the key
       bindings and to define new bindings.  The key argument is either a sin-
       gle  character,  a two-character sequence of the form "^x" (meaning "C-
       x"), a backslash followed by an octal number (specifying the ASCII code
       of  the character), or a backslash followed by a second character, such
       as "\^" or "\\".  The argument can also be quoted, if you like.  If  no
       further  argument is given, any previously established binding for this
       key is removed.  The command argument can be any command listed in this
       section.

       If  a  command class is specified via the "-c" option, the key is bound
       for the specified class. Use the "command" command to activate a class.
       Command  classes  can be used to create multiple command keys or multi-
       character bindings.

       Some examples:

                   bind ' ' windows
                   bind ^k
                   bind k
                   bind K kill
                   bind ^f screen telnet foobar
                   bind \033 screen -ln -t root -h 1000 9 su

       would bind the space key to the command that displays a list of windows
       (so  that the command usually invoked by "C-a C-w" would also be avail-
       able as "C-a space"). The next three  lines  remove  the  default  kill
       binding  from "C-a C-k" and "C-a k".  "C-a K" is then bound to the kill
       command. Then it binds "C-f" to the command "create  a  window  with  a
       TELNET  connection  to  foobar",  and bind "escape" to the command that
       creates an non-login window with a.k.a. "root" in slot #9, with a supe-
       ruser shell and a scrollback buffer of 1000 lines.

                   bind -c demo1 0 select 10
                   bind -c demo1 1 select 11
                   bind -c demo1 2 select 12
                   bindkey "^B" command -c demo1

       makes "C-b 0" select window 10, "C-b 1" window 11, etc.

                   bind -c demo2 0 select 10

       for  terminal  emulation  and  one  for screen's copy mode to do cursor
       movement. See section "INPUT TRANSLATION" for a  list  of  default  key
       bindings.
       If  the  -d  option  is  given,  bindkey modifies the default table, -m
       changes the copy mode table and with neither option the user  table  is
       selected.   The  argument string is the sequence of characters to which
       an action is bound. This can either be a fixed string or a termcap key-
       board capability name (selectable with the -k option).
       Some  keys  on a VT100 terminal can send a different string if applica-
       tion mode is turned on (e.g the  cursor  keys).   Such  keys  have  two
       entries  in  the translation table. You can select the application mode
       entry by specifying the -a option.
       The -t option tells screen not to do inter-character timing. One cannot
       turn off the timing if a termcap capability is used.
       Cmd  can  be any of screen's commands with an arbitrary number of args.
       If cmd is omitted the key-binding is removed from the table.
       Here are some examples of keyboard bindings:

               bindkey -d
       Show all of the default key bindings. The application mode entries  are
       marked with [A].

               bindkey -k k1 select 1
       Make the "F1" key switch to window one.

               bindkey -t foo stuff barfoo
       Make "foo" an abbreviation of the word "barfoo". Timeout is disabled so
       that users can type slowly.

               bindkey "\024" mapdefault
       This key-binding makes "^T" an escape character  for  key-bindings.  If
       you  did the above "stuff barfoo" binding, you can enter the word "foo"
       by typing "^Tfoo". If you want to insert a "^T" you have to  press  the
       key twice (i.e., escape the escape binding).

               bindkey -k F1 command
       Make the F11 (not F1!) key an alternative screen escape (besides ^A).

       break [duration]

       Send a break signal for duration*0.25 seconds to this window.  For non-
       Posix systems the time interval may be  rounded  up  to  full  seconds.
       Most useful if a character device is attached to the window rather than
       a shell process (See also chapter "WINDOW TYPES"). The maximum duration
       of a break signal is limited to 15 seconds.

       blanker

       Activate the screen blanker. First the screen is cleared. If no blanker
       program is defined, the cursor is turned off, otherwise, the program is
       started  and  it's output is written to the screen.  The screen blanker
       is killed with the first keypress, the read key is discarded.
       This command is normally used together with the "idle" command.

       break method for the current window.

       bufferfile [exchange-file]

       Change the filename used for reading and writing with the paste buffer.
       If  the  optional  argument to the "bufferfile" command is omitted, the
       default setting ("/tmp/screen-exchange") is reactivated.  The following
       example  will  paste  the system's password file into the screen window
       (using the paste buffer, where a copy remains):

                   C-a : bufferfile /etc/passwd
                   C-a < C-a ]
                   C-a : bufferfile

       c1 [on|off]

       Change c1 code processing. "C1 on" tells  screen  to  treat  the  input
       characters  between  128  and  159 as control functions.  Such an 8-bit
       code is normally the same as ESC followed by  the  corresponding  7-bit
       code.  The  default  setting  is to process c1 codes and can be changed
       with the "defc1" command.  Users with fonts that have usable characters
       in the c1 positions may want to turn this off.

       caption always|splitonly [string]
       caption string [string]

       This  command  controls  the display of the window captions. Normally a
       caption is only used if more than one window is shown  on  the  display
       (split  screen  mode).  But if the type is set to always screen shows a
       caption even if only one window is displayed. The default is splitonly.

       The second form changes the text used for the caption. You can use  all
       escapes  from  the  "STRING  ESCAPES" chapter. Screen uses a default of
       `%3n %t'.

       You can mix both forms by providing a string as an additional argument.

       charset set

       Change the current character set slot designation and charset  mapping.
       The  first  four  character  of  set are treated as charset designators
       while the fifth and sixth character must be in range '0' to '3' and set
       the GL/GR charset mapping. On every position a '.' may be used to indi-
       cate that the corresponding charset/mapping should not be changed  (set
       is  padded  to  six characters internally by appending '.'  chars). New
       windows have "BBBB02" as default charset, unless a  "encoding"  command
       is active.
       The current setting can be viewed with the "info" command.

       chdir [directory]

       Change  the  current directory of screen to the specified directory or,
       if called without an argument, to your home directory (the value of the
       environment  variable $HOME).  All windows that are created by means of

       colon [prefix]

       Allows  you  to  enter ".screenrc" command lines. Useful for on-the-fly
       modification of key bindings, specific  window  creation  and  changing
       settings.  Note  that  the "set" keyword no longer exists! Usually com-
       mands affect the current window rather than default settings for future
       windows. Change defaults with commands starting with 'def'.

       If you consider this as the `Ex command mode' of screen, you may regard
       "C-a esc" (copy mode) as its `Vi command mode'.

       command [-c class]

       This command has the same effect as typing the screen escape  character
       (^A).  It is probably only useful for key bindings.  If the "-c" option
       is given, select the specified command  class.   See  also  "bind"  and
       "bindkey".

       compacthist [on|off]

       This  tells  screen  whether  to  suppress  trailing  blank  lines when
       scrolling up text into the history buffer.

       console [on|off]

       Grabs or un-grabs the machines console output to a window.  Note:  Only
       the owner of /dev/console can grab the console output.  This command is
       only available if the machine supports the ioctl TIOCCONS.

       copy

       Enter copy/scrollback mode. This allows you to copy text from the  cur-
       rent  window  and its history into the paste buffer. In this mode a vi-
       like `full screen editor' is active:
       Movement keys:
         h, C-h, or left arrow move the cursor left.
         j, C-n, or down arrow move the cursor down.
         k, C-p, or up arrow move the cursor up.
         l ('el') or right arrow move the cursor right.
         0 (zero) or C-a move to the leftmost column.
         + and - positions one line up and down.
         H, M and L move the cursor to the leftmost column of the top,  center
           or bottom line of the window.
         | moves to the specified absolute column.
         g or home moves to the beginning of the buffer.
         G  or  end moves to the specified absolute line (default: end of buf-
           fer).
         % jumps to the specified percentage of the buffer.
         ^ or $ move to the leftmost column, to the first or  last  non-white-
           space character on the line.
         w, b, and e move the cursor word by word.
         B, E move the cursor WORD by WORD (as in vi).
         f/F,  t/T  move  the cursor forward/backward to the next occurence of
           Emacs style movement keys can be customized by a .screenrc command.
           (E.g. markkeys "h=^B:l=^F:$=^E") There is no simple  method  for  a
           full emacs-style keymap, as this involves multi-character codes.

       Marking:
           The  copy range is specified by setting two marks. The text between
           these marks will be highlighted. Press:
         space or enter to set the  first  or  second  mark  respectively.  If
           mousetrack  is  set to `on', marks can also be set using left mouse
           click.
         Y and y used to mark one whole line or to mark from start of line.
         W marks exactly one word.
       Repeat count:
           Any of these commands can be prefixed with a repeat count number by
           pressing digits
         0..9 which is taken as a repeat count.
           Example:  "C-a  C-[  H  10 j 5 Y" will copy lines 11 to 15 into the
           paste buffer.
       Searching:
         / Vi-like search forward.
         ? Vi-like search backward.
         C-a s Emacs style incremental search forward.
         C-r Emacs style reverse i-search.
         n Find next search pattern.
         N Find previous search pattern.
       Specials:
           There are however some keys that act differently than  in  vi.   Vi
           does  not  allow one to yank rectangular blocks of text, but screen
           does. Press:
         c or C to set the left or right margin  respectively.  If  no  repeat
           count is given, both default to the current cursor position.
           Example: Try this on a rather full text screen: "C-a [ M 20 l SPACE
           c 10 l 5 j C SPACE".

           This moves one to the middle line of the screen, moves in  20  col-
           umns  left,  marks the beginning of the paste buffer, sets the left
           column, moves 5 columns down, sets the right column, and then marks
           the end of the paste buffer. Now try:
           "C-a [ M 20 l SPACE 10 l 5 j SPACE"

           and notice the difference in the amount of text copied.
         J  joins lines. It toggles between 4 modes: lines separated by a new-
           line character (012), lines glued seamless, lines  separated  by  a
           single  whitespace  and  comma  separated  lines. Note that you can
           prepend the newline character with a carriage return character,  by
           issuing a "crlf on".
         v  or  V is for all the vi users with ":set numbers" - it toggles the
           left margin between column 9 and 1. Press
         a before the final space key to toggle in append mode. Thus the  con-
           tents  of the paste buffer will not be overwritten, but is appended
           to.
         A toggles in append mode and sets a (second) mark.
         > sets the (second) mark and writes the contents of the paste  buffer
           to the screen-exchange file (/tmp/screen-exchange per default) once

       No longer exists, use "readreg" instead.

       crlf [on|off]

       This affects the copying of text regions with the `C-a ['  command.  If
       it  is  set  to  `on',  lines  will  be  separated by the two character
       sequence `CR' - `LF'.  Otherwise (default) only `LF' is used.  When  no
       parameter is given, the state is toggled.

       debug on|off

       Turns  runtime  debugging  on  or off. If screen has been compiled with
       option -DDEBUG debugging available and is turned on per  default.  Note
       that  this command only affects debugging output from the main "SCREEN"
       process correctly. Debug output from attacher  processes  can  only  be
       turned off once and forever.

       defc1 on|off

       Same  as the c1 command except that the default setting for new windows
       is changed. Initial setting is `on'.

       defautonuke on|off

       Same as the autonuke command except that the default  setting  for  new
       displays  is  changed. Initial setting is `off'.  Note that you can use
       the special `AN' terminal capability if you want to have  a  dependency
       on the terminal type.

       defbce on|off

       Same as the bce command except that the default setting for new windows
       is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defbreaktype [tcsendbreak|TIOCSBRK |TCSBRK]

       Choose one of the available methods of generating a  break  signal  for
       terminal  devices.  The preferred methods are tcsendbreak and TIOCSBRK.
       The third, TCSBRK, blocks the complete screen session for the  duration
       of  the  break,  but  it  may  be the only way to generate long breaks.
       Tcsendbreak and TIOCSBRK may or may not produce long breaks with spikes
       (e.g.  4 per second). This is not only system-dependent, this also dif-
       fers between serial board  drivers.   Calling  "defbreaktype"  with  no
       parameter displays the current setting.

       defcharset [set]

       Like  the  charset command except that the default setting for new win-
       dows is changed. Shows current default if called without argument.

       defescape xy

       Set the default command characters. This is equivalent to the  "escape"
       except  that  it is useful multiuser sessions only. In a multiuser ses-
       Same as the gr command except that the default setting for new  windows
       is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defhstatus [status]

       The  hardstatus  line  that  all new windows will get is set to status.
       This command is useful to make the hardstatus of every  window  display
       the  window  number  or title or the like.  Status may contain the same
       directives as in the window messages, but the directive escape  charac-
       ter is '^E' (octal 005) instead of '%'.  This was done to make a misin-
       terpretation of program generated hardstatus lines impossible.  If  the
       parameter  status  is omitted, the current default string is displayed.
       Per default the hardstatus line of new windows is empty.

       defencoding enc

       Same as the encoding command except that the default  setting  for  new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is the encoding taken from the ter-
       minal.

       deflog on|off

       Same as the log command except that the default setting for new windows
       is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       deflogin on|off

       Same  as the login command except that the default setting for new win-
       dows is changed. This is initialized with `on' as distributed (see con-
       fig.h.in).

       defmode mode

       The mode of each newly allocated pseudo-tty is set to mode.  Mode is an
       octal number.  When no "defmode" command is given, mode 0622 is used.

       defmonitor on|off

       Same as the monitor command except that the  default  setting  for  new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defmousetrack on|off

       Same  as the mousetrack command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defnonblock on|off|numsecs

       Same as the nonblock command except that the default setting  for  dis-
       plays is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defobuflimit limit

       Same  as  the obuflimit command except that the default setting for new

       defsilence on|off

       Same  as  the  silence  command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defslowpaste msec"

       Same as the slowpaste command except that the default setting  for  new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is 0 milliseconds, meaning `off'.

       defutf8 on|off

       Same  as  the utf8 command except that the default setting for new win-
       dows is changed. Initial setting is `on' if  screen  was  started  with
       "-U", otherwise `off'.

       defwrap on|off

       Same  as  the wrap command except that the default setting for new win-
       dows is changed. Initially line-wrap is on and can be toggled with  the
       "wrap" command ("C-a r") or by means of "C-a : wrap on|off".

       defwritelock on|off|auto

       Same  as  the writelock command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initially writelocks will off.

       defzombie [keys]

       Synonym to the zombie command. Both currently change the default.   See
       there.

       detach [-h]

       Detach  the  screen session (disconnect it from the terminal and put it
       into the background).  This returns you to the shell where you  invoked
       screen.   A  detached screen can be resumed by invoking screen with the
       -r option (see also section  "COMMAND-LINE  OPTIONS").  The  -h  option
       tells  screen  to  immediately  close  the  connection  to the terminal
       ("hangup").

       dinfo

       Show what screen thinks about your terminal. Useful if you want to know
       why features like color or the alternate charset don't work.

       displays

       Shows  a  tabular  listing  of  all currently connected user front-ends
       (displays).  This is most useful for multiuser sessions.  The following
       keys can be used in displays list:
         k, C-p, or up Move up one line.
         j, C-n, or down Move down one line.

              xterm 80x42 jnweiger@/dev/ttyp4     0(m11)   &rWx
              facit 80x24 mlschroe@/dev/ttyhf nb 11(tcsh)   rwx
              xterm 80x42 jnhollma@/dev/ttyp5     0(m11)   &R.x
               (A)   (B)     (C)     (D)     (E) (F)(G)   (H)(I)

       The legend is as follows:
       (A) The terminal type known by screen for this display.
       (B) Displays geometry as width x height.
       (C) Username who is logged in at the display.
       (D) Device name of the display or the attached device
       (E) Display is in blocking or nonblocking mode. The available modes are
       "nb", "NB", "Z<", "Z>", and "BL".
       (F) Number of the window
       (G) Name/title of window
       (H) Whether the window is shared
       (I) Window permissions. Made up of three characters:
             (1st character)
                '-' : no read
                'r' : read
                'R' : read only due to foreign wlock
             (2nd character)
                '-' : no write
                '.' : write suppressed by foreign wlock
                'w' : write
                'W' : own wlock
             (3rd character)
                '-' : no execute
                'x' : execute

       "Displays"  needs  a  region  size of at least 10 characters wide and 5
       characters high in order to display.

       digraph [preset[unicode-value]]

       This command prompts the user for a  digraph  sequence.  The  next  two
       characters  typed  are  looked  up in a builtin table and the resulting
       character is inserted in the input stream. For  example,  if  the  user
       enters  'a"',  an  a-umlaut  will  be  inserted. If the first character
       entered is a 0 (zero), screen will treat the following  characters  (up
       to  three) as an octal number instead.  The optional argument preset is
       treated as user input, thus one can create an "umlaut" key.  For  exam-
       ple  the  command "bindkey ^K digraph '"'" enables the user to generate
       an a-umlaut by typing CTRL-K a.  When a non-zero unicode-value is spec-
       ified,  a new digraph is created with the specified preset. The digraph
       is unset if a zero value is provided for the unicode-value.

       dumptermcap

       Write the termcap entry for the virtual terminal optimized for the cur-
       rently   active   window   to   the   file  ".termcap"  in  the  user's
       "$HOME/.screen" directory (or wherever screen stores its  sockets.  See
       the  "FILES"  section  below).   This termcap entry is identical to the
       value of the environment variable $TERMCAP that is set up by screen for
       Tell  screen how to interpret the input/output. The first argument sets
       the encoding of the current window. Each window can emulate a different
       encoding.  The optional second parameter overwrites the encoding of the
       connected terminal. It should never be needed as screen uses the locale
       setting to detect the encoding.  There is also a way to select a termi-
       nal encoding depending on the terminal type by using the  "KJ"  termcap
       entry.

       Supported  encodings  are eucJP, SJIS, eucKR, eucCN, Big5, GBK, KOI8-R,
       CP1251, UTF-8, ISO8859-2, ISO8859-3, ISO8859-4,  ISO8859-5,  ISO8859-6,
       ISO8859-7, ISO8859-8, ISO8859-9, ISO8859-10, ISO8859-15, jis.

       See also "defencoding", which changes the default setting of a new win-
       dow.

       escape xy

       Set the command character to x and the character generating  a  literal
       command  character  (by triggering the "meta" command) to y (similar to
       the -e option).  Each argument is either a  single  character,  a  two-
       character  sequence  of the form "^x" (meaning "C-x"), a backslash fol-
       lowed by an octal number (specifying the ASCII code of the  character),
       or  a  backslash  followed by a second character, such as "\^" or "\\".
       The default is "^Aa".

       eval command1 [command2 ]

       Parses and executes each argument as separate command.

       exec [[fdpat] newcommand [args ]]

       Run a unix subprocess (specified by an executable path  newcommand  and
       its optional arguments) in the current window. The flow of data between
       newcommands stdin/stdout/stderr, the process originally started in  the
       window  (let  us call it "application-process") and screen itself (win-
       dow) is controlled by the file descriptor pattern fdpat.  This  pattern
       is  basically a three character sequence representing stdin, stdout and
       stderr of newcommand. A dot (.) connects the file descriptor to screen.
       An  exclamation  mark (!) causes the file descriptor to be connected to
       the application-process. A colon (:) combines both.  User input will go
       to  newcommand unless newcommand receives the application-process' out-
       put (fdpats first character is `!' or `:') or  a  pipe  symbol  (|)  is
       added (as a fourth character) to the end of fdpat.
       Invoking  `exec' without arguments shows name and arguments of the cur-
       rently running subprocess in this window. Only one  subprocess  a  time
       can be running in each window.
       When  a subprocess is running the `kill' command will affect it instead
       of the windows process.
       Refer to the postscript file `doc/fdpat.ps' for a  confusing  illustra-
       tion  of  all  21  possible combinations. Each drawing shows the digits
       2,1,0 representing the three file descriptors of  newcommand.  The  box
       marked  `W'  is  the  usual pty that has the application-process on its
       slave side.  The box marked `P' is  the  secondary  pty  that  now  has
       screen at its master side.

       Creates another shell in the same window, while the original  shell  is
       still  running.  Output  of  both shells is displayed and user input is
       sent to the new /bin/sh.

              exec !.. stty 19200
              exec ! stty 19200
              !!stty 19200

       Set the speed of the window's tty. If your  stty  command  operates  on
       stdout, then add another `!'.

              exec !..| less
              |less

       This  adds  a  pager to the window output. The special character `|' is
       needed to give the user control over the pager  although  it  gets  its
       input  from  the  window's process. This works, because less listens on
       stderr (a behavior that screen would not expect without the  `|')  when
       its  stdin  is  not a tty.  Less versions newer than 177 fail miserably
       here; good old pg still works.

              !:sed -n s/.*Error.*/\007/p

       Sends window output to both, the user and  the  sed  command.  The  sed
       inserts  an  additional  bell character (oct. 007) to the window output
       seen by screen.  This will cause "Bell in window x" messages,  whenever
       the string "Error" appears in the window.

       fit

       Change  the window size to the size of the current region. This command
       is needed because screen doesn't adapt the window size automatically if
       the window is displayed more than once.

       flow [on|off|auto]

       Sets  the  flow-control  mode  for  this window.  Without parameters it
       cycles the current window's flow-control setting  from  "automatic"  to
       "on"  to  "off".  See the discussion on "FLOW-CONTROL" later on in this
       document for full details and note, that this is subject to  change  in
       future releases.  Default is set by `defflow'.

       focus [up|down|top|bottom]

       Move  the  input focus to the next region. This is done in a cyclic way
       so that the top region is selected after the bottom one. If no  subcom-
       mand is given it defaults to `down'. `up' cycles in the opposite order,
       `top' and `bottom' go to the top and bottom region respectively. Useful
       bindings are (j and k as in vi)
           bind j focus down
           bind k focus up
           bind t focus top
           bind b focus bottom

       and height is shown.

       gr [on|off]

       Turn GR charset switching on/off. Whenever screen sees an input charac-
       ter with the 8th bit set, it will use the charset stored in the GR slot
       and  print  the  character  with the 8th bit stripped. The default (see
       also "defgr") is not to process  GR  switching  because  otherwise  the
       ISO88591 charset would not work.

       group [grouptitle]

       Change  or show the group the current window belongs to. Windows can be
       moved around between different groups by specifying  the  name  of  the
       destination group. Without specifying a group, the title of the current
       group is displayed.

       hardcopy [-h] [file]

       Writes out the currently displayed image to the file file,  or,  if  no
       filename  is specified, to hardcopy.n in the default directory, where n
       is the number of the current window.  This either appends or overwrites
       the  file if it exists. See below.  If the option -h is specified, dump
       also the contents of the scrollback buffer.

       hardcopy_append on|off

       If set to "on", screen will append to the "hardcopy.n" files created by
       the  command  "C-a h", otherwise these files are overwritten each time.
       Default is `off'.

       hardcopydir directory

       Defines a directory where hardcopy files  will  be  placed.  If  unset,
       hardcopys are dumped in screen's current working directory.

       hardstatus [on|off]
       hardstatus [always]lastline|message|ignore [string]
       hardstatus string [string]

       This  command  configures the use and emulation of the terminal's hard-
       status line. The first form toggles whether screen will use  the  hard-
       ware  status  line  to  display  messages. If the flag is set to `off',
       these messages are overlaid in reverse video mode at the display  line.
       The default setting is `on'.

       The  second form tells screen what to do if the terminal doesn't have a
       hardstatus line (i.e. the  termcap/terminfo  capabilities  "hs",  "ts",
       "fs" and "ds" are not set). If the type "lastline" is used, screen will
       reserve the last line of the display for the hardstatus. "message" uses
       screen's  message  mechanism and "ignore" tells screen never to display
       the hardstatus.  If you prepend the word "always" to  the  type  (e.g.,
       "alwayslastline"),  screen  will use the type even if the terminal sup-
       ports a hardstatus.

       Set the display height to a specified number of lines. When no argument
       is given it toggles between 24 and 42 lines display. You can also spec-
       ify a width if you want to change both values.   The  -w  option  tells
       screen  to  leave  the  display  size unchanged and just set the window
       size, -d vice versa.

       help [-c class]

       Not really a online help, but displays a help screen  showing  you  all
       the  key bindings.  The first pages list all the internal commands fol-
       lowed by their current bindings.  Subsequent  pages  will  display  the
       custom  commands,  one  command  per key.  Press space when you're done
       reading each page, or return to exit early.  All other  characters  are
       ignored.  If  the  "-c" option is given, display all bound commands for
       the specified command class.  See also "DEFAULT KEY BINDINGS" section.

       history

       Usually users work with a shell that allows  easy  access  to  previous
       commands.  For example csh has the command "!!" to repeat the last com-
       mand executed.  Screen allows you to have a primitive way of re-calling
       "the  command  that  started  ": You just type the first letter of that
       command, then hit `C-a {' and screen tries to find a previous line that
       matches  with  the  `prompt  character' to the left of the cursor. This
       line is pasted into this window's input queue.  Thus you have  a  crude
       command  history (made up by the visible window and its scrollback buf-
       fer).

       hstatus status

       Change the window's hardstatus line to the string status.

       idle [timeout [cmd args]]

       Sets a command that is run after the specified number of seconds  inac-
       tivity  is reached. This command will normally be the "blanker" command
       to create a screen blanker, but it can be any screen  command.   If  no
       command  is  specified,  only the timeout is set. A timeout of zero (or
       the special timeout off) disables  the  timer.   If  no  arguments  are
       given, the current settings are displayed.

       ignorecase [on|off]

       Tell  screen  to  ignore the case of characters in searches. Default is
       `off'. Without any options, the state of ignorecase is toggled.

       info

       Uses the message line to display some  information  about  the  current
       window:  the  cursor  position in the form "(column,row)" starting with
       "(1,1)", the terminal width and height plus the size of the  scrollback
       buffer  in  lines,  like  in  "(80,24)+50", the current state of window
       XON/XOFF flow control is shown like this (See also  section  FLOW  CON-
       tion-keypad mode, has output logging, activity  monitoring  or  partial
       redraw enabled.

       The  currently  active  character set (G0, G1, G2, or G3) and in square
       brackets the terminal character sets that are currently  designated  as
       G0  through  G3  is  shown.  If the window is in UTF-8 mode, the string
       "UTF-8" is shown instead.

       Additional modes depending on the type of the window are  displayed  at
       the end of the status line (See also chapter "WINDOW TYPES").
       If  the  state  machine  of  the  terminal emulator is in a non-default
       state, the info line is started with a string identifying  the  current
       state.
       For system information use the "time" command.

       ins_reg [key]

       No longer exists, use "paste" instead.

       kill

       Kill current window.
       If  there is an `exec' command running then it is killed. Otherwise the
       process (shell) running in the window receives a HANGUP condition,  the
       window  structure  is  removed  and  screen  (your display) switches to
       another window.  When the  last  window  is  destroyed,  screen  exits.
       After a kill screen switches to the previously displayed window.
       Note:  Emacs  users  should  keep  this command in mind, when killing a
       line.  It is recommended not to use "C-a" as the screen escape  key  or
       to rebind kill to "C-a K".

       lastmsg

       Redisplay  the  last  contents  of  the message/status line.  Useful if
       you're typing when a message appears, because  the  message  goes  away
       when you press a key (unless your terminal has a hardware status line).
       Refer to the commands "msgwait" and "msgminwait" for fine tuning.

       layout new [title]

       Create a new layout. The screen will change to one whole region and  be
       switched  to the blank window. From here, you build the regions and the
       windows they show as you desire. The new layout will be  numbered  with
       the  smallest available integer, starting with zero. You can optionally
       give a title to your new layout.  Otherwise, it  will  have  a  default
       title  of  "layout". You can always change the title later by using the
       command layout title.

       layout remove [n|title]

       Remove, or in other words, delete the specified layout. Either the num-
       ber or the title can be specified. Without either specification, screen
       will remove the current layout.

       Select the desired layout. Either the number or the title can be speci-
       fied.  Without  either  specification, screen will prompt and ask which
       screen is desired. To see which layouts are available, use  the  layout
       show command.

       layout show

       List  on  the  message line the number(s) and title(s) of the available
       layout(s). The current layout is flagged.

       layout title [title]

       Change or display the title of the current layout. A string given  will
       be  used to name the layout. Without any options, the current title and
       number is displayed on the message line.

       layout number [n]

       Change or display the number of the current layout.  An  integer  given
       will  be  used  to  number the layout. Without any options, the current
       number and title is displayed on the message line.

       layout attach [title|:last]

       Change or display which layout to reattach  back  to.  The  default  is
       :last, which tells screen to reattach back to the last used layout just
       before detachment. By supplying a title, You  can  instruct  screen  to
       reattach  to  a  particular layout regardless which one was used at the
       time of detachment. Without any options, the layout to reattach to will
       be shown in the message line.

       layout save [n|title]

       Remember  the  current  arrangement  of regions. When used, screen will
       remember the arrangement of vertically and horizontally split  regions.
       This  arrangement  is  restored  when a screen session is reattached or
       switched back from a different layout.  If  the  session  ends  or  the
       screen  process dies, the layout arrangements are lost. The layout dump
       command should help in this siutation. If a number  or  title  is  sup-
       plied,  screen will remember the arrangement of that particular layout.
       Without any options, screen will remember the current layout.

       Saving your regions can be  done  automatically  by  using  the  layout
       autosave command.

       layout autosave [on|off]

       Change  or  display  the  status  of  automatcally  saving layouts. The
       default is on, meaning when screen is detached or changed to a  differ-
       ent  layout,  the arrangement of regions and windows will be remembered
       at the time of change and restored upon return.  If autosave is set  to
       off,  that arrangement will only be restored to either to the last man-
       ual save, using layout save, or to when the layout was  first  created,
       to  a  single region with a single window. Without either an on or off,

                   C-a : layout dump /home/user/.screenrc

       will save or append the layout to the user's .screenrc file.

       license

       Display  the  disclaimer  page. This is done whenever screen is started
       without  options,  which  should  be  often  enough.   See   also   the
       "startup_message" command.

       lockscreen

       Lock  this  display.   Call  a  screenlock  program  (/local/bin/lck or
       /usr/bin/lock or a builtin if no other is available). Screen  does  not
       accept  any  command keys until this program terminates. Meanwhile pro-
       cesses in  the  windows  may  continue,  as  the  windows  are  in  the
       `detached'  state.  The  screenlock  program may be changed through the
       environment variable $LOCKPRG (which must be  set  in  the  shell  from
       which screen is started) and is executed with the user's uid and gid.
       Warning:  When you leave other shells unlocked and you have no password
       set on screen, the lock is void: One could  easily  re-attach  from  an
       unlocked shell. This feature should rather be called `lockterminal'.

       log [on|off]

       Start/stop writing output of the current window to a file "screenlog.n"
       in the window's default directory, where n is the number of the current
       window.  This filename can be changed with the `logfile' command. If no
       parameter is given, the state of logging is toggled. The session log is
       appended to the previous contents of the file if it already exists. The
       current contents and the contents of the  scrollback  history  are  not
       included in the session log.  Default is `off'.

       logfile filename
       logfile flush secs

       Defines the name the log files will get. The default is "screenlog.%n".
       The second form changes the number of seconds screen will  wait  before
       flushing the logfile buffer to the file-system. The default value is 10
       seconds.

       login [on|off]

       Adds or removes the entry in the utmp database  file  for  the  current
       window.  This controls if the window is `logged in'.  When no parameter
       is given, the login state of the window is  toggled.   Additionally  to
       that  toggle,  it  is convenient having a `log in' and a `log out' key.
       E.g. `bind I login on' and `bind O login off' will map these keys to be
       C-a  I  and C-a O.  The default setting (in config.h.in) should be "on"
       for a screen that runs under suid-root.  Use the "deflogin" command  to
       change  the default login state for new windows. Both commands are only
       present when screen has been compiled with utmp support.


       mapdefault

       Tell  screen  that the next input character should only be looked up in
       the default bindkey table. See also "bindkey".

       mapnotnext

       Like mapdefault, but don't even look in the default bindkey table.

       maptimeout [timeout]

       Set the inter-character timer for input sequence detection to a timeout
       of  timeout  ms. The default timeout is 300ms. Maptimeout with no argu-
       ments shows the current setting.  See also "bindkey".

       markkeys string

       This is a method of changing the keymap  used  for  copy/history  mode.
       The  string  is made up of oldchar=newchar pairs which are separated by
       `:'. Example: The string "B=^B:F=^F" will change the keys `C-b' and `C-
       f' to the vi style binding (scroll up/down fill page).  This happens to
       be the  default  binding  for  `B'  and  `F'.   The  command  "markkeys
       h=^B:l=^F:$=^E" would set the mode for an emacs-style binding.  If your
       terminal sends characters, that cause you to abort copy mode, then this
       command  may help by binding these characters to do nothing.  The no-op
       character is `@' and is used like this: "markkeys @=L=H" if you do  not
       want to use the `H' or `L' commands any longer.  As shown in this exam-
       ple, multiple keys can be assigned to one function in a  single  state-
       ment.

       maxwin num

       Set  the  maximum  window  number  screen  will  create. Doesn't affect
       already existing windows. The number can be increased only  when  there
       are no existing windows.

       meta

       Insert  the  command  character  (C-a)  in  the  current window's input
       stream.

       monitor [on|off]

       Toggles activity monitoring of windows.  When monitoring is  turned  on
       and  an  affected  window  is  switched  into  the background, you will
       receive the activity notification message in the  status  line  at  the
       first  sign of output and the window will also be marked with an `@' in
       the window-status display.  Monitoring is initially off  for  all  win-
       dows.

       mousetrack [on|off]

       This  command  determines  whether  screen will watch for mouse clicks.
       Defines the time a message is displayed if screen is not  disturbed  by
       other activity. The default is 5 seconds.

       multiuser on|off

       Switch between singleuser and multiuser mode. Standard screen operation
       is singleuser. In  multiuser  mode  the  commands  `acladd',  `aclchg',
       `aclgrp'  and  `acldel' can be used to enable (and disable) other users
       accessing this screen session.

       nethack on|off

       Changes the kind of error messages used by screen.  When you are famil-
       iar  with  the game "nethack", you may enjoy the nethack-style messages
       which will often blur the facts a little, but are much funnier to read.
       Anyway, standard messages often tend to be unclear as well.
       This  option  is only available if screen was compiled with the NETHACK
       flag defined. The default setting is then determined by the presence of
       the environment variable $NETHACKOPTIONS and the file ~/.nethackrc - if
       either one is present, the default is on.

       next

       Switch to the next window.  This command  can  be  used  repeatedly  to
       cycle through the list of windows.

       nonblock [on|off|numsecs]

       Tell  screen  how to deal with user interfaces (displays) that cease to
       accept output. This can happen if a user presses ^S or a TCP/modem con-
       nection gets cut but no hangup is received. If nonblock is off (this is
       the default) screen waits until the display restarts to accept the out-
       put.  If  nonblock is on, screen waits until the timeout is reached (on
       is treated as 1s). If the display  still  doesn't  receive  characters,
       screen will consider it "blocked" and stop sending characters to it. If
       at some time it restarts to accept characters, screen will unblock  the
       display and redisplay the updated window contents.

       number [[+|-]n]

       Change  the  current  window's number. If the given number n is already
       used by another window, both windows  exchange  their  numbers.  If  no
       argument  is specified, the current window number (and title) is shown.
       Using `+' or `-' will change the window's number by the relative amount
       specified.

       obuflimit [limit]

       If  the  output buffer contains more bytes than the specified limit, no
       more data will be read from the windows. The default value is  256.  If
       you  have  a  fast  display (like xterm), you can set it to some higher
       value. If no argument is specified, the current setting is displayed.

       only
       current  window.   To immediately affect all windows use the allpartial
       command.  Default is `off', of course.  This default is fixed, as there
       is currently no defpartial command.

       password [crypted_pw]

       Present a crypted password in your ".screenrc" file and screen will ask
       for it, whenever someone attempts to resume a detached. This is  useful
       if  you  have  privileged programs running under screen and you want to
       protect your session from reattach attempts by another user  masquerad-
       ing as your uid (i.e. any superuser.)  If no crypted password is speci-
       fied, screen prompts twice for typing a password and places its encryp-
       tion  in  the  paste buffer.  Default is `none', this disables password
       checking.

       paste [registers [dest_reg]]

       Write the (concatenated) contents of the  specified  registers  to  the
       stdin  queue  of the current window. The register '.' is treated as the
       paste buffer. If no parameter is given the user is prompted for a  sin-
       gle  register  to paste.  The paste buffer can be filled with the copy,
       history and readbuf commands.  Other registers can be filled  with  the
       register, readreg and paste commands.  If paste is called with a second
       argument, the contents of the specified registers is  pasted  into  the
       named  destination  register  rather than the window. If '.' is used as
       the second argument, the displays  paste  buffer  is  the  destination.
       Note,  that "paste" uses a wide variety of resources: Whenever a second
       argument is specified no current window  is  needed.  When  the  source
       specification only contains registers (not the paste buffer) then there
       need not be a current display (terminal attached), as the registers are
       a global resource. The paste buffer exists once for every user.

       pastefont [on|off]

       Tell  screen  to  include  font  information  in  the paste buffer. The
       default is not to do so. This command is especially  useful  for  multi
       character fonts like kanji.

       pow_break

       Reopen  the  window's  terminal  line  and  send a break condition. See
       `break'.

       pow_detach

       Power detach.  Mainly the same as detach, but also sends a HANGUP  sig-
       nal  to  the  parent process of screen.  CAUTION: This will result in a
       logout, when screen was started from your login shell.

       pow_detach_msg [message]

       The message specified here is output whenever a `Power detach' was per-
       formed.  It  may  be  used  as a replacement for a logout message or to
       reset baud rate, etc.  Without parameter, the current message is shown.
       current  setting.  The ansi sequence ESC \ ends printing and closes the
       pipe.
       Warning: Be careful with this command! If other user have write  access
       to your terminal, they will be able to fire off print commands.

       process [key]

       Stuff the contents of the specified register into screen's input queue.
       If no argument is given you are prompted for a register name. The  text
       is  parsed  as  if  it had been typed in from the user's keyboard. This
       command can be used to bind multiple actions to a single key.

       quit

       Kill all windows and terminate screen.  Note that on VT100-style termi-
       nals  the keys C-4 and C-\ are identical.  This makes the default bind-
       ings dangerous: Be careful not to type C-a C-4  when  selecting  window
       no.  4.  Use the empty bind command (as in "bind '^\'") to remove a key
       binding.

       readbuf [-e encoding] [filename]

       Reads the contents of the specified file into the  paste  buffer.   You
       can tell screen the encoding of the file via the -e option.  If no file
       is specified, the screen-exchange filename is used.  See also  "buffer-
       file" command.

       readreg [-e encoding] [register [filename]]

       Does  one of two things, dependent on number of arguments: with zero or
       one arguments it it duplicates the paste buffer contents into the  reg-
       ister  specified  or entered at the prompt. With two arguments it reads
       the contents of the named file into the register, just as readbuf reads
       the  screen-exchange  file  into the paste buffer.  You can tell screen
       the encoding of the file via the -e option.  The following example will
       paste the system's password file into the screen window (using register
       p, where a copy remains):

                   C-a : readreg p /etc/passwd
                   C-a : paste p

       redisplay

       Redisplay the current window. Needed to get a full  redisplay  when  in
       partial redraw mode.

       register [-e encoding] key string

       Save  the  specified  string  to the register key.  The encoding of the
       string can be specified via the -e option.  See also the  "paste"  com-
       mand.

       remove

       for  monitor  is currently "=b " (bold, active colors), for bell "=ub "
       (underline, bold and active colors), and "=u " for silence.

       reset

       Reset the virtual  terminal  to  its  "power-on"  values.  Useful  when
       strange  settings  (like  scroll regions or graphics character set) are
       left over from an application.

       resize

       Resize the current region. The space will be removed from or  added  to
       the region below or if there's not enough space from the region above.

              resize +N   increase current region height by N

              resize -N   decrease current region height by N

              resize  N   set current region height to N

              resize  =   make all windows equally high

              resize  max maximize current region height

              resize  min minimize current region height

       screen [-opts] [n] [cmd [args]|//group]

       Establish  a  new  window.  The flow-control options (-f, -fn and -fa),
       title (a.k.a.) option (-t), login options (-l and -ln) , terminal  type
       option  (-T <term>), the all-capability-flag (-a) and scrollback option
       (-h <num>) may be specified with each command.  The option  (-M)  turns
       monitoring on for this window.  The option (-L) turns output logging on
       for this window.  If an optional number n in the range  0..MAXWIN-1  is
       given, the window number n is assigned to the newly created window (or,
       if this number is already in-use, the next  available  number).   If  a
       command is specified after "screen", this command (with the given argu-
       ments) is started in the window; otherwise, a  shell  is  created.   If
       //group  is supplied, a container-type window is created in which other
       windows may be created inside it.

       Thus, if your ".screenrc" contains the lines

                   # example for .screenrc:
                   screen 1
                   screen -fn -t foobar -L 2 telnet foobar

       screen creates a shell window (in window #1) and a window with a TELNET
       connection  to the machine foobar (with no flow-control using the title
       "foobar" in window #2) and will write a logfile ("screenlog.2") of  the
       telnet session.  Note, that unlike previous versions of screen no addi-
       tional default window is created when "screen" commands are included in
       your  ".screenrc"  file.  When  the initialization is completed, screen
       switches to the last window specified in your  .screenrc  file  or,  if

       Switch to the window identified by WindowID.  This can be a prefix of a
       window title (alphanumeric window name) or a window number.  The param-
       eter  is  optional  and if omitted, you get prompted for an identifier.
       When a new  window  is  established,  the  first  available  number  is
       assigned  to  this  window.  Thus, the first window can be activated by
       "select 0".  The number of windows is limited at  compile-time  by  the
       MAXWIN  configuration  parameter (which defaults to 40).  There are two
       special WindowIDs, "-"  selects  the  internal  blank  window  and  "."
       selects  the current window. The latter is useful if used with screen's
       "-X" option.

       sessionname [name]

       Rename the current session. Note, that  for  "screen  -list"  the  name
       shows up with the process-id prepended. If the argument "name" is omit-
       ted, the name of this session is displayed. Caution: The $STY  environ-
       ment  variables will still reflect the old name in pre-existing shells.
       This may result in confusion. Use of this command is generally discour-
       aged.  Use  the "-S" command-line option if you want to name a new ses-
       sion.  The default is constructed from the tty and host names.

       setenv [var [string]]

       Set the environment variable var to value string.  If only var is spec-
       ified,  the  user  will be prompted to enter a value.  If no parameters
       are specified, the user will be prompted for both variable  and  value.
       The environment is inherited by all subsequently forked shells.

       setsid [on|off]

       Normally screen uses different sessions and process groups for the win-
       dows. If setsid is turned off, this is not done anymore and all windows
       will  be  in the same process group as the screen backend process. This
       also breaks job-control, so be careful.  The default is on, of  course.
       This command is probably useful only in rare circumstances.

       shell command

       Set  the  command to be used to create a new shell.  This overrides the
       value of the environment variable $SHELL.  This is useful if you'd like
       to  run a tty-enhancer which is expecting to execute the program speci-
       fied in $SHELL. If the command begins with a '-' character,  the  shell
       will be started as a login-shell.

       shelltitle title

       Set  the  title for all shells created during startup or by the C-A C-c
       command.  For details about what a title is, see the  discussion  enti-
       tled "TITLES (naming windows)".

       silence [on|off|sec]

       Toggles  silence  monitoring of windows.  When silence is turned on and

       This  command will pause the execution of a .screenrc file for num sec-
       onds.  Keyboard activity will end the sleep.  It may be  used  to  give
       users a chance to read the messages output by "echo".

       slowpaste msec

       Define  the  speed at which text is inserted into the current window by
       the paste ("C-a ]") command.  If the slowpaste value is nonzero text is
       written  character by character.  screen will make a pause of msec mil-
       liseconds after each single character write to allow the application to
       process its input. Only use slowpaste if your underlying system exposes
       flow control problems while pasting large amounts of text.

       source file

       Read and execute commands from file file. Source commands may be nested
       to  a  maximum  recursion level of ten. If file is not an absolute path
       and screen is already processing a source command, the parent directory
       of  the  running source command file is used to search for the new com-
       mand file before screen's current directory.

       Note that termcap/terminfo/termcapinfo commands only  work  at  startup
       and  reattach  time,  so  they must be reached via the default screenrc
       files to have an effect.

       sorendition [attr [color]]

       This command is deprecated. See "rendition so" instead.

       split [-v]

       Split the current region into two new ones. All regions on the  display
       are  resized  to make room for the new region. The blank window is dis-
       played on the new region. Splits are made  horizontally  unless  -v  is
       used.  Use  the  "remove"  or the "only" command to delete regions. Use
       "focus" to toggle between regions.

       startup_message on|off

       Select whether you want to see the  copyright  notice  during  startup.
       Default is `on', as you probably noticed.

       stuff [string]

       Stuff  the  string  string  in  the input buffer of the current window.
       This is like the "paste" command but with much less overhead.   Without
       a  parameter,  screen  will  prompt  for a string to stuff.  You cannot
       paste large buffers with the "stuff" command. It is most useful for key
       bindings. See also "bindkey".

       su [username [password [password2]]]

       Substitute  the  user of a display. The command prompts for all parame-
       is suspended. This feature relies on the shell being  able  to  do  job
       control.

       term term

       In each window's environment screen opens, the $TERM variable is set to
       "screen" by default.  But when no description for "screen" is installed
       in  the  local  termcap or terminfo data base, you set $TERM to - say -
       "vt100". This won't do much harm, as screen is  VT100/ANSI  compatible.
       The  use  of the "term" command is discouraged for non-default purpose.
       That is, one may want to specify special $TERM  settings  (e.g.  vt100)
       for  the  next  "screen  rlogin  othermachine" command. Use the command
       "screen -T vt100 rlogin othermachine" rather than setting and resetting
       the default.

       termcap term terminal-tweaks [window-tweaks]
       terminfo term terminal-tweaks [window-tweaks]
       termcapinfo term terminal-tweaks [window-tweaks]

       Use  this command to modify your terminal's termcap entry without going
       through all the hassles involved in creating a  custom  termcap  entry.
       Plus,  you  can optionally customize the termcap generated for the win-
       dows.  You have to place these commands in one of the screenrc  startup
       files, as they are meaningless once the terminal emulator is booted.
       If  your  system  works uses the terminfo database rather than termcap,
       screen will understand the  `terminfo'  command,  which  has  the  same
       effects  as the `termcap' command.  Two separate commands are provided,
       as there are subtle syntactic differences, e.g. when parameter interpo-
       lation (using `%') is required. Note that termcap names of the capabil-
       ities have to be used with the `terminfo' command.
       In many cases, where the arguments are valid in both terminfo and term-
       cap  syntax,  you  can  use  the command `termcapinfo', which is just a
       shorthand for a pair of `termcap' and `terminfo' commands with  identi-
       cal arguments.

       The  first  argument  specifies which terminal(s) should be affected by
       this definition.  You can specify multiple terminal names by separating
       them  with `|'s.  Use `*' to match all terminals and `vt*' to match all
       terminals that begin with "vt".

       Each tweak argument contains one or more termcap defines (separated  by
       `:'s)  to  be  inserted  at the start of the appropriate termcap entry,
       enhancing it or overriding existing values.  The first  tweak  modifies
       your  terminal's  termcap,  and contains definitions that your terminal
       uses to perform certain functions.  Specify a null string to leave this
       unchanged (e.g. '').  The second (optional) tweak modifies all the win-
       dow termcaps, and should contain definitions  that  screen  understands
       (see the "VIRTUAL TERMINAL" section).

       Some examples:

              termcap xterm*  LP:hs@

       Informs  screen  that  all  terminals that begin with `xterm' have firm
       this  is a VT102 or VT220.  (You must specify Z0 and Z1 in your termcap
       to use the width-changing commands.)

              termcap vt100  ""  l0=PF1:l1=PF2:l2=PF3:l3=PF4

       This leaves your vt100 termcap alone and adds the function  key  labels
       to each window's termcap entry.

              termcap h19|z19  am@:im=\E@:ei=\EO  dc=\E[P

       Takes a h19 or z19 termcap and turns off auto-margins (am@) and enables
       the insert mode (im) and end-insert (ei) capabilities (the `@'  in  the
       `im' string is after the `=', so it is part of the string).  Having the
       `im' and `ei' definitions put into your terminal's termcap  will  cause
       screen  to  automatically  advertise the character-insert capability in
       each window's termcap.  Each window will also get the  delete-character
       capability  (dc) added to its termcap, which screen will translate into
       a line-update for the terminal (we're  pretending  it  doesn't  support
       character deletion).

       If  you  would  like  to fully specify each window's termcap entry, you
       should instead set the $SCREENCAP variable  prior  to  running  screen.
       See  the  discussion  on the "VIRTUAL TERMINAL" in this manual, and the
       termcap(5) man page for more information on termcap definitions.

       time [string]

       Uses the message line to display the time of day, the  host  name,  and
       the  load  averages  over 1, 5, and 15 minutes (if this is available on
       your system).  For window specific information, use "info".

       If a string is specified, it changes the format of the time report like
       it  is described in the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter. Screen uses a default
       of "%c:%s %M %d %H%? %l%?".

       title [windowtitle]

       Set the name of the current window to windowtitle. If no name is speci-
       fied, screen prompts for one. This command was known as `aka' in previ-
       ous releases.

       unbindall

       Unbind all the bindings. This can be useful when screen is used  solely
       for its detaching abilities, such as when letting a console application
       run as a daemon. If, for some reason, it is necessary to bind  commands
       after this, use 'screen -X'.

       unsetenv var

       Unset an environment variable.

       utf8 [on|off [on|off]]

       line  when the bell character (^G) is received.  Visual bell support of
       a terminal is defined by the termcap variable `vb' (terminfo: 'flash').
       Per default, vbell is off, thus the audible bell  is  used.   See  also
       `bell_msg'.

       vbell_msg [message]

       Sets  the visual bell message. message is printed to the status line if
       the window receives a bell character (^G), vbell is set  to  "on",  but
       the  terminal  does  not support a visual bell.  The default message is
       "Wuff, Wuff!!".  Without a parameter, the current message is shown.

       vbellwait sec

       Define a delay in seconds after each display of  screen's  visual  bell
       message. The default is 1 second.

       verbose [on|off]

       If  verbose is switched on, the command name is echoed, whenever a win-
       dow is created (or resurrected from  zombie  state).  Default  is  off.
       Without a parameter, the current setting is shown.

       version

       Print the current version and the compile date in the status line.

       wall message

       Write  a message to all displays. The message will appear in the termi-
       nal's status line.

       width [-w|-d] [cols [lines]]

       Toggle the window width between 80 and 132 columns or set  it  to  cols
       columns  if an argument is specified.  This requires a capable terminal
       and the termcap entries "Z0" and "Z1".  See the "termcap"  command  for
       more  information.  You  can  also  specify a new height if you want to
       change both values.  The -w option tells screen to  leave  the  display
       size unchanged and just set the window size, -d vice versa.

       windowlist [-b] [-m] [-g]
       windowlist string [string]
       windowlist title [title]

       Display  all windows in a table for visual window selection.  If screen
       was in a window group, screen will back out of the group and then  dis-
       play the windows in that group.  If the -b option is given, screen will
       switch to the blank window before presenting the list, so that the cur-
       rent window is also selectable.  The -m option changes the order of the
       windows, instead of sorting by window numbers screen uses its  internal
       most-recently-used  list.   The  -g option will show the windows inside
       any groups in that level and downwards.

         n Repeat search in the forward direction.
         N Repeat search in the backward direction.
         m Toggle MRU.
         g Toggle group nesting.
         a All window view.
         C-h or backspace Back out the group.
         , Switch numbers with the previous window.
         . Switch numbers with the next window.
         K Kill that window.
         space or enter Select that window.

       The  table  format can be changed with the string and title option, the
       title is displayed as table heading, while the lines are made by  using
       the  string  setting.  The default setting is "Num Name%=Flags" for the
       title and "%3n %t%=%f" for the lines.  See the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter
       for more codes (e.g. color settings).

       "Windowlist"  needs  a region size of at least 10 characters wide and 6
       characters high in order to display.

       windows

       Uses the message line to display a list of all the windows.  Each  win-
       dow  is listed by number with the name of process that has been started
       in the window (or its title); the current window is marked with a  `*';
       the  previous  window  is  marked  with a `-'; all the windows that are
       "logged in" are marked  with  a  `$';  a  background  window  that  has
       received a bell is marked with a `!'; a background window that is being
       monitored and has had activity occur is marked with an  `@';  a  window
       which  has output logging turned on is marked with `(L)'; windows occu-
       pied by other users are marked with `&'; windows in  the  zombie  state
       are marked with `Z'.  If this list is too long to fit on the terminal's
       status line only the portion around the current window is displayed.

       wrap [on|off]

       Sets the line-wrap setting for the current window.  When  line-wrap  is
       on,  the second consecutive printable character output at the last col-
       umn of a line will wrap to the start of  the  following  line.   As  an
       added feature, backspace (^H) will also wrap through the left margin to
       the previous line.  Default is `on'. Without any options, the state  of
       wrap is toggled.

       writebuf [-e encoding] [filename]

       Writes  the  contents of the paste buffer to the specified file, or the
       public accessible screen-exchange file if no filename is given. This is
       thought  of  as a primitive means of communication between screen users
       on the same host. If an encoding  is  specified  the  paste  buffer  is
       recoded on the fly to match the encoding.  The filename can be set with
       the bufferfile command and defaults to "/tmp/screen-exchange".

       writelock [on|off|auto]

       Insert  a  CTRL-s  / CTRL-q character to the stdin queue of the current
       window.

       zmodem [off|auto|catch|pass]
       zmodem sendcmd [string]
       zmodem recvcmd [string]

       Define zmodem support for  screen.  Screen  understands  two  different
       modes  when  it  detects  a zmodem request: "pass" and "catch".  If the
       mode is set to "pass", screen will relay all data to the attacher until
       the end of the transmission is reached.  In "catch" mode screen acts as
       a zmodem endpoint and starts the corresponding rz/sz commands.  If  the
       mode  is  set to "auto", screen will use "catch" if the window is a tty
       (e.g. a serial line), otherwise it will use "pass".
       You can define the templates screen uses in "catch" mode via the second
       and the third form.
       Note also that this is an experimental feature.

       zombie [keys[onerror]]
       defzombie [keys]

       Per  default screen windows are removed from the window list as soon as
       the windows process (e.g. shell) exits. When a string of  two  keys  is
       specified  to  the  zombie  command,  `dead' windows will remain in the
       list.  The kill command may be used to remove such a  window.  Pressing
       the first key in the dead window has the same effect. When pressing the
       second key, screen will attempt to resurrect the  window.  The  process
       that  was initially running in the window will be launched again. Call-
       ing zombie without parameters will clear the zombie setting, thus  mak-
       ing windows disappear when their process exits.

       As  the  zombie-setting  is  manipulated globally for all windows, this
       command should only be called defzombie. Until we need this  as  a  per
       window setting, the commands zombie and defzombie are synonymous.

       Optionally  you  can  put  the word "onerror" after the keys. This will
       cause screen to monitor exit status of the process running in the  win-
       dow.  If it exits normally ('0'), the window disappears. Any other exit
       value causes the window to become a zombie.


THE MESSAGE LINE
       Screen displays informational messages and other diagnostics in a  mes-
       sage  line.   While this line is distributed to appear at the bottom of
       the screen, it can be defined to appear at the top of the screen during
       compilation.   If  your terminal has a status line defined in its term-
       cap, screen will use this for displaying its messages, otherwise a line
       of  the  current screen will be temporarily overwritten and output will
       be momentarily interrupted. The message line is  automatically  removed
       after  a few seconds delay, but it can also be removed early (on termi-
       nals without a status line) by beginning to type.

       The message line facility can be used by an application running in  the
       current  window  by means of the ANSI Privacy message control sequence.
       window is created. The different window types are all special cases  of
       the  normal  type.  They have been added in order to allow screen to be
       used efficiently as a console multiplexer with 100 or more windows.


       o  The normal window contains a shell  (default,  if  no  parameter  is
          given)  or  any  other  system command that could be executed from a
          shell (e.g.  slogin, etc)


       o  If a tty (character special device) name (e.g. "/dev/ttya") is spec-
          ified  as the first parameter, then the window is directly connected
          to this device.  This window  type  is  similar  to  "screen  cu  -l
          /dev/ttya".   Read  and write access is required on the device node,
          an exclusive open is attempted on the node to  mark  the  connection
          line  as  busy.   An  optional  parameter is allowed consisting of a
          comma separated list of flags in the notation used by stty(1):

          <baud_rate>
                 Usually 300, 1200, 9600 or 19200. This  affects  transmission
                 as well as receive speed.

          cs8 or cs7
                 Specify the transmission of eight (or seven) bits per byte.

          ixon or -ixon
                 Enables  (or  disables) software flow-control (CTRL-S/CTRL-Q)
                 for sending data.

          ixoff or -ixoff
                 Enables (or disables)  software  flow-control  for  receiving
                 data.

          istrip or -istrip
                 Clear (or keep) the eight bit in each received byte.

          You  may  want  to  specify  as many of these options as applicable.
          Unspecified options cause the terminal driver to make up the parame-
          ter values of the connection.  These values are system dependent and
          may be in defaults or values saved from a previous connection.

          For tty windows, the info command shows some of  the  modem  control
          lines  in  the  status  line. These may include `RTS', `CTS', 'DTR',
          `DSR', `CD' and more.  This depends on the available  ioctl()'s  and
          system  header  files as well as the on the physical capabilities of
          the serial board.  Signals that  are  logical  low  (inactive)  have
          their name preceded by an exclamation mark (!), otherwise the signal
          is logical high (active).  Signals not supported by the hardware but
          available to the ioctl() interface are usually shown low.

          When  the  CLOCAL status bit is true, the whole set of modem signals
          is placed inside curly braces ({ and }).  When the CRTSCTS or  TIOC-
          SOFTCAR bit is set, the signals `CTS' or `CD' are shown in parenthe-
          sis, respectively.
          For telnet windows, the command info shows details about the connec-
          tion in square brackets ([ and ]) at the end of the status line.

          b      BINARY. The connection is in binary mode.

          e      ECHO. Local echo is disabled.

          c      SGA. The connection is in `character  mode'  (default:  `line
                 mode').

          t      TTYPE.  The  terminal  type  has been requested by the remote
                 host.  Screen sends the name "screen" unless instructed  oth-
                 erwise (see also the command `term').

          w      NAWS. The remote site is notified about window size changes.

          f      LFLOW.  The  remote  host will send flow control information.
                 (Ignored at the moment.)

          Additional flags for debugging are x, t and n (XDISPLOC, TSPEED  and
          NEWENV).

          For  telnet  windows,  the  command  break sends the telnet code IAC
          BREAK (decimal 243) to the remote host.


          This window type is only available if screen was compiled  with  the
          BUILTIN_TELNET option defined.



STRING ESCAPES
       Screen provides an escape mechanism to insert information like the cur-
       rent time into messages or file names. The escape character is '%' with
       one  exception:  inside  of  a  window's hardstatus '^%' ('^E') is used
       instead.

       Here is the full list of supported escapes:

       %      the escape character itself

       a      either 'am' or 'pm'

       A      either 'AM' or 'PM'

       c      current time HH:MM in 24h format

       C      current time HH:MM in 12h format

       d      day number

       D      weekday name

       E      sets %? to true if the escape character has been pressed.
       m      month number

       M      month name

       n      window number

       P      sets %? to true if the current region is in copy/paste mode

       S      session name

       s      seconds

       t      window title

       u      all other users on this window

       w      all window numbers and names. With '-' qualifier: up to the cur-
              rent window; with '+' qualifier: starting with the window  after
              the current one.

       W      all window numbers and names except the current one

       y      last two digits of the year number

       Y      full year number

       ?      the  part  to  the  next  '%?' is displayed only if a '%' escape
              inside the part expands to a non-empty string

       :      else part of '%?'

       =      pad the string to the display's width (like TeX's hfill).  If  a
              number  is  specified,  pad  to  the  percentage of the window's
              width.  A '0' qualifier tells screen  to  treat  the  number  as
              absolute  position.  You can specify to pad relative to the last
              absolute pad position by adding a '+' qualifier or to pad  rela-
              tive to the right margin by using '-'. The padding truncates the
              string if the specified position lies before the  current  posi-
              tion. Add the 'L' qualifier to change this.

       <      same as '%=' but just do truncation, do not fill with spaces

       >      mark  the  current  text  position for the next truncation. When
              screen needs to do truncation, it tries to do it in a  way  that
              the  marked  position  gets moved to the specified percentage of
              the output area. (The area starts from  the  last  absolute  pad
              position  and ends with the position specified by the truncation
              operator.) The 'L' qualifier tells screen to mark the  truncated
              parts with ''.

       {      attribute/color modifier string terminated by the next "}"

       `      Substitute  with  the output of a 'backtick' command. The length
              qualifier is misused to identify one of the commands.

       change types are known:

       +      add the specified set to the current attributes

       -      remove the set from the current attributes

       !      invert the set in the current attributes

       =      change the current attributes to the specified set

       The  attribute set can either be specified as a hexadecimal number or a
       combination of the following letters:

       d      dim
       u      underline
       b      bold
       r      reverse
       s      standout
       B      blinking

       Colors are coded either as a hexadecimal number or two letters specify-
       ing  the  desired  background and foreground color (in that order). The
       following colors are known:

       k      black
       r      red
       g      green
       y      yellow
       b      blue
       m      magenta
       c      cyan
       w      white
       d      default color
       .      leave color unchanged

       The capitalized versions of the letter specify bright colors.  You  can
       also  use the pseudo-color 'i' to set just the brightness and leave the
       color unchanged.
       A one digit/letter color description is treated as foreground or  back-
       ground  color  dependent  on the current attributes: if reverse mode is
       set, the background color is changed instead of the  foreground  color.
       If  you  don't  like this, prefix the color with a ".". If you want the
       same behavior for two-letter color descriptions, also prefix them  with
       a ".".
       As  a special case, "%{-}" restores the attributes and colors that were
       set before the last change was made (i.e., pops one level of the color-
       change stack).

       Examples:

       "G"    set color to bright green

       "+b r" use bold red

              Useful for "caption string".

FLOW-CONTROL
       Each window has a flow-control setting that determines how screen deals
       with the XON and XOFF characters (and perhaps the interrupt character).
       When  flow-control is turned off, screen ignores the XON and XOFF char-
       acters, which allows the user to send them to the  current  program  by
       simply  typing  them  (useful for the emacs editor, for instance).  The
       trade-off is that it will take longer for output from a  "normal"  pro-
       gram to pause in response to an XOFF.  With flow-control turned on, XON
       and XOFF characters are used to immediately pause  the  output  of  the
       current  window.   You  can  still send these characters to the current
       program, but you must use the appropriate two-character screen commands
       (typically  "C-a  q"  (xon) and "C-a s" (xoff)).  The xon/xoff commands
       are also useful for typing C-s and C-q past a terminal that  intercepts
       these characters.

       Each  window  has  an initial flow-control value set with either the -f
       option or the "defflow" .screenrc command. Per default the windows  are
       set  to  automatic  flow-switching.  It can then be toggled between the
       three states 'fixed on', 'fixed off' and 'automatic' interactively with
       the "flow" command bound to "C-a f".

       The  automatic  flow-switching  mode  deals with flow control using the
       TIOCPKT mode (like "rlogin" does). If the tty driver does  not  support
       TIOCPKT,  screen  tries to find out the right mode based on the current
       setting of the application keypad - when it is enabled, flow-control is
       turned  off  and visa versa.  Of course, you can still manipulate flow-
       control manually when needed.

       If you're running with flow-control enabled and find that pressing  the
       interrupt  key  (usually  C-c)  does  not  interrupt  the display until
       another 6-8 lines have scrolled by, try running screen with the "inter-
       rupt"  option  (add  the "interrupt" flag to the "flow" command in your
       .screenrc, or use the -i command-line option).  This causes the  output
       that screen has accumulated from the interrupted program to be flushed.
       One disadvantage is that the virtual  terminal's  memory  contains  the
       non-flushed  version of the output, which in rare cases can cause minor
       inaccuracies in the output.  For example, if  you  switch  screens  and
       return,  or update the screen with "C-a l" you would see the version of
       the output you would have gotten without "interrupt" being  on.   Also,
       you  might need to turn off flow-control (or use auto-flow mode to turn
       it off automatically) when running a program that expects you  to  type
       the  interrupt  character  as input, as it is possible to interrupt the
       output of the virtual terminal to your physical terminal when flow-con-
       trol  is enabled.  If this happens, a simple refresh of the screen with
       "C-a l" will restore it.  Give each mode a try, and use whichever  mode
       you find more comfortable.



TITLES (naming windows)
       You can customize each window's name in the window display (viewed with
       the "windows" command (C-a w)) by setting it with one of the title com-
       also  bind  pre-defined  names  to keys with the "title" command to set
       things quickly without prompting.

       Finally, screen has a shell-specific heuristic that is enabled by  set-
       ting  the  window's  name to "search|name" and arranging to have a null
       title escape-sequence output as a part of your prompt.  The search por-
       tion  specifies  an end-of-prompt search string, while the name portion
       specifies the default shell name for the window.  If the name ends in a
       `:'  screen will add what it believes to be the current command running
       in the window to the end of the window's shell name (e.g.  "name:cmd").
       Otherwise  the  current command name supersedes the shell name while it
       is running.

       Here's how it works:  you must modify your shell  prompt  to  output  a
       null  title-escape-sequence  (<esc>k<esc>\)  as  a part of your prompt.
       The last part of your prompt must be the same as the string you  speci-
       fied  for the search portion of the title.  Once this is set up, screen
       will use the title-escape-sequence to clear the previous  command  name
       and  get  ready for the next command.  Then, when a newline is received
       from the shell, a search is made for the end of the prompt.  If  found,
       it  will grab the first word after the matched string and use it as the
       command name.  If the command name begins with either '!', '%', or  '^'
       screen  will  use  the  first  word on the following line (if found) in
       preference to the just-found name.  This helps  csh  users  get  better
       command names when using job control or history recall commands.

       Here's some .screenrc examples:

              screen -t top 2 nice top

       Adding  this line to your .screenrc would start a nice-d version of the
       "top" command in window 2 named "top" rather than "nice".

                   shelltitle '> |csh'
                   screen 1

       These commands would start a shell  with  the  given  shelltitle.   The
       title  specified  is an auto-title that would expect the prompt and the
       typed command to look something like the following:

              /usr/joe/src/dir> trn

       (it looks after the '> ' for the  command  name).   The  window  status
       would  show the name "trn" while the command was running, and revert to
       "csh" upon completion.

              bind R screen -t '% |root:' su

       Having this command in your .screenrc would bind the key sequence  "C-a
       R"  to the "su" command and give it an auto-title name of "root:".  For
       this auto-title to work, the screen could look something like this:

                   % !em
                   emacs file.c

       auto-title's  current setting (C-a E).  The third binding would set the
       current window's title to "(unknown)" (C-a u).

       One thing to keep in mind when adding a null  title-escape-sequence  to
       your  prompt  is that some shells (like the csh) count all the non-con-
       trol characters as part of the prompt's  length.   If  these  invisible
       characters  aren't  a  multiple  of  8 then backspacing over a tab will
       result in an incorrect display.  One way to get around this is to use a
       prompt like this:

              set prompt='^[[0000m^[k^[\% '

       The  escape-sequence  "<esc>[0000m"  not  only normalizes the character
       attributes, but all the zeros round the length of the invisible charac-
       ters  up  to  8.   Bash  users  will  probably  want to echo the escape
       sequence in the PROMPT_COMMAND:

              PROMPT_COMMAND='printf "\033k\033\134"'

       (I used "134" to output a `\' because of a bug in bash v1.04).



THE VIRTUAL TERMINAL
       Each window in a screen session emulates a VT100  terminal,  with  some
       extra  functions added. The VT100 emulator is hard-coded, no other ter-
       minal types can be emulated.
       Usually screen tries to emulate as much of the VT100/ANSI  standard  as
       possible.  But  if your terminal lacks certain capabilities, the emula-
       tion may not be complete. In these cases screen has to tell the  appli-
       cations  that  some  of the features are missing. This is no problem on
       machines using termcap, because screen can use the $TERMCAP variable to
       customize the standard screen termcap.

       But if you do a rlogin on another machine or your machine supports only
       terminfo this method fails. Because of this, screen  offers  a  way  to
       deal with these cases.  Here is how it works:

       When  screen  tries  to figure out a terminal name for itself, it first
       looks for an entry named "screen.<term>", where <term> is the  contents
       of your $TERM variable.  If no such entry exists, screen tries "screen"
       (or "screen-w" if the terminal is wide (132 cols or  more)).   If  even
       this entry cannot be found, "vt100" is used as a substitute.

       The idea is that if you have a terminal which doesn't support an impor-
       tant feature (e.g. delete char or clear to EOS) you  can  build  a  new
       termcap/terminfo  entry for screen (named "screen.<dumbterm>") in which
       this capability has been disabled. If this entry is installed  on  your
       machines  you  are able to do a rlogin and still keep the correct term-
       cap/terminfo entry.  The terminal name is put in the $TERM variable  of
       all new windows.  Screen also sets the $TERMCAP variable reflecting the
       capabilities of the virtual terminal emulated. Notice that, however, on
       machines using the terminfo database this variable has no effect.  Fur-
       thermore, the variable $WINDOW is set to the window number of each win-
       Also,  you can customize the $TERMCAP value used by screen by using the
       "termcap" .screenrc command, or by  defining  the  variable  $SCREENCAP
       prior to startup.  When the is latter defined, its value will be copied
       verbatim into each window's $TERMCAP variable.  This can either be  the
       full  terminal  definition,  or  a filename where the terminal "screen"
       (and/or "screen-w") is defined.

       Note that screen honors the "terminfo" .screenrc command if the  system
       uses the terminfo database rather than termcap.

       When  the  boolean  `G0' capability is present in the termcap entry for
       the terminal on which screen has been called, the terminal emulation of
       screen supports multiple character sets.  This allows an application to
       make use of, for instance, the VT100 graphics character set or national
       character sets.  The following control functions from ISO 2022 are sup-
       ported: lock shift G0 (SI), lock shift G1 (SO),  lock  shift  G2,  lock
       shift  G3, single shift G2, and single shift G3.  When a virtual termi-
       nal is created or reset, the ASCII character set is  designated  as  G0
       through  G3.  When the `G0' capability is present, screen evaluates the
       capabilities `S0', `E0', and `C0' if present. `S0' is the sequence  the
       terminal  uses  to  enable  and start the graphics character set rather
       than SI.  `E0' is the corresponding replacement for SO.  `C0'  gives  a
       character  by  character  translation  string that is used during semi-
       graphics mode. This string is built like the `acsc'  terminfo  capabil-
       ity.

       When the `po' and `pf' capabilities are present in the terminal's term-
       cap entry, applications running in a screen window can send  output  to
       the printer port of the terminal.  This allows a user to have an appli-
       cation in one window sending output to a printer connected to the  ter-
       minal,  while  all  other windows are still active (the printer port is
       enabled and disabled again for each  chunk  of  output).   As  a  side-
       effect,  programs  running  in different windows can send output to the
       printer simultaneously.  Data sent to the printer is not  displayed  in
       the window.  The info command displays a line starting `PRIN' while the
       printer is active.

       Screen maintains a hardstatus line for every window. If a  window  gets
       selected,  the  display's  hardstatus will be updated to match the win-
       dow's hardstatus line. If the display has no hardstatus the  line  will
       be  displayed as a standard screen message.  The hardstatus line can be
       changed   with   the   ANSI   Application   Program   Command    (APC):
       "ESC_<string>ESC\".  As  a  convenience  for  xterm  users the sequence
       "ESC]0..2;<string>^G" is also accepted.

       Some capabilities are only put into the $TERMCAP variable of  the  vir-
       tual  terminal  if  they can be efficiently implemented by the physical
       terminal.  For instance, `dl' (delete line) is only put into the $TERM-
       CAP  variable  if  the  terminal  supports either delete line itself or
       scrolling regions. Note that this may provoke confusion, when the  ses-
       sion  is  reattached  on a different terminal, as the value of $TERMCAP
       cannot be modified by parent processes.

       The "alternate screen" capability is not enabled by default.   Set  the
       ESC H                      Horizontal Tab Set

       ESC Z                      Send VT100 Identification String

       ESC 7                 (V)  Save Cursor and Attributes

       ESC 8                 (V)  Restore Cursor and Attributes

       ESC [s                (A)  Save Cursor and Attributes

       ESC [u                (A)  Restore Cursor and Attributes

       ESC c                      Reset to Initial State

       ESC g                      Visual Bell

       ESC Pn p                   Cursor Visibility (97801)

           Pn = 6                 Invisible

                7                 Visible

       ESC =                 (V)  Application Keypad Mode

       ESC >                 (V)  Numeric Keypad Mode

       ESC # 8               (V)  Fill Screen with E's

       ESC \                 (A)  String Terminator

       ESC ^                 (A)  Privacy Message String (Message Line)

       ESC !                      Global Message String (Message Line)

       ESC k                      A.k.a. Definition String

       ESC P                 (A)  Device  Control  String.   Outputs  a string
                                  directly to the host terminal without inter-
                                  pretation.

       ESC _                 (A)  Application Program Command (Hardstatus)

       ESC ] 0 ; string ^G   (A)  Operating  System Command (Hardstatus, xterm
                                  title hack)

       ESC ] 83 ; cmd ^G     (A)  Execute screen command. This only  works  if
                                  multi-user  support is compiled into screen.
                                  The pseudo-user ":window:" is used to  check
                                  the  access  control list. Use "addacl :win-
                                  dow: -rwx #?"  to  create  a  user  with  no
                                  rights and allow only the needed commands.

       Control-N             (A)  Lock Shift G1 (SO)

       ESC ) Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G1

       ESC * Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G2

       ESC + Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G3

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn H            Direct Cursor Addressing

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn f            same as above

       ESC [ Pn J                 Erase in Display

             Pn = None or 0       From Cursor to End of Screen

                  1               From Beginning of Screen to Cursor

                  2               Entire Screen

       ESC [ Pn K                 Erase in Line

             Pn = None or 0       From Cursor to End of Line

                  1               From Beginning of Line to Cursor

                  2               Entire Line

       ESC [ Pn X                 Erase character

       ESC [ Pn A                 Cursor Up

       ESC [ Pn B                 Cursor Down

       ESC [ Pn C                 Cursor Right

       ESC [ Pn D                 Cursor Left

       ESC [ Pn E                 Cursor next line

       ESC [ Pn F                 Cursor previous line

       ESC [ Pn G                 Cursor horizontal position

       ESC [ Pn `                 same as above

       ESC [ Pn d                 Cursor vertical position

       ESC [ Ps ;; Ps m           Select Graphic Rendition

             Ps = None or 0       Default Rendition

                  1               Bold

                  2          (A)  Faint

                  24         (A)  Not Underlined

                  25         (A)  Not Blinking

                  27         (A)  Positive Image

                  30         (A)  Foreground Black

                  31         (A)  Foreground Red

                  32         (A)  Foreground Green

                  33         (A)  Foreground Yellow

                  34         (A)  Foreground Blue

                  35         (A)  Foreground Magenta

                  36         (A)  Foreground Cyan

                  37         (A)  Foreground White

                  39         (A)  Foreground Default

                  40         (A)  Background Black



                  49         (A)  Background Default

       ESC [ Pn g                 Tab Clear

             Pn = None or 0       Clear Tab at Current Position

                  3               Clear All Tabs

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn r       (V)  Set Scrolling Region

       ESC [ Pn I            (A)  Horizontal Tab

       ESC [ Pn Z            (A)  Backward Tab

       ESC [ Pn L            (A)  Insert Line

       ESC [ Pn M            (A)  Delete Line

       ESC [ Pn @            (A)  Insert Character

       ESC [ Pn P            (A)  Delete Character

       ESC [ Pn S                 Scroll Scrolling Region Up

       ESC [ Pn T                 Scroll Scrolling Region Down

                  ?1         (V)  Application Cursor Keys

                  ?3         (V)  Change Terminal Width to 132 columns

                  ?5         (V)  Reverse Video

                  ?6         (V)  Origin Mode

                  ?7         (V)  Wrap Mode

                  ?9              X10 mouse tracking

                  ?25        (V)  Visible Cursor

                  ?47             Alternate Screen (old xterm code)

                  ?1000      (V)  VT200 mouse tracking

                  ?1047           Alternate Screen (new xterm code)

                  ?1049           Alternate Screen (new xterm code)

       ESC [ 5 i             (A)  Start relay to printer (ANSI Media Copy)

       ESC [ 4 i             (A)  Stop relay to printer (ANSI Media Copy)

       ESC [ 8 ; Ph ; Pw t        Resize  the  window  to  `Ph' lines and `Pw'
                                  columns (SunView special)

       ESC [ c                    Send VT100 Identification String

       ESC [ x                    Send Terminal Parameter Report

       ESC [ > c                  Send  VT220  Secondary   Device   Attributes
                                  String

       ESC [ 6 n                  Send Cursor Position Report



INPUT TRANSLATION
       In  order  to  do  a  full  VT100 emulation screen has to detect that a
       sequence of characters in the input stream was generated by a  keypress
       on  the  user's  keyboard  and  insert the VT100 style escape sequence.
       Screen has a very flexible way of doing this by making it  possible  to
       map  arbitrary commands on arbitrary sequences of characters. For stan-
       dard VT100 emulation the command will always insert  a  string  in  the
       input  buffer  of the window (see also command stuff in the command ta-
       ble).  Because the sequences generated by a keypress can change after a
       reattach  from  a  different terminal type, it is possible to bind com-
       mands to the termcap name of the keys.  Screen will insert the  correct
       binding  after  each  reattach.  See  the  bindkey  command for further
       details on the syntax and examples.

                                         stuff \033OD    (A)
       Function key 0        k0          stuff \033[10~
       Function key 1        k1          stuff \033OP
       Function key 2        k2          stuff \033OQ
       Function key 3        k3          stuff \033OR
       Function key 4        k4          stuff \033OS
       Function key 5        k5          stuff \033[15~
       Function key 6        k6          stuff \033[17~
       Function key 7        k7          stuff \033[18~
       Function key 8        k8          stuff \033[19~
       Function key 9        k9          stuff \033[20~
       Function key 10       k;          stuff \033[21~
       Function key 11       F1          stuff \033[23~
       Function key 12       F2          stuff \033[24~
       Home                  kh          stuff \033[1~
       End                   kH          stuff \033[4~
       Insert                kI          stuff \033[2~
       Delete                kD          stuff \033[3~
       Page up               kP          stuff \033[5~
       Page down             kN          stuff \033[6~
       Keypad 0              f0          stuff 0
                                         stuff \033Op    (A)
       Keypad 1              f1          stuff 1
                                         stuff \033Oq    (A)
       Keypad 2              f2          stuff 2
                                         stuff \033Or    (A)
       Keypad 3              f3          stuff 3
                                         stuff \033Os    (A)
       Keypad 4              f4          stuff 4
                                         stuff \033Ot    (A)
       Keypad 5              f5          stuff 5
                                         stuff \033Ou    (A)
       Keypad 6              f6          stuff 6
                                         stuff \033Ov    (A)
       Keypad 7              f7          stuff 7
                                         stuff \033Ow    (A)
       Keypad 8              f8          stuff 8
                                         stuff \033Ox    (A)
       Keypad 9              f9          stuff 9
                                         stuff \033Oy    (A)
       Keypad +              f+          stuff +
                                         stuff \033Ok    (A)
       Keypad -              f-          stuff -
                                         stuff \033Om    (A)
       Keypad *              f*          stuff *
                                         stuff \033Oj    (A)
       Keypad /              f/          stuff /
                                         stuff \033Oo    (A)
       Keypad =              fq          stuff =
                                         stuff \033OX    (A)
       Keypad .              f.          stuff .
                                         stuff \033On    (A)
       Keypad ,              f,          stuff ,
                                         stuff \033Ol    (A)

       LP   (bool)  Terminal has VT100 style margins (`magic  margins').  Note
                    that  this  capability is obsolete because screen uses the
                    standard 'xn' instead.

       Z0   (str)   Change width to 132 columns.

       Z1   (str)   Change width to 80 columns.

       WS   (str)   Resize display. This capability has the desired width  and
                    height as arguments. SunView(tm) example: '\E[8;%d;%dt'.

       NF   (bool)  Terminal  doesn't need flow control. Send ^S and ^Q direct
                    to the application. Same as 'flow off'.  The  opposite  of
                    this capability is 'nx'.

       G0   (bool)  Terminal can deal with ISO 2022 font selection sequences.

       S0   (str)   Switch  charset  'G0' to the specified charset. Default is
                    '\E(%.'.

       E0   (str)   Switch charset 'G0' back to standard charset.  Default  is
                    '\E(B'.

       C0   (str)   Use the string as a conversion table for font '0'. See the
                    'ac' capability for more details.

       CS   (str)   Switch cursor-keys to application mode.

       CE   (str)   Switch cursor-keys back to normal mode.

       AN   (bool)  Turn on autonuke. See  the  'autonuke'  command  for  more
                    details.

       OL   (num)   Set  the  output buffer limit. See the 'obuflimit' command
                    for more details.

       KJ   (str)   Set the encoding of the terminal. See the 'encoding'  com-
                    mand for valid encodings.

       AF   (str)   Change  character foreground color in an ANSI conform way.
                    This capability will almost always  be  set  to  '\E[3%dm'
                    ('\E[3%p1%dm' on terminfo machines).

       AB   (str)   Same as 'AF', but change background color.

       AX   (bool)  Does  understand  ANSI  set  default fg/bg color (\E[39m /
                    \E[49m).

       XC   (str)   Describe a translation of characters to strings  depending
                    on  the current font. More details follow in the next sec-
                    tion.

       XT   (bool)  Terminal understands special xterm sequences  (OSC,  mouse
       ture  if  you  want  to  work with a common standard character set (say
       ISO8851-latin1) even on terminals that scatter the more unusual charac-
       ters over several national language font pages.

       Syntax:
           XC=<charset-mapping>{,,<charset-mapping>}
           <charset-mapping> := <designator><template>{,<mapping>}
           <mapping> := <char-to-be-mapped><template-arg>

       The things in braces may be repeated any number of times.

       A  <charset-mapping> tells screen how to map characters in font <desig-
       nator> ('B': Ascii, 'A': UK, 'K':  German,  etc.)   to  strings.  Every
       <mapping>  describes  to  what string a single character will be trans-
       lated. A template mechanism is used, as most of the time the codes have
       a  lot  in  common  (for  example strings to switch to and from another
       charset). Each occurrence of '%' in <template>  gets  substituted  with
       the  <template-arg>  specified  together  with  the  character. If your
       strings are not similar at all, then use '%' as a  template  and  place
       the  full  string  in  <template-arg>. A quoting mechanism was added to
       make it possible to use a real '%'. The '\' character quotes  the  spe-
       cial characters '\', '%', and ','.

       Here is an example:

           termcap hp700 'XC=B\E(K%\E(B,\304[,\326\\\\,\334]'

       This  tells  screen how to translate ISOlatin1 (charset 'B') upper case
       umlaut characters on a hp700 terminal that has a German charset. '\304'
       gets  translated  to  '\E(K[\E(B'  and so on.  Note that this line gets
       parsed *three* times before the internal lookup table is built,  there-
       fore a lot of quoting is needed to create a single '\'.

       Another  extension  was  added  to  allow  more emulation: If a mapping
       translates the unquoted '%' char, it will be sent to the terminal when-
       ever screen switches to the corresponding <designator>. In this special
       case the template is assumed to be just '%' because the charset  switch
       sequence and the character mappings normally haven't much in common.

       This example shows one use of the extension:

           termcap xterm 'XC=K%,%\E(B,[\304,\\\\\326,]\334'

       Here,  a  part of the German ('K') charset is emulated on an xterm.  If
       screen has to change to the 'K' charset, '\E(B' will  be  sent  to  the
       terminal,  i.e. the ASCII charset is used instead. The template is just
       '%', so the mapping is straightforward: '[' to '\304', '\'  to  '\326',
       and ']' to '\334'.


ENVIRONMENT
       COLUMNS        Number  of  columns  on  the terminal (overrides termcap
                      entry).
       HOME           Directory in which to look for .screenrc.
       TERM           Terminal name.
       TERMCAP        Terminal description.
       WINDOW         Window number of a window (at creation time).

FILES
       /screen-4.?.??/etc/screenrc
       /screen-4.?.??/etc/etcscreenrc    Examples in the  screen  distribution
                                         package  for  private and global ini-
                                         tialization files.
       $SYSSCREENRC
       /etc/screenrc                     screen initialization commands
       $SCREENRC
       $HOME/.screenrc                   Read in after /etc/screenrc
       $SCREENDIR/S-<login>
       /var/run/screen/S-<login>         Socket directories (default)
       /usr/tmp/screens/S-<login>        Alternate socket directories.
       <socket directory>/.termcap       Written by the "termcap" output func-
                                         tion
       /usr/tmp/screens/screen-exchange  or
       /tmp/screen-exchange              screen   `interprocess  communication
                                         buffer'
       hardcopy.[0-9]                    Screen images created by the hardcopy
                                         function
       screenlog.[0-9]                   Output  log  files created by the log
                                         function
       /usr/lib/terminfo/?/*             or
       /etc/termcap                      Terminal capability databases
       /var/run/utmp                     Login records
       $LOCKPRG                          Program that locks a terminal.


SEE ALSO
       termcap(5), utmp(5), vi(1), captoinfo(1), tic(1)


AUTHORS
       Originally created by Oliver Laumann, this latest version was  produced
       by  Juergen  Weigert,  Michael  Schroeder, Micah Cowan and Sadrul Habib
       Chowdhury.

COPYLEFT
       Copyright (c) 2010
            Juergen Weigert (jnweiger@immd4.informatik.uni-erlangen.de)
            Sadrul Habib Chowdhury (sadrul@users.sourceforge.net)
       Copyright (c) 2008, 2009
            Juergen Weigert (jnweiger@immd4.informatik.uni-erlangen.de)
            Michael Schroeder (mlschroe@immd4.informatik.uni-erlangen.de)
            Micah Cowan (micah@cowan.name)
            Sadrul Habib Chowdhury (sadrul@users.sourceforge.net)
       Copyright (C) 1993-2003
            Juergen Weigert (jnweiger@immd4.informatik.uni-erlangen.de)
            Michael Schroeder (mlschroe@immd4.informatik.uni-erlangen.de)
       Copyright (C) 1987 Oliver Laumann
       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it

CONTRIBUTORS
       Ken Beal (kbeal@amber.ssd.csd.harris.com),
       Rudolf Koenig (rfkoenig@immd4.informatik.uni-erlangen.de),
       Toerless Eckert (eckert@immd4.informatik.uni-erlangen.de),
       Wayne Davison (davison@borland.com),
       Patrick Wolfe (pat@kai.com, kailand!pat),
       Bart Schaefer (schaefer@cse.ogi.edu),
       Nathan Glasser (nathan@brokaw.lcs.mit.edu),
       Larry W. Virden (lvirden@cas.org),
       Howard Chu (hyc@hanauma.jpl.nasa.gov),
       Tim MacKenzie (tym@dibbler.cs.monash.edu.au),
       Markku Jarvinen (mta@{cc,cs,ee}.tut.fi),
       Marc Boucher (marc@CAM.ORG),
       Doug Siebert (dsiebert@isca.uiowa.edu),
       Ken Stillson (stillson@tsfsrv.mitre.org),
       Ian Frechett (frechett@spot.Colorado.EDU),
       Brian Koehmstedt (bpk@gnu.ai.mit.edu),
       Don Smith (djs6015@ultb.isc.rit.edu),
       Frank van der Linden (vdlinden@fwi.uva.nl),
       Martin Schweikert (schweik@cpp.ob.open.de),
       David Vrona (dave@sashimi.lcu.com),
       E. Tye McQueen (tye%spillman.UUCP@uunet.uu.net),
       Matthew Green (mrg@eterna.com.au),
       Christopher Williams (cgw@pobox.com),
       Matt Mosley (mattm@access.digex.net),
       Gregory Neil Shapiro (gshapiro@wpi.WPI.EDU),
       Johannes Zellner (johannes@zellner.org),
       Pablo Averbuj (pablo@averbuj.com).


VERSION
       This is version 4.1.0. Its roots are a merge of a custom version 2.3PR7
       by Wayne Davison and several enhancements to Oliver  Laumann's  version
       2.0.  Note  that all versions numbered 2.x are copyright by Oliver Lau-
       mann.

AVAILABILITY
       The latest official release of screen available via anonymous ftp  from
       gnudist.gnu.org,  nic.funet.fi  or any other GNU distribution site. The
       home site of screen is ftp.uni-erlangen.de, in the directory pub/utili-
       ties/screen.  The subdirectory `private' contains the latest beta test-
       ing release. If you want to help,  send  a  note  to  screen@uni-erlan-
       gen.de.

BUGS
       o  `dm'  (delete  mode)  and  `xs'  are not handled correctly (they are
          ignored). `xn' is treated as a magic-margin indicator.

       o  Screen has no clue about double-high or double-wide characters.  But
          this is the only area where vttest is allowed to fail.

       o  It  is not possible to change the environment variable $TERMCAP when
          reattaching under a different terminal type.

          advertise that a user is logged on who really isn't.

       o  Screen may give a strange warning when your tty has no utmp entry.

       o  When the modem line was hung up, screen may not automatically detach
          (or  quit)  unless  the device driver is configured to send a HANGUP
          signal.  To detach a screen session use the -D or  -d  command  line
          option.

       o  If  a  password  is  set,  the  command line options -d and -D still
          detach a session without asking.

       o  Both "breaktype" and  "defbreaktype"  change  the  break  generating
          method  used by all terminal devices. The first should change a win-
          dow specific setting,  where  the  latter  should  change  only  the
          default for new windows.

       o  When  attaching to a multiuser session, the user's .screenrc file is
          not sourced. Each user's personal settings have to  be  included  in
          the  .screenrc  file from which the session is booted, or have to be
          changed manually.

       o  A weird imagination is most useful to gain full advantage of all the
          features.

       o  Send bug-reports, fixes, enhancements, t-shirts, money, beer & pizza
          to screen@uni-erlangen.de.




4th Berkeley Distribution          Aug 2003                          SCREEN(1)
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