screen




SYNOPSIS
       screen [ -options ] [ cmd [ args ] ]
       screen -r [[pid.]tty[.host]]
       screen -r sessionowner/[[pid.]tty[.host]]



DESCRIPTION
       Screen is a full-screen window manager that multiplexes a physical ter-
       minal between several processes (typically interactive  shells).   Each
       virtual terminal provides the functions of a DEC VT100 terminal and, in
       addition, several control functions from the ISO 6429  (ECMA  48,  ANSI
       X3.64)  and ISO 2022 standards (e.g. insert/delete line and support for
       multiple character sets).  There is a  scrollback  history  buffer  for
       each virtual terminal and a copy-and-paste mechanism that allows moving
       text regions between windows.

       When screen is called, it creates a single window with a  shell  in  it
       (or  the  specified  command) and then gets out of your way so that you
       can use the program as you normally would.  Then, at any time, you  can
       create new (full-screen) windows with other programs in them (including
       more shells), kill existing windows, view a list of windows, turn  out-
       put  logging  on and off, copy-and-paste text between windows, view the
       scrollback history, switch between windows in whatever manner you wish,
       etc.  All  windows  run  their  programs completely independent of each
       other. Programs continue to run when their window is currently not vis-
       ible and even when the whole screen session is detached from the user's
       terminal.  When a program terminates, screen (per  default)  kills  the
       window  that  contained  it.  If this window was in the foreground, the
       display switches to the previous  window;  if  none  are  left,  screen
       exits.

       Everything  you type is sent to the program running in the current win-
       dow.  The only exception to this is the one keystroke that is  used  to
       initiate  a  command  to  the window manager.  By default, each command
       begins with a control-a (abbreviated C-a from now on), and is  followed
       by one other keystroke.  The command character and all the key bindings
       can be fully customized to be anything you like, though they are always
       two characters in length.

       Screen does not understand the prefix "C-" to mean control.  Please use
       the caret notation ("^A" instead of "C-a") as  arguments  to  e.g.  the
       escape  command  or  the -e option.  Screen will also print out control
       characters in caret notation.

       The standard way to create a new window is to type "C-a c".  This  cre-
       ates  a  new window running a shell and switches to that window immedi-
       ately, regardless of the state of the process running  in  the  current
       window.   Similarly,  you can create a new window with a custom command
       in it by first binding the command to a keystroke  (in  your  .screenrc
       file  or  at  the "C-a :" command line) and then using it just like the
       forked from the parent screen process, not from the invoking shell.

       If "/var/run/utmp" is writable by screen, an appropriate record will be
       written  to  this  file for each window, and removed when the window is
       terminated.  This is useful for working with "talk",  "script",  "shut-
       down",  "rsend",  "sccs"  and  other similar programs that use the utmp
       file to determine who you are. As long as screen is active on your ter-
       minal,  the  terminal's  own  record is removed from the utmp file. See
       also "C-a L".



GETTING STARTED
       Before you begin to use screen you'll need to make sure you  have  cor-
       rectly  selected  your  terminal  type, just as you would for any other
       termcap/terminfo program.  (You can do this by using tset for example.)

       If you're impatient and want to get started without doing  a  lot  more
       reading,  you should remember this one command:  "C-a ?".  Typing these
       two characters will display a list of the available screen commands and
       their bindings. Each keystroke is discussed in the section "DEFAULT KEY
       BINDINGS". The manual section "CUSTOMIZATION" deals with  the  contents
       of your .screenrc.

       If your terminal is a "true" auto-margin terminal (it doesn't allow the
       last position on the screen to be updated without scrolling the screen)
       consider  using a version of your terminal's termcap that has automatic
       margins turned off. This will ensure an accurate and optimal update  of
       the  screen  in all circumstances. Most terminals nowadays have "magic"
       margins (automatic margins plus usable last column). This is the  VT100
       style  type  and  perfectly  suited for screen.  If all you've got is a
       "true" auto-margin terminal screen will  be  content  to  use  it,  but
       updating  a  character put into the last position on the screen may not
       be possible until the screen scrolls or the character is moved  into  a
       safe position in some other way. This delay can be shortened by using a
       terminal with insert-character capability.



COMMAND-LINE OPTIONS
       Screen has the following command-line options:

       -a   include all capabilities (with some minor exceptions) in each win-
            dow's  termcap, even if screen must redraw parts of the display in
            order to implement a function.

       -A   Adapt the sizes of all windows to the size of the  current  termi-
            nal.   By  default,  screen  tries to restore its old window sizes
            when attaching to resizable terminals  (those  with  "WS"  in  its
            description, e.g. suncmd or some xterm).

       -c file
            override  the default configuration file from "$HOME/.screenrc" to
            file.
               first.

       -d -RR  Reattach a session and if necessary detach or  create  it.  Use
               the first session if more than one session is available.

       -D -r   Reattach  a  session.  If  necessary detach and logout remotely
               first.

       -D -R   Attach here and now. In detail this means: If a session is run-
               ning,  then  reattach.  If necessary detach and logout remotely
               first.  If it was not running create it and  notify  the  user.
               This is the author's favorite.

       -D -RR  Attach here and now. Whatever that means, just do it.

            Note:  It  is  always a good idea to check the status of your ses-
            sions by means of "screen -list".

       -e xy
            specifies the command character to be x and the character generat-
            ing a literal command character to y (when typed after the command
            character).  The default is "C-a" and `a', which can be  specified
            as  "-e^Aa".  When creating a screen session, this option sets the
            default command character. In a multiuser session all users  added
            will  start off with this command character. But when attaching to
            an already running session, this option changes only  the  command
            character  of  the  attaching  user.  This option is equivalent to
            either the commands "defescape" or "escape" respectively.

       -f, -fn, and -fa
            turns flow-control on, off, or "automatic switching  mode".   This
            can also be defined through the "defflow" .screenrc command.

       -h num
            Specifies the history scrollback buffer to be num lines high.

       -i   will  cause  the interrupt key (usually C-c) to interrupt the dis-
            play immediately when  flow-control  is  on.   See  the  "defflow"
            .screenrc command for details.  The use of this option is discour-
            aged.

       -l and -ln
            turns login mode on or off (for /var/run/utmp updating).  This can
            also be defined through the "deflogin" .screenrc command.

       -ls and -list
            does  not  start screen, but prints a list of pid.tty.host strings
            and creation timestamps identifying your  screen  sessions.   Ses-
            sions  marked  `detached'  can  be resumed with "screen -r". Those
            marked `attached' are running and have a controlling terminal.  If
            the session runs in multiuser mode, it is marked `multi'. Sessions
            marked as `unreachable' either live on a  different  host  or  are
            `dead'.   An unreachable session is considered dead, when its name
            matches either the name of the local host, or the specified param-

       -d -m   Start screen in "detached" mode. This creates a new session but
               doesn't  attach  to  it.  This  is  useful  for  system startup
               scripts.

       -D -m   This also starts screen in "detached" mode, but doesn't fork  a
               new process. The command exits if the session terminates.

       -O   selects  a  more optimal output mode for your terminal rather than
            true VT100 emulation (only affects auto-margin  terminals  without
            `LP').   This can also be set in your .screenrc by specifying `OP'
            in a "termcap" command.

       -p number_or_name
            Preselect a window. This is useful when you want to reattach to  a
            specific  window or you want to send a command via the "-X" option
            to a specific window. As with screen's select command, "-" selects
            the  blank  window.  As a special case for reattach, "=" brings up
            the windowlist on the blank window.

       -q   Suppress printing of error messages. In combination with "-ls" the
            exit  value  is  as  follows: 9 indicates a directory without ses-
            sions. 10 indicates a directory with running  but  not  attachable
            sessions.  11 (or more) indicates 1 (or more) usable sessions.  In
            combination with "-r" the exit value is as follows:  10  indicates
            that  there  is  no session to resume. 12 (or more) indicates that
            there are 2 (or more) sessions to resume and  you  should  specify
            which one to choose.  In all other cases "-q" has no effect.

       -r [pid.tty.host]
       -r sessionowner/[pid.tty.host]
            resumes  a detached screen session.  No other options (except com-
            binations with -d/-D) may be specified, though an optional  prefix
            of  [pid.]tty.host  may  be needed to distinguish between multiple
            detached screen sessions.  The second form is used to  connect  to
            another  user's  screen session which runs in multiuser mode. This
            indicates that screen should look for sessions in  another  user's
            directory. This requires setuid-root.

       -R   attempts  to  resume  the  youngest  (in  terms  of creation time)
            detached screen session it finds.  If successful, all  other  com-
            mand-line  options  are  ignored.   If no detached session exists,
            starts a new session using the specified options, just  as  if  -R
            had  not been specified. The option is set by default if screen is
            run as a login-shell (actually screen uses "-xRR" in  that  case).
            For  combinations  with  the  -d/-D option see there.  Note: Time-
            based session selection is a Debian addition.

       -s   sets the default shell to the program specified,  instead  of  the
            value  in  the  environment  variable  $SHELL (or "/bin/sh" if not
            defined).  This can also be defined through the "shell"  .screenrc
            command.

       -S sessionname

       -v   Print version number.

       -wipe [match]
            does  the  same  as  "screen  -ls", but removes destroyed sessions
            instead of marking them as `dead'.  An unreachable session is con-
            sidered  dead,  when its name matches either the name of the local
            host, or the explicitly given parameter, if any.  See the -r  flag
            for a description how to construct matches.

       -x   Attach  to  a  not  detached screen session. (Multi display mode).
            Screen refuses to attach from within itself.  But  when  cascading
            multiple screens, loops are not detected; take care.

       -X   Send  the  specified  command to a running screen session. You can
            use the -d or -r option to tell screen to look only  for  attached
            or  detached  screen sessions. Note that this command doesn't work
            if the session is password protected.



DEFAULT KEY BINDINGS
       As mentioned, each screen command consists of a "C-a" followed  by  one
       other  character.  For your convenience, all commands that are bound to
       lower-case letters are also bound to their control  character  counter-
       parts (with the exception of "C-a a"; see below), thus, "C-a c" as well
       as "C-a C-c" can be used to create a window.  See  section  "CUSTOMIZA-
       TION" for a description of the command.

       The following table shows the default key bindings:

       C-a '       (select)      Prompt  for a window name or number to switch
                                 to.

       C-a "       (windowlist -b)
                                 Present a list of all windows for selection.

       C-a 0       (select 0)
        ...           ...
       C-a 9       (select 9)
       C-a -       (select -)    Switch to window number 0  -  9,  or  to  the
                                 blank window.

       C-a tab     (focus)       Switch  the  input  focus to the next region.
                                 See also split, remove, only.

       C-a C-a     (other)       Toggle to the  window  displayed  previously.
                                 Note  that  this binding defaults to the com-
                                 mand character typed twice,  unless  overrid-
                                 den.   For  instance,  if  you use the option
                                 "-e]x", this command becomes "]]".

       C-a a       (meta)        Send the command character (C-a)  to  window.
                                 See escape command.

       C-a C       (clear)       Clear the screen.

       C-a d
       C-a C-d     (detach)      Detach screen from this terminal.

       C-a D D     (pow_detach)  Detach and logout.

       C-a f
       C-a C-f     (flow)        Toggle flow on, off or auto.

       C-a F       (fit)         Resize the window to the current region size.

       C-a C-g     (vbell)       Toggles screen's visual bell mode.

       C-a h       (hardcopy)    Write a hardcopy of the current window to the
                                 file "hardcopy.n".

       C-a H       (log)         Begins/ends logging of the current window  to
                                 the file "screenlog.n".

       C-a i
       C-a C-i     (info)        Show info about this window.

       C-a k
       C-a C-k     (kill)        Destroy current window.

       C-a l
       C-a C-l     (redisplay)   Fully refresh current window.

       C-a L       (login)       Toggle  this  windows  login  slot. Available
                                 only if screen is configured  to  update  the
                                 utmp database.

       C-a m
       C-a C-m     (lastmsg)     Repeat the last message displayed in the mes-
                                 sage line.

       C-a M       (monitor)     Toggles monitoring of the current window.

       C-a space
       C-a n
       C-a C-n     (next)        Switch to the next window.

       C-a N       (number)      Show the number (and title)  of  the  current
                                 window.

       C-a backspace
       C-a h
       C-a p
       C-a C-p     (prev)        Switch to the previous window (opposite of C-
                                 a n).

       C-a q

       C-a S       (split)       Split  the  current  region horizontally into
                                 two new ones.  See also only, remove, focus.

       C-a t
       C-a C-t     (time)        Show system information.

       C-a v       (version)     Display the version and compilation date.

       C-a C-v     (digraph)     Enter digraph.

       C-a w
       C-a C-w     (windows)     Show a list of window.

       C-a W       (width)       Toggle 80/132 columns.

       C-a x
       C-a C-x     (lockscreen)  Lock this terminal.

       C-a X       (remove)      Kill the current  region.   See  also  split,
                                 only, focus.

       C-a z
       C-a C-z     (suspend)     Suspend  screen.   Your  system  must support
                                 BSD-style job-control.

       C-a Z       (reset)       Reset the virtual terminal to its  "power-on"
                                 values.

       C-a .       (dumptermcap) Write out a ".termcap" file.

       C-a ?       (help)        Show key bindings.

       C-a C-\     (quit)        Kill all windows and terminate screen.

       C-a :       (colon)       Enter command line mode.

       C-a [
       C-a C-[
       C-a esc     (copy)        Enter copy/scrollback mode.

       C-a ]       (paste .)     Write the contents of the paste buffer to the
                                 stdin queue of the current window.

       C-a {
       C-a }       (history)     Copy and paste a previous (command) line.

       C-a >       (writebuf)    Write paste buffer to a file.

       C-a <       (readbuf)     Reads the screen-exchange file into the paste
                                 buffer.

       C-a =       (removebuf)   Removes the file used by C-a < and C-a >.



CUSTOMIZATION
       The  "socket  directory"  defaults either to $HOME/.screen or simply to
       /tmp/screens or preferably to /var/run/screen chosen  at  compile-time.
       If  screen is installed setuid-root, then the administrator should com-
       pile screen with an adequate (not NFS  mounted)  socket  directory.  If
       screen  is  not  running setuid-root, the user can specify any mode 700
       directory in the environment variable $SCREENDIR.

       When screen is invoked, it executes initialization  commands  from  the
       files  "/etc/screenrc"  and  ".screenrc"  in the user's home directory.
       These are the "programmer's defaults" that can  be  overridden  in  the
       following  ways:  for  the global screenrc file screen searches for the
       environment variable $SYSSCREENRC (this override feature  may  be  dis-
       abled  at compile-time). The user specific screenrc file is searched in
       $SCREENRC, then $HOME/.screenrc.  The  command  line  option  -c  takes
       precedence over the above user screenrc files.

       Commands  in  these  files  are  used to set options, bind functions to
       keys, and to automatically establish one or more windows at the  begin-
       ning  of  your  screen session.  Commands are listed one per line, with
       empty lines being ignored.  A command's arguments are separated by tabs
       or  spaces,  and  may  be surrounded by single or double quotes.  A `#'
       turns the rest of the line into a comment, except in quotes.   Unintel-
       ligible  lines are warned about and ignored.  Commands may contain ref-
       erences to environment variables. The syntax is the shell-like "$VAR  "
       or "${VAR}". Note that this causes incompatibility with previous screen
       versions, as now the '$'-character has to be protected with '\'  if  no
       variable  substitution shall be performed. A string in single-quotes is
       also protected from variable substitution.

       Two configuration files are shipped as examples with your  screen  dis-
       tribution:  "etc/screenrc" and "etc/etcscreenrc". They contain a number
       of useful examples for various commands.

       Customization can also be done 'on-line'. To  enter  the  command  mode
       type  `C-a  :'.  Note  that commands starting with "def" change default
       values, while others change current settings.

       The following commands are available:

       acladd usernames [crypted-pw]
       addacl usernames

       Enable users to fully access this screen session. Usernames can be  one
       user or a comma separated list of users. This command enables to attach
       to the screen session and performs the equivalent of `aclchg  usernames
       +rwx  "#?"'.   executed.  To add a user with restricted access, use the
       `aclchg' command below.  If an optional second parameter  is  supplied,
       it  should  be  a crypted password for the named user(s). `Addacl' is a
       synonym to `acladd'.  Multi user mode only.

       aclchg usernames permbits list
       -w+w 2'.  To allow read-only access to the session: `aclchg username -w
       "#"'.  As soon as a user's name is known to screen he can attach to the
       session and (per default) has full permissions for all command and win-
       dows. Execution permission for the acl commands, `at' and others should
       also be removed or the user may be able  to  regain  write  permission.
       Rights  of  the special username nobody cannot be changed (see the "su"
       command).  `Chacl' is a synonym to `aclchg'.  Multi user mode only.

       acldel username

       Remove a user from screen's access control list. If currently attached,
       all the user's displays are detached from the session. He cannot attach
       again.  Multi user mode only.

       aclgrp username [groupname]

       Creates groups of users that share common access rights.  The  name  of
       the group is the username of the group leader. Each member of the group
       inherits the permissions that are granted to  the  group  leader.  That
       means,  if  a user fails an access check, another check is made for the
       group leader.  A user is removed from  all  groups  the  special  value
       "none"  is  used for groupname.  If the second parameter is omitted all
       groups the user is in are listed.

       aclumask [[users]+bits |[users]-bits .... ]
       umask [[users]+bits |[users]-bits .... ]

       This specifies the access other users have to windows that will be cre-
       ated  by  the  caller  of the command.  Users may be no, one or a comma
       separated list of known usernames. If no users are specified, a list of
       all  currently  known  users  is  assumed.   Bits is any combination of
       access control bits allowed defined with the "aclchg" command. The spe-
       cial  username  "?" predefines the access that not yet known users will
       be granted to any window initially.  The special username  "??"  prede-
       fines  the  access that not yet known users are granted to any command.
       Rights of the special username nobody cannot be changed (see  the  "su"
       command).  `Umask' is a synonym to `aclumask'.

       activity message

       When  any  activity  occurs  in a background window that is being moni-
       tored, screen displays a notification in the message line.  The notifi-
       cation  message  can  be re-defined by means of the "activity" command.
       Each occurrence of `%' in message is replaced by the number of the win-
       dow  in  which  activity  has  occurred, and each occurrence of `^G' is
       replaced by the definition for bell in your termcap (usually an audible
       bell).  The default message is

                   'Activity in window %n'

       Note  that  monitoring  is  off  for all windows by default, but can be
       altered by use of the "monitor" command (C-a M).

       allpartial on|off

       at [identifier][#|*|%] command [args ... ]

       Execute a command at other displays  or  windows  as  if  it  had  been
       entered there.  "At" changes the context (the `current window' or `cur-
       rent display' setting) of the command. If the first parameter describes
       a  non-unique  context, the command will be executed multiple times. If
       the first parameter is of the form  `identifier*'  then  identifier  is
       matched against user names.  The command is executed once for each dis-
       play of the selected user(s). If the first parameter  is  of  the  form
       `identifier%'  identifier  is  matched  against  displays. Displays are
       named after the ttys they attach. The prefix `/dev/' or `/dev/tty'  may
       be  omitted  from  the  identifier.  If identifier has a `#' or nothing
       appended it is matched against window numbers and titles.  Omitting  an
       identifier in front of the `#', `*' or `%'-character selects all users,
       displays or windows because a prefix-match is performed. Note  that  on
       the  affected  display(s)  a short message will describe what happened.
       Permission is checked for initiator of the "at" command,  not  for  the
       owners  of  the affected display(s).  Note that the '#' character works
       as a comment introducer when it is preceded by whitespace. This can  be
       escaped by prefixing a '\'.  Permission is checked for the initiator of
       the "at" command, not for the owners of the affected display(s).
       Caveat: When matching against windows, the command is executed at least
       once  per window. Commands that change the internal arrangement of win-
       dows (like "other") may be called again. In shared windows the  command
       will be repeated for each attached display. Beware, when issuing toggle
       commands like "login"!  Some commands (e.g. "process") require  that  a
       display  is associated with the target windows.  These commands may not
       work correctly under "at" looping over windows.

       attrcolor attrib [attribute/color-modifier]

       This command can be used to highlight attributes by changing the  color
       of  the  text.  If  the  attribute  attrib  is  in  use,  the specified
       attribute/color modifier is also applied. If no modifier is given,  the
       current one is deleted. See the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter for the syntax
       of the modifier. Screen understands two pseudo-attributes,  "i"  stands
       for  high-intensity  foreground  color and "I" for high-intensity back-
       ground color.

       Examples:

              attrcolor b "R"

       Change the color to bright red if bold text is to be printed.

              attrcolor u "-u b"

       Use blue text instead of underline.

              attrcolor b ".I"

       Use bright colors for  bold  text.  Most  terminal  emulators  do  this
       already.
       autonuke on|off

       Sets whether a clear screen sequence should nuke all  the  output  that
       has not been written to the terminal. See also "obuflimit".

       backtick id lifespan autorefresh cmd args...
       backtick id

       Program  the  backtick command with the numerical id id.  The output of
       such a command is used for substitution of the "%`" string escape.  The
       specified  lifespan  is  the number of seconds the output is considered
       valid. After this time, the command is run  again  if  a  corresponding
       string  escape  is  encountered.  The autorefresh parameter triggers an
       automatic refresh for caption and hardstatus strings after  the  speci-
       fied  number  of seconds. Only the last line of output is used for sub-
       stitution.
       If both the lifespan and the autorefresh parameters are zero, the back-
       tick  program is expected to stay in the background and generate output
       once in a while.  In this case, the command is executed right away  and
       screen  stores  the  last  line  of  output. If a new line gets printed
       screen will automatically refresh the hardstatus or the captions.
       The second form of the command deletes the backtick  command  with  the
       numerical id id.

       bce [on|off]

       Change background-color-erase setting. If "bce" is set to on, all char-
       acters cleared by an erase/insert/scroll/clear operation will  be  dis-
       played  in  the  current  background color. Otherwise the default back-
       ground color is used.

       bell_msg [message]

       When a bell character is sent to a background window, screen displays a
       notification  in the message line.  The notification message can be re-
       defined by this command.  Each occurrence of `%' in message is replaced
       by  the  number  of  the window to which a bell has been sent, and each
       occurrence of `^G' is replaced by the definition for bell in your term-
       cap (usually an audible bell).  The default message is

                   'Bell in window %n'

       An  empty message can be supplied to the "bell_msg" command to suppress
       output of a message line (bell_msg "").  Without parameter, the current
       message is shown.

       bind [-c class] key [command [args]]

       Bind  a command to a key.  By default, most of the commands provided by
       screen are bound to one or more keys as indicated in the  "DEFAULT  KEY
       BINDINGS"  section, e.g. the command to create a new window is bound to
       "C-c" and "c".  The "bind" command can be  used  to  redefine  the  key
       bindings and to define new bindings.  The key argument is either a sin-
       gle character, a two-character sequence of the form "^x"  (meaning  "C-
       Some examples:

                   bind ' ' windows
                   bind ^k
                   bind k
                   bind K kill
                   bind ^f screen telnet foobar
                   bind \033 screen -ln -t root -h 1000 9 su

       would bind the space key to the command that displays a list of windows
       (so that the command usually invoked by "C-a C-w" would also be  avail-
       able  as  "C-a  space").  The  next three lines remove the default kill
       binding from "C-a C-k" and "C-a k".  "C-a K" is then bound to the  kill
       command.  Then  it  binds  "C-f" to the command "create a window with a
       TELNET connection to foobar", and bind "escape"  to  the  command  that
       creates an non-login window with a.k.a. "root" in slot #9, with a supe-
       ruser shell and a scrollback buffer of 1000 lines.

                   bind -c demo1 0 select 10
                   bind -c demo1 1 select 11
                   bind -c demo1 2 select 12
                   bindkey "^B" command -c demo1

       makes "C-b 0" select window 10, "C-b 1" window 11, etc.

                   bind -c demo2 0 select 10
                   bind -c demo2 1 select 11
                   bind -c demo2 2 select 12
                   bind - command -c demo2

       makes "C-a - 0" select window 10, "C-a - 1" window 11, etc.

       bindkey [-d] [-m] [-a] [[-k|-t] string [cmd args]]

       This command manages screen's input translation tables. Every entry  in
       one  of  the  tables tells screen how to react if a certain sequence of
       characters is encountered. There are three tables: one that should con-
       tain  actions  programmed by the user, one for the default actions used
       for terminal emulation and one for screen's  copy  mode  to  do  cursor
       movement.  See  section  "INPUT  TRANSLATION" for a list of default key
       bindings.
       If the -d option is given,  bindkey  modifies  the  default  table,  -m
       changes  the  copy mode table and with neither option the user table is
       selected.  The argument string is the sequence of characters  to  which
       an action is bound. This can either be a fixed string or a termcap key-
       board capability name (selectable with the -k option).
       Some keys on a VT100 terminal can send a different string  if  applica-
       tion  mode  is  turned  on  (e.g  the cursor keys).  Such keys have two
       entries in the translation table. You can select the  application  mode
       entry by specifying the -a option.
       The -t option tells screen not to do inter-character timing. One cannot
       turn off the timing if a termcap capability is used.
       Cmd can be any of screen's commands with an arbitrary number  of  args.
       If cmd is omitted the key-binding is removed from the table.

               bindkey "\024" mapdefault
       This  key-binding  makes  "^T" an escape character for key-bindings. If
       you did the above "stuff barfoo" binding, you can enter the word  "foo"
       by  typing  "^Tfoo". If you want to insert a "^T" you have to press the
       key twice (i.e., escape the escape binding).

               bindkey -k F1 command
       Make the F11 (not F1!) key an alternative screen escape (besides ^A).

       break [duration]

       Send a break signal for duration*0.25 seconds to this window.  For non-
       Posix  systems  the  time  interval  may be rounded up to full seconds.
       Most useful if a character device is attached to the window rather than
       a shell process (See also chapter "WINDOW TYPES"). The maximum duration
       of a break signal is limited to 15 seconds.

       blanker

       Activate the screen blanker. First the screen is cleared. If no blanker
       program is defined, the cursor is turned off, otherwise, the program is
       started and it's output is written to the screen.  The  screen  blanker
       is killed with the first keypress, the read key is discarded.
       This command is normally used together with the "idle" command.

       blankerprg [program args]

       Defines a blanker program. Disables the blanker program if no arguments
       are given.

       breaktype [tcsendbreak|TIOCSBRK |TCSBRK]

       Choose one of the available methods of generating a  break  signal  for
       terminal  devices.  This command should affect the current window only.
       But it still behaves identical to "defbreaktype". This will be  changed
       in  the  future.   Calling  "breaktype"  with no parameter displays the
       break method for the current window.

       bufferfile [exchange-file]

       Change the filename used for reading and writing with the paste buffer.
       If  the  optional  argument to the "bufferfile" command is omitted, the
       default setting ("/tmp/screen-exchange") is reactivated.  The following
       example  will  paste  the system's password file into the screen window
       (using the paste buffer, where a copy remains):

                   C-a : bufferfile /etc/passwd
                   C-a < C-a ]
                   C-a : bufferfile

       c1 [on|off]

       Change c1 code processing. "C1 on" tells  screen  to  treat  the  input
       caption even if only one window is displayed. The default is splitonly.

       The second form changes the text used for the caption. You can use  all
       escapes  from  the  "STRING  ESCAPES" chapter. Screen uses a default of
       `%3n %t'.

       You can mix both forms by providing a string as an additional argument.

       charset set

       Change the current character set slot designation and charset  mapping.
       The  first  four  character  of  set are treated as charset designators
       while the fifth and sixth character must be in range '0' to '3' and set
       the GL/GR charset mapping. On every position a '.' may be used to indi-
       cate that the corresponding charset/mapping should not be changed  (set
       is  padded  to  six characters internally by appending '.'  chars). New
       windows have "BBBB02" as default charset, unless a  "encoding"  command
       is active.
       The current setting can be viewed with the "info" command.

       chdir [directory]

       Change  the  current directory of screen to the specified directory or,
       if called without an argument, to your home directory (the value of the
       environment  variable $HOME).  All windows that are created by means of
       the "screen" command from within ".screenrc" or  by  means  of  "C-a  :
       screen  ..." or "C-a c" use this as their default directory.  Without a
       chdir command, this would  be  the  directory  from  which  screen  was
       invoked.   Hardcopy  and  log  files are always written to the window's
       default directory, not the current directory of the process running  in
       the  window.  You can use this command multiple times in your .screenrc
       to start various windows in different default directories, but the last
       chdir value will affect all the windows you create interactively.

       clear

       Clears the current window and saves its image to the scrollback buffer.

       colon [prefix]

       Allows  you  to  enter ".screenrc" command lines. Useful for on-the-fly
       modification of key bindings, specific  window  creation  and  changing
       settings.  Note  that  the "set" keyword no longer exists! Usually com-
       mands affect the current window rather than default settings for future
       windows. Change defaults with commands starting with 'def...'.

       If you consider this as the `Ex command mode' of screen, you may regard
       "C-a esc" (copy mode) as its `Vi command mode'.

       command [-c class]

       This command has the same effect as typing the screen escape  character
       (^A).  It is probably only useful for key bindings.  If the "-c" option
       is given, select the specified command  class.   See  also  "bind"  and

       copy

       Enter copy/scrollback mode. This allows you to copy text from the  cur-
       rent  window  and its history into the paste buffer. In this mode a vi-
       like `full screen editor' is active:
       Movement keys:
         h, j, k, l move the cursor line by line or column by column.
         0, ^ and $ move to the leftmost column, to the  first  or  last  non-
           whitespace character on the line.
         H,  M and L move the cursor to the leftmost column of the top, center
           or bottom line of the window.
         + and - positions one line up and down.
         G moves to the specified absolute line (default: end of buffer).
         | moves to the specified absolute column.
         w, b, e move the cursor word by word.
         B, E move the cursor WORD by WORD (as in vi).
         C-u and C-d scroll the display up/down by  the  specified  amount  of
           lines  while preserving the cursor position. (Default: half screen-
           full).
         C-b and C-f scroll the display up/down a full screen.
         g moves to the beginning of the buffer.
         % jumps to the specified percentage of the buffer.

       Note:
           Emacs style movement keys can be customized by a .screenrc command.
           (E.g.  markkeys  "h=^B:l=^F:$=^E")  There is no simple method for a
           full emacs-style keymap, as this involves multi-character codes.

       Marking:
           The copy range is specified by setting two marks. The text  between
           these marks will be highlighted. Press
         space to set the first or second mark respectively.
         Y and y used to mark one whole line or to mark from start of line.
         W marks exactly one word.
       Repeat count:
           Any of these commands can be prefixed with a repeat count number by
           pressing digits
         0..9 which is taken as a repeat count.
           Example: "C-a C-[ H 10 j 5 Y" will copy lines 11  to  15  into  the
           paste buffer.
       Searching:
         / Vi-like search forward.
         ? Vi-like search backward.
         C-a s Emacs style incremental search forward.
         C-r Emacs style reverse i-search.
       Specials:
           There  are  however  some keys that act differently than in vi.  Vi
           does not allow one to yank rectangular blocks of text,  but  screen
           does. Press
         c  or  C  to  set the left or right margin respectively. If no repeat
           count is given, both default to the current cursor position.
           Example: Try this on a rather full text screen: "C-a [ M 20 l SPACE
           c 10 l 5 j C SPACE".
           issuing a "crlf on".
         v is for all the vi users with ":set numbers" - it toggles  the  left
           margin between column 9 and 1. Press
         a  before the final space key to toggle in append mode. Thus the con-
           tents of the paste buffer will not be overwritten, but is  appended
           to.
         A toggles in append mode and sets a (second) mark.
         >  sets the (second) mark and writes the contents of the paste buffer
           to the screen-exchange file (/tmp/screen-exchange per default) once
           copy-mode is finished.
           This  example  demonstrates how to dump the whole scrollback buffer
           to that file: "C-A [ g SPACE G $ >".
         C-g gives information about the current line and column.
         x exchanges the first mark and the current cursor position.  You  can
           use this to adjust an already placed mark.
         @ does nothing. Does not even exit copy mode.
         All keys not described here exit copy mode.

       copy_reg [key]

       No longer exists, use "readreg" instead.

       crlf [on|off]

       This  affects  the copying of text regions with the `C-a [' command. If
       it is set to `on',  lines  will  be  separated  by  the  two  character
       sequence  `CR' - `LF'.  Otherwise (default) only `LF' is used.  When no
       parameter is given, the state is toggled.

       debug on|off

       Turns runtime debugging on or off. If screen  has  been  compiled  with
       option  -DDEBUG  debugging available and is turned on per default. Note
       that this command only affects debugging output from the main  "SCREEN"
       process  correctly.  Debug  output  from attacher processes can only be
       turned off once and forever.

       defc1 on|off

       Same as the c1 command except that the default setting for new  windows
       is changed. Initial setting is `on'.

       defautonuke on|off

       Same  as  the  autonuke command except that the default setting for new
       displays is changed. Initial setting is `off'.  Note that you  can  use
       the  special  `AN' terminal capability if you want to have a dependency
       on the terminal type.

       defbce on|off

       Same as the bce command except that the default setting for new windows
       is changed. Initial setting is `off'.


       Like the charset command except that the default setting for  new  win-
       dows is changed. Shows current default if called without argument.

       defescape xy

       Set  the default command characters. This is equivalent to the "escape"
       except that it is useful multiuser sessions only. In a  multiuser  ses-
       sion  "escape" changes the command character of the calling user, where
       "defescape" changes the default command characters for users that  will
       be added later.

       defflow on|off|auto [interrupt]

       Same  as  the flow command except that the default setting for new win-
       dows is changed. Initial setting is `auto'.  Specifying  "defflow  auto
       interrupt" is the same as the command-line options -fa and -i.

       defgr on|off

       Same  as the gr command except that the default setting for new windows
       is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defhstatus [status]

       The hardstatus line that all new windows will get  is  set  to  status.
       This  command  is useful to make the hardstatus of every window display
       the window number or title or the like.  Status may  contain  the  same
       directives  as in the window messages, but the directive escape charac-
       ter is '^E' (octal 005) instead of '%'.  This was done to make a misin-
       terpretation  of program generated hardstatus lines impossible.  If the
       parameter status is omitted, the current default string  is  displayed.
       Per default the hardstatus line of new windows is empty.

       defencoding enc

       Same  as  the  encoding command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is the encoding taken from the ter-
       minal.

       deflog on|off

       Same as the log command except that the default setting for new windows
       is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       deflogin on|off

       Same as the login command except that the default setting for new  win-
       dows is changed. This is initialized with `on' as distributed (see con-
       fig.h.in).

       defmode mode

       The mode of each newly allocated pseudo-tty is set to mode.  Mode is an
       defobuflimit limit

       Same  as  the obuflimit command except that the default setting for new
       displays is changed. Initial setting is 256 bytes.  Note that  you  can
       use  the  special 'OL' terminal capability if you want to have a depen-
       dency on the terminal type.

       defscrollback num

       Same as the scrollback command except that the default setting for  new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is 100.

       defshell command

       Synonym to the shell command. See there.

       defsilence on|off

       Same  as  the  silence  command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defslowpaste msec"

       Same as the slowpaste command except that the default setting  for  new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is 0 milliseconds, meaning `off'.

       defutf8 on|off

       Same  as  the utf8 command except that the default setting for new win-
       dows is changed. Initial setting is `on' if  screen  was  started  with
       "-U", otherwise `off'.

       defwrap on|off

       Same  as  the wrap command except that the default setting for new win-
       dows is changed. Initially line-wrap is on and can be toggled with  the
       "wrap" command ("C-a r") or by means of "C-a : wrap on|off".

       defwritelock on|off|auto

       Same  as  the writelock command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initially writelocks will off.

       defzombie [keys]

       Synonym to the zombie command. Both currently change the default.   See
       there.

       detach [-h]

       Detach  the  screen session (disconnect it from the terminal and put it
       into the background).  This returns you to the shell where you  invoked
       screen.   A  detached screen can be resumed by invoking screen with the
       -r option (see also section  "COMMAND-LINE  OPTIONS").  The  -h  option

       digraph [preset]

       This command prompts the user for a  digraph  sequence.  The  next  two
       characters  typed  are  looked  up in a builtin table and the resulting
       character is inserted in the input stream. For  example,  if  the  user
       enters  'a"',  an  a-umlaut  will  be  inserted. If the first character
       entered is a 0 (zero), screen will treat the following  characters  (up
       to  three) as an octal number instead.  The optional argument preset is
       treated as user input, thus one can create an "umlaut" key.  For  exam-
       ple  the  command "bindkey ^K digraph '"'" enables the user to generate
       an a-umlaut by typing CTRL-K a.

       dumptermcap

       Write the termcap entry for the virtual terminal optimized for the cur-
       rently   active   window   to   the   file  ".termcap"  in  the  user's
       "$HOME/.screen" directory (or wherever screen stores its  sockets.  See
       the  "FILES"  section  below).   This termcap entry is identical to the
       value of the environment variable $TERMCAP that is set up by screen for
       each  window.  For  terminfo  based systems you will need to run a con-
       verter like captoinfo and then compile the entry with tic.

       echo [-n] message

       The echo command may be used to annoy screen users with a  'message  of
       the  day'.  Typically  installed in a global /etc/screenrc.  The option
       "-n" may be used to suppress the line feed.  See also "sleep".  Echo is
       also useful for online checking of environment variables.

       encoding enc [enc]

       Tell  screen how to interpret the input/output. The first argument sets
       the encoding of the current window. Each window can emulate a different
       encoding.  The optional second parameter overwrites the encoding of the
       connected terminal. It should never be needed as screen uses the locale
       setting to detect the encoding.  There is also a way to select a termi-
       nal encoding depending on the terminal type by using the  "KJ"  termcap
       entry.

       Supported  encodings  are eucJP, SJIS, eucKR, eucCN, Big5, GBK, KOI8-R,
       CP1251, UTF-8, ISO8859-2, ISO8859-3, ISO8859-4,  ISO8859-5,  ISO8859-6,
       ISO8859-7, ISO8859-8, ISO8859-9, ISO8859-10, ISO8859-15, jis.

       See also "defencoding", which changes the default setting of a new win-
       dow.

       escape xy

       Set the command character to x and the character generating  a  literal
       command  character  (by triggering the "meta" command) to y (similar to
       the -e option).  Each argument is either a  single  character,  a  two-
       character  sequence  of the form "^x" (meaning "C-x"), a backslash fol-
       lowed by an octal number (specifying the ASCII code of the  character),
       window  (let  us call it "application-process") and screen itself (win-
       dow) is controlled by the file descriptor pattern fdpat.  This  pattern
       is  basically a three character sequence representing stdin, stdout and
       stderr of newcommand. A dot (.) connects the file descriptor to screen.
       An  exclamation  mark (!) causes the file descriptor to be connected to
       the application-process. A colon (:) combines both.  User input will go
       to  newcommand unless newcommand receives the application-process' out-
       put (fdpats first character is `!' or `:') or  a  pipe  symbol  (|)  is
       added (as a fourth character) to the end of fdpat.
       Invoking  `exec' without arguments shows name and arguments of the cur-
       rently running subprocess in this window. Only one  subprocess  a  time
       can be running in each window.
       When  a subprocess is running the `kill' command will affect it instead
       of the windows process.
       Refer to the postscript file `doc/fdpat.ps' for a  confusing  illustra-
       tion  of  all  21  possible combinations. Each drawing shows the digits
       2,1,0 representing the three file descriptors of  newcommand.  The  box
       marked  `W'  is  the  usual pty that has the application-process on its
       slave side.  The box marked `P' is  the  secondary  pty  that  now  has
       screen at its master side.

       Abbreviations:
       Whitespace  between  the  word  `exec' and fdpat and the command can be
       omitted. Trailing dots and a fdpat consisting only of dots can be omit-
       ted.  A  simple `|' is synonymous for the pattern `!..|'; the word exec
       can be omitted here and can always be replaced by `!'.

       Examples:

              exec ... /bin/sh
              exec /bin/sh
              !/bin/sh

       Creates another shell in the same window, while the original  shell  is
       still  running.  Output  of  both shells is displayed and user input is
       sent to the new /bin/sh.

              exec !.. stty 19200
              exec ! stty 19200
              !!stty 19200

       Set the speed of the window's tty. If your  stty  command  operates  on
       stdout, then add another `!'.

              exec !..| less
              |less

       This  adds  a  pager to the window output. The special character `|' is
       needed to give the user control over the pager  although  it  gets  its
       input  from  the  window's process. This works, because less listens on
       stderr (a behavior that screen would not expect without the  `|')  when
       its  stdin  is  not a tty.  Less versions newer than 177 fail miserably
       here; good old pg still works.


       flow [on|off|auto]

       Sets  the  flow-control  mode  for  this window.  Without parameters it
       cycles the current window's flow-control setting  from  "automatic"  to
       "on"  to  "off".  See the discussion on "FLOW-CONTROL" later on in this
       document for full details and note, that this is subject to  change  in
       future releases.  Default is set by `defflow'.

       focus [up|down|top|bottom]

       Move  the  input focus to the next region. This is done in a cyclic way
       so that the top region is selected after the bottom one. If no  subcom-
       mand is given it defaults to `down'. `up' cycles in the opposite order,
       `top' and `bottom' go to the top and bottom region respectively. Useful
       bindings are (j and k as in vi)
           bind j focus down
           bind k focus up
           bind t focus top
           bind b focus bottom
       Note that k is traditionally bound to the kill command.

       gr [on|off]

       Turn GR charset switching on/off. Whenever screen sees an input charac-
       ter with the 8th bit set, it will use the charset stored in the GR slot
       and  print  the  character  with the 8th bit stripped. The default (see
       also "defgr") is not to process  GR  switching  because  otherwise  the
       ISO88591 charset would not work.

       hardcopy [-h] [file]

       Writes  out  the  currently displayed image to the file file, or, if no
       filename is specified, to hardcopy.n in the default directory, where  n
       is the number of the current window.  This either appends or overwrites
       the file if it exists. See below.  If the option -h is specified,  dump
       also the contents of the scrollback buffer.

       hardcopy_append on|off

       If set to "on", screen will append to the "hardcopy.n" files created by
       the command "C-a h", otherwise these files are overwritten  each  time.
       Default is `off'.

       hardcopydir directory

       Defines  a  directory  where  hardcopy  files will be placed. If unset,
       hardcopys are dumped in screen's current working directory.

       hardstatus [on|off]
       hardstatus [always]lastline|message|ignore [string]
       hardstatus string [string]

       This command configures the use and emulation of the  terminal's  hard-
       ports a hardstatus.

       The  third form specifies the contents of the hardstatus line.  '%h' is
       used as default string, i.e., the stored hardstatus of the current win-
       dow  (settable  via  "ESC]0;<string>^G"  or "ESC_<string>ESC\") is dis-
       played.  You can customize this to any string you  like  including  the
       escapes  from  the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter. If you leave out the argu-
       ment string, the current string is displayed.

       You can mix the second and third form by providing the string as  addi-
       tional argument.

       height [-w|-d] [lines [cols]]

       Set the display height to a specified number of lines. When no argument
       is given it toggles between 24 and 42 lines display. You can also spec-
       ify  a  width  if  you want to change both values.  The -w option tells
       screen to leave the display size unchanged  and  just  set  the  window
       size, -d vice versa.

       help [-c class]

       Not  really  a  online help, but displays a help screen showing you all
       the key bindings.  The first pages list all the internal commands  fol-
       lowed  by  their  current  bindings.  Subsequent pages will display the
       custom commands, one command per key.  Press  space  when  you're  done
       reading  each  page, or return to exit early.  All other characters are
       ignored. If the "-c" option is given, display all  bound  commands  for
       the specified command class.  See also "DEFAULT KEY BINDINGS" section.

       history

       Usually  users  work  with  a shell that allows easy access to previous
       commands.  For example csh has the command "!!" to repeat the last com-
       mand executed.  Screen allows you to have a primitive way of re-calling
       "the command that started ...": You just type the first letter of  that
       command, then hit `C-a {' and screen tries to find a previous line that
       matches with the `prompt character' to the left  of  the  cursor.  This
       line  is  pasted into this window's input queue.  Thus you have a crude
       command history (made up by the visible window and its scrollback  buf-
       fer).

       hstatus status

       Change the window's hardstatus line to the string status.

       idle [timeout [cmd args]]

       Sets  a command that is run after the specified number of seconds inac-
       tivity is reached. This command will normally be the "blanker"  command
       to  create  a  screen blanker, but it can be any screen command.  If no
       command is specified, only the timeout is set. A timeout  of  zero  (ot
       the  special  timeout  off)  disables  the  timer.  If no arguments are
       given, the current settings are displayed.
       XON/XOFF  flow  control  is shown like this (See also section FLOW CON-
       TROL):

         +flow     automatic flow control, currently on.
         -flow     automatic flow control, currently off.
         +(+)flow  flow control enabled. Agrees with automatic control.
         -(+)flow  flow control disabled. Disagrees with automatic control.
         +(-)flow  flow control enabled. Disagrees with automatic control.
         -(-)flow  flow control disabled. Agrees with automatic control.

       The current line wrap setting (`+wrap' indicates enabled, `-wrap'  not)
       is  also  shown. The flags `ins', `org', `app', `log', `mon' or `nored'
       are displayed when the window is in insert mode, origin mode,  applica-
       tion-keypad  mode,  has  output logging, activity monitoring or partial
       redraw enabled.

       The currently active character set (G0, G1, G2, or G3)  and  in  square
       brackets  the  terminal character sets that are currently designated as
       G0 through G3 is shown. If the window is  in  UTF-8  mode,  the  string
       "UTF-8" is shown instead.

       Additional  modes  depending on the type of the window are displayed at
       the end of the status line (See also chapter "WINDOW TYPES").
       If the state machine of the  terminal  emulator  is  in  a  non-default
       state,  the  info line is started with a string identifying the current
       state.
       For system information use the "time" command.

       ins_reg [key]

       No longer exists, use "paste" instead.

       kill

       Kill current window.
       If there is an `exec' command running then it is killed. Otherwise  the
       process  (shell) running in the window receives a HANGUP condition, the
       window structure is removed  and  screen  (your  display)  switches  to
       another  window.   When  the  last  window  is destroyed, screen exits.
       After a kill screen switches to the previously displayed window.
       Note: Emacs users should keep this command  in  mind,  when  killing  a
       line.   It  is recommended not to use "C-a" as the screen escape key or
       to rebind kill to "C-a K".

       lastmsg

       Redisplay the last contents of  the  message/status  line.   Useful  if
       you're  typing  when  a message appears, because  the message goes away
       when you press a key (unless your terminal has a hardware status line).
       Refer to the commands "msgwait" and "msgminwait" for fine tuning.

       license

       Display  the  disclaimer  page. This is done whenever screen is started
       Warning:  When you leave other shells unlocked and you have no password
       set on screen, the lock is void: One could  easily  re-attach  from  an
       unlocked shell. This feature should rather be called `lockterminal'.

       log [on|off]

       Start/stop writing output of the current window to a file "screenlog.n"
       in the window's default directory, where n is the number of the current
       window.  This filename can be changed with the `logfile' command. If no
       parameter is given, the state of logging is toggled. The session log is
       appended to the previous contents of the file if it already exists. The
       current contents and the contents of the  scrollback  history  are  not
       included in the session log.  Default is `off'.

       logfile filename
       logfile flush secs

       Defines the name the log files will get. The default is "screenlog.%n".
       The second form changes the number of seconds screen will  wait  before
       flushing the logfile buffer to the file-system. The default value is 10
       seconds.

       login [on|off]

       Adds or removes the entry in the utmp database  file  for  the  current
       window.  This controls if the window is `logged in'.  When no parameter
       is given, the login state of the window is  toggled.   Additionally  to
       that  toggle,  it  is convenient having a `log in' and a `log out' key.
       E.g. `bind I login on' and `bind O login off' will map these keys to be
       C-a  I  and C-a O.  The default setting (in config.h.in) should be "on"
       for a screen that runs under suid-root.  Use the "deflogin" command  to
       change  the default login state for new windows. Both commands are only
       present when screen has been compiled with utmp support.

       logtstamp [on|off]
       logtstamp after [secs]
       logtstamp string [string]

       This command controls logfile time-stamp mechanism of screen.  If time-
       stamps  are  turned  "on",  screen adds a string containing the current
       time to the logfile after two minutes of inactivity.  When output  con-
       tinues  and  more  than another two minutes have passed, a second time-
       stamp is added to document the restart of the output.  You  can  change
       this  timeout  with  the  second form of the command. The third form is
       used for customizing the time-stamp string (`-- %n:%t -- time-stamp  --
       %M/%d/%y %c:%s --\n' by default).

       mapdefault

       Tell  screen  that the next input character should only be looked up in
       the default bindkey table. See also "bindkey".

       mapnotnext

       `:'. Example: The string "B=^B:F=^F" will change the keys `C-b' and `C-
       f' to the vi style binding (scroll up/down fill page).  This happens to
       be the  default  binding  for  `B'  and  `F'.   The  command  "markkeys
       h=^B:l=^F:$=^E" would set the mode for an emacs-style binding.  If your
       terminal sends characters, that cause you to abort copy mode, then this
       command  may help by binding these characters to do nothing.  The no-op
       character is `@' and is used like this: "markkeys @=L=H" if you do  not
       want to use the `H' or `L' commands any longer.  As shown in this exam-
       ple, multiple keys can be assigned to one function in a  single  state-
       ment.

       maxwin num

       Set  the  maximum  window  number  screen  will  create. Doesn't affect
       already existing windows. The number may only be decreased.

       meta

       Insert the command  character  (C-a)  in  the  current  window's  input
       stream.

       monitor [on|off]

       Toggles  activity  monitoring of windows.  When monitoring is turned on
       and an affected window  is  switched  into  the  background,  you  will
       receive  the  activity  notification  message in the status line at the
       first sign of output and the window will also be marked with an `@'  in
       the  window-status  display.   Monitoring is initially off for all win-
       dows.

       msgminwait sec

       Defines the time screen delays a new message when one message  is  cur-
       rently displayed.  The default is 1 second.

       msgwait sec

       Defines  the  time a message is displayed if screen is not disturbed by
       other activity. The default is 5 seconds.

       multiuser on|off

       Switch between singleuser and multiuser mode. Standard screen operation
       is  singleuser.  In  multiuser  mode  the  commands `acladd', `aclchg',
       `aclgrp' and `acldel' can be used to enable (and disable)  other  users
       accessing this screen session.

       nethack on|off

       Changes the kind of error messages used by screen.  When you are famil-
       iar with the game "nethack", you may enjoy the  nethack-style  messages
       which will often blur the facts a little, but are much funnier to read.
       Anyway, standard messages often tend to be unclear as well.
       This option is only available if screen was compiled with  the  NETHACK
       accept output. This can happen if a user presses ^S or a TCP/modem con-
       nection gets cut but no hangup is received. If nonblock is off (this is
       the default) screen waits until the display restarts to accept the out-
       put. If nonblock is on, screen waits until the timeout is  reached  (on
       is  treated  as  1s).  If the display still doesn't receive characters,
       screen will consider it "blocked" and stop sending characters to it. If
       at  some time it restarts to accept characters, screen will unblock the
       display and redisplay the updated window contents.

       number [n]

       Change the current windows number. If the given  number  n  is  already
       used  by  another  window,  both  windows exchange their numbers. If no
       argument is specified, the current window number (and title) is shown.

       obuflimit [limit]

       If the output buffer contains more bytes than the specified  limit,  no
       more  data  will be read from the windows. The default value is 256. If
       you have a fast display (like xterm), you can set  it  to  some  higher
       value. If no argument is specified, the current setting is displayed.

       only

       Kill all regions but the current one.

       other

       Switch  to  the  window  displayed  previously.  If this window does no
       longer exist, other has the same effect as next.

       partial on|off

       Defines whether the display should be  refreshed  (as  with  redisplay)
       after  switching  to  the current window. This command only affects the
       current window.  To immediately affect all windows use  the  allpartial
       command.  Default is `off', of course.  This default is fixed, as there
       is currently no defpartial command.

       password [crypted_pw]

       Present a crypted password in your ".screenrc" file and screen will ask
       for  it, whenever someone attempts to resume a detached. This is useful
       if you have privileged programs running under screen and  you  want  to
       protect  your session from reattach attempts by another user masquerad-
       ing as your uid (i.e. any superuser.)  If no crypted password is speci-
       fied, screen prompts twice for typing a password and places its encryp-
       tion in the paste buffer.  Default is `none',  this  disables  password
       checking.

       paste [registers [dest_reg]]

       Write  the  (concatenated)  contents  of the specified registers to the
       stdin queue of the current window. The register '.' is treated  as  the

       pastefont [on|off]

       Tell screen to include  font  information  in  the  paste  buffer.  The
       default  is  not  to do so. This command is especially useful for multi
       character fonts like kanji.

       pow_break

       Reopen the window's terminal line  and  send  a  break  condition.  See
       `break'.

       pow_detach

       Power  detach.  Mainly the same as detach, but also sends a HANGUP sig-
       nal to the parent process of screen.  CAUTION: This will  result  in  a
       logout, when screen was started from your login shell.

       pow_detach_msg [message]

       The message specified here is output whenever a `Power detach' was per-
       formed. It may be used as a replacement for  a  logout  message  or  to
       reset baud rate, etc.  Without parameter, the current message is shown.

       prev

       Switch  to  the window with the next lower number.  This command can be
       used repeatedly to cycle through the list of windows.

       printcmd [cmd]

       If cmd is not an empty string, screen will not use the  terminal  capa-
       bilities  "po/pf"  if  it detects an ansi print sequence ESC [ 5 i, but
       pipe the output into cmd.  This should normally be a command like "lpr"
       or  "'cat  >  /tmp/scrprint'".  printcmd without a command displays the
       current setting.  The ansi sequence ESC \ ends printing and closes  the
       pipe.
       Warning:  Be careful with this command! If other user have write access
       to your terminal, they will be able to fire off print commands.

       process [key]

       Stuff the contents of the specified register into screen's input queue.
       If  no argument is given you are prompted for a register name. The text
       is parsed as if it had been typed in from  the  user's  keyboard.  This
       command can be used to bind multiple actions to a single key.

       quit

       Kill all windows and terminate screen.  Note that on VT100-style termi-
       nals the keys C-4 and C-\ are identical.  This makes the default  bind-
       ings  dangerous:  Be  careful not to type C-a C-4 when selecting window
       no. 4.  Use the empty bind command (as in "bind '^\'") to remove a  key
       binding.
       ister specified or entered at the prompt. With two arguments  it  reads
       the contents of the named file into the register, just as readbuf reads
       the screen-exchange file into the paste buffer.  You  can  tell  screen
       the encoding of the file via the -e option.  The following example will
       paste the system's password file into the screen window (using register
       p, where a copy remains):

                   C-a : readreg p /etc/passwd
                   C-a : paste p

       redisplay

       Redisplay  the  current  window. Needed to get a full redisplay when in
       partial redraw mode.

       register [-e encoding] key string

       Save the specified string to the register key.   The  encoding  of  the
       string  can  be specified via the -e option.  See also the "paste" com-
       mand.

       remove

       Kill the current region. This is a no-op if there is only one region.

       removebuf

       Unlinks the screen-exchange file used by the  commands  "writebuf"  and
       "readbuf".

       reset

       Reset  the  virtual  terminal  to  its  "power-on"  values. Useful when
       strange settings (like scroll regions or graphics  character  set)  are
       left over from an application.

       resize

       Resize  the  current region. The space will be removed from or added to
       the region below or if there's not enough space from the region above.

              resize +N   increase current region height by N

              resize -N   decrease current region height by N

              resize  N   set current region height to N

              resize  =   make all windows equally high

              resize  max maximize current region height

              resize  min minimize current region height

       screen [-opts] [n] [cmd [args]]

                   # example for .screenrc:
                   screen 1
                   screen -fn -t foobar -L 2 telnet foobar

       screen creates a shell window (in window #1) and a window with a TELNET
       connection  to the machine foobar (with no flow-control using the title
       "foobar" in window #2) and will write a logfile ("screenlog.2") of  the
       telnet session.  Note, that unlike previous versions of screen no addi-
       tional default window is created when "screen" commands are included in
       your  ".screenrc"  file.  When  the initialization is completed, screen
       switches to the last window specified in your  .screenrc  file  or,  if
       none, opens a default window #0.
       Screen  has built in some functionality of "cu" and "telnet".  See also
       chapter "WINDOW TYPES".

       scrollback num

       Set the size of the scrollback buffer for the current  windows  to  num
       lines.  The  default scrollback is 100 lines.  See also the "defscroll-
       back" command and use "C-a i" to view the current setting.

       select [WindowID]

       Switch to the window identified by WindowID.  This can be a prefix of a
       window title (alphanumeric window name) or a window number.  The param-
       eter is optional and if omitted, you get prompted  for  an  identifier.
       When  a  new  window  is  established,  the  first  available number is
       assigned to this window.  Thus, the first window can  be  activated  by
       "select  0".   The  number of windows is limited at compile-time by the
       MAXWIN configuration parameter (which defaults to 40 in Debian).  There
       are  two  special  WindowIDs, "-" selects the internal blank window and
       "." selects the current window. The  latter  is  useful  if  used  with
       screen's "-X" option.

       sessionname [name]

       Rename  the  current  session.  Note,  that for "screen -list" the name
       shows up with the process-id prepended. If the argument "name" is omit-
       ted,  the name of this session is displayed. Caution: Among other prob-
       lems, the $STY environment variable still reflects the old  name.   Use
       of  this  command  is  strongly  discouraged.  Use the "-S" commandline
       option if you need this feature.  The default is constructed  from  the
       tty and host names.

       setenv [var [string]]

       Set the environment variable var to value string.  If only var is spec-
       ified, the user will be prompted to enter a value.   If  no  parameters
       are  specified,  the user will be prompted for both variable and value.
       The environment is inherited by all subsequently forked shells.

       setsid [on|off]

       will be started as a login-shell.

       shelltitle title

       Set the title for all shells created during startup or by the  C-A  C-c
       command.   For  details about what a title is, see the discussion enti-
       tled "TITLES (naming windows)".

       silence [on|off|sec]

       Toggles silence monitoring of windows.  When silence is turned  on  and
       an  affected  window  is switched into the background, you will receive
       the silence notification message in the status line after  a  specified
       period of inactivity (silence). The default timeout can be changed with
       the `silencewait' command or by specifying a number of seconds  instead
       of `on' or `off'.  Silence is initially off for all windows.

       silencewait sec

       Define  the  time  that  all  windows monitored for silence should wait
       before displaying a message. Default 30 seconds.

       sleep num

       This command will pause the execution of a .screenrc file for num  sec-
       onds.   Keyboard  activity  will end the sleep.  It may be used to give
       users a chance to read the messages output by "echo".

       slowpaste msec

       Define the speed at which text is inserted into the current  window  by
       the paste ("C-a ]") command.  If the slowpaste value is nonzero text is
       written character by character.  screen will make a pause of msec  mil-
       liseconds after each single character write to allow the application to
       process its input. Only use slowpaste if your underlying system exposes
       flow control problems while pasting large amounts of text.

       source file

       Read and execute commands from file file. Source commands may be nested
       to a maximum recursion level of ten. If file is not  an  absolute  path
       and screen is already processing a source command, the parent directory
       of the running source command file is used to search for the  new  com-
       mand file before screen's current directory.

       Note  that  termcap/terminfo/termcapinfo  commands only work at startup
       and reattach time, so they must be reached  via  the  default  screenrc
       files to have an effect.

       sorendition [attr [color]]

       Change  the  way screen does highlighting for text marking and printing
       messages.  See the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter for the syntax of the modi-
       fiers.  The default is currently "=s dd" (standout, default colors).
       Default is `on', as you probably noticed.

       stuff string

       Stuff the string string in the input  buffer  of  the  current  window.
       This is like the "paste" command but with much less overhead.  You can-
       not paste large buffers with the "stuff" command. It is most useful for
       key bindings. See also "bindkey".

       su [username [password [password2]]

       Substitute  the  user of a display. The command prompts for all parame-
       ters that are omitted. If passwords are specified as  parameters,  they
       have  to be specified un-crypted. The first password is matched against
       the systems passwd database, the second password is matched against the
       screen  password as set with the commands "acladd" or "password".  "Su"
       may be useful for the screen administrator to  test  multiuser  setups.
       When  the  identification  fails,  the  user has access to the commands
       available for user nobody.  These are "detach",  "license",  "version",
       "help" and "displays".

       suspend

       Suspend  screen.  The windows are in the `detached' state, while screen
       is suspended. This feature relies on the shell being  able  to  do  job
       control.

       term term

       In each window's environment screen opens, the $TERM variable is set to
       "screen" by default.  But when no description for "screen" is installed
       in  the  local  termcap or terminfo data base, you set $TERM to - say -
       "vt100". This won't do much harm, as screen is  VT100/ANSI  compatible.
       The  use  of the "term" command is discouraged for non-default purpose.
       That is, one may want to specify special $TERM  settings  (e.g.  vt100)
       for  the  next  "screen  rlogin  othermachine" command. Use the command
       "screen -T vt100 rlogin othermachine" rather than setting and resetting
       the default.

       termcap term terminal-tweaks [window-tweaks]
       terminfo term terminal-tweaks [window-tweaks]
       termcapinfo term terminal-tweaks [window-tweaks]

       Use  this command to modify your terminal's termcap entry without going
       through all the hassles involved in creating a  custom  termcap  entry.
       Plus,  you  can optionally customize the termcap generated for the win-
       dows.  You have to place these commands in one of the screenrc  startup
       files, as they are meaningless once the terminal emulator is booted.
       If  your  system  works uses the terminfo database rather than termcap,
       screen will understand the  `terminfo'  command,  which  has  the  same
       effects  as the `termcap' command.  Two separate commands are provided,
       as there are subtle syntactic differences, e.g. when parameter interpo-
       lation (using `%') is required. Note that termcap names of the capabil-
       ities have to be used with the `terminfo' command.
       enhancing it or overriding existing values.  The first  tweak  modifies
       your  terminal's  termcap,  and contains definitions that your terminal
       uses to perform certain functions.  Specify a null string to leave this
       unchanged (e.g. '').  The second (optional) tweak modifies all the win-
       dow termcaps, and should contain definitions  that  screen  understands
       (see the "VIRTUAL TERMINAL" section).

       Some examples:

              termcap xterm*  LP:hs@

       Informs  screen  that  all  terminals that begin with `xterm' have firm
       auto-margins that allow the last position on the screen to  be  updated
       (LP), but they don't really have a status line (no 'hs' - append `@' to
       turn entries off).  Note that we assume `LP'  for  all  terminal  names
       that  start  with "vt", but only if you don't specify a termcap command
       for that terminal.

              termcap vt*  LP
              termcap vt102|vt220  Z0=\E[?3h:Z1=\E[?3l

       Specifies the firm-margined `LP'  capability  for  all  terminals  that
       begin with `vt', and the second line will also add the escape-sequences
       to switch into (Z0) and back out of (Z1) 132-character-per-line mode if
       this  is a VT102 or VT220.  (You must specify Z0 and Z1 in your termcap
       to use the width-changing commands.)

              termcap vt100  ""  l0=PF1:l1=PF2:l2=PF3:l3=PF4

       This leaves your vt100 termcap alone and adds the function  key  labels
       to each window's termcap entry.

              termcap h19|z19  am@:im=\E@:ei=\EO  dc=\E[P

       Takes a h19 or z19 termcap and turns off auto-margins (am@) and enables
       the insert mode (im) and end-insert (ei) capabilities (the `@'  in  the
       `im' string is after the `=', so it is part of the string).  Having the
       `im' and `ei' definitions put into your terminal's termcap  will  cause
       screen  to  automatically  advertise the character-insert capability in
       each window's termcap.  Each window will also get the  delete-character
       capability  (dc) added to its termcap, which screen will translate into
       a line-update for the terminal (we're  pretending  it  doesn't  support
       character deletion).

       If  you  would  like  to fully specify each window's termcap entry, you
       should instead set the $SCREENCAP variable  prior  to  running  screen.
       See  the  discussion  on the "VIRTUAL TERMINAL" in this manual, and the
       termcap(5) man page for more information on termcap definitions.

       time [string]

       Uses the message line to display the time of day, the  host  name,  and
       the  load  averages  over 1, 5, and 15 minutes (if this is available on
       your system).  For window specific information use "info".

       Unset an environment variable.

       utf8 [on|off [on|off]]

       Change the encoding used in the current window. If utf8 is enabled, the
       strings  sent to the window will be UTF-8 encoded and vice versa. Omit-
       ting the parameter toggles the setting. If a second parameter is given,
       the display's encoding is also changed (this should rather be done with
       screen's "-U" option).  See also "defutf8", which changes  the  default
       setting of a new window.

       vbell [on|off]

       Sets  the  visual  bell setting for this window. Omitting the parameter
       toggles the setting. If vbell is switched on, but  your  terminal  does
       not support a visual bell, a `vbell-message' is displayed in the status
       line when the bell character (^G) is received.  Visual bell support  of
       a terminal is defined by the termcap variable `vb' (terminfo: 'flash').
       Per  default,  vbell  is  off, thus the audible bell is used.  See also
       `bell_msg'.

       vbell_msg [message]

       Sets the visual bell message. message is printed to the status line  if
       the  window  receives  a bell character (^G), vbell is set to "on", but
       the terminal does not support a visual bell.  The  default  message  is
       "Wuff, Wuff!!".  Without parameter, the current message is shown.

       vbellwait sec

       Define  a  delay  in seconds after each display of screen's visual bell
       message. The default is 1 second.

       verbose [on|off]

       If verbose is switched on, the command name is echoed, whenever a  win-
       dow  is  created  (or  resurrected  from zombie state). Default is off.
       Without parameter, the current setting is shown.

       version

       Print the current version and the compile date in the status line.

       wall message

       Write a message to all displays. The message will appear in the  termi-
       nal's status line.

       width [-w|-d] [cols [lines]]

       Toggle  the  window  width between 80 and 132 columns or set it to cols
       columns if an argument is specified.  This requires a capable  terminal
       and  the  termcap entries "Z0" and "Z1".  See the "termcap" command for
       that the current window is also selectable.  The -m option changes  the
       order  of the windows, instead of sorting by window numbers screen uses
       its internal most-recently-used list.

       The table format can be changed with the string and title  option,  the
       title  is displayed as table heading, while the lines are made by using
       the string setting. The default setting is "Num  Name%=Flags"  for  the
       title and "%3n %t%=%f" for the lines.  See the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter
       for more codes (e.g. color settings).

       windows

       Uses the message line to display a list of all the windows.  Each  win-
       dow  is listed by number with the name of process that has been started
       in the window (or its title); the current window is marked with a  `*';
       the  previous  window  is  marked  with a `-'; all the windows that are
       "logged in" are marked  with  a  `$';  a  background  window  that  has
       received a bell is marked with a `!'; a background window that is being
       monitored and has had activity occur is marked with an  `@';  a  window
       which  has output logging turned on is marked with `(L)'; windows occu-
       pied by other users are marked with `&'; windows in  the  zombie  state
       are marked with `Z'.  If this list is too long to fit on the terminal's
       status line only the portion around the current window is displayed.

       wrap [on|off]

       Sets the line-wrap setting for the current window.  When  line-wrap  is
       on,  the second consecutive printable character output at the last col-
       umn of a line will wrap to the start of  the  following  line.   As  an
       added feature, backspace (^H) will also wrap through the left margin to
       the previous line.  Default is `on'.

       writebuf [-e encoding] [filename]

       Writes the contents of the paste buffer to the specified file,  or  the
       public accessible screen-exchange file if no filename is given. This is
       thought of as a primitive means of communication between  screen  users
       on  the  same  host.  If  an  encoding is specified the paste buffer is
       recoded on the fly to match the encoding.  The filename can be set with
       the bufferfile command and defaults to "/tmp/screen-exchange".

       writelock [on|off|auto]

       In addition to access control lists, not all users may be able to write
       to the same window at once. Per default, writelock is  in  `auto'  mode
       and  grants  exclusive input permission to the user who is the first to
       switch to the particular window. When he leaves the window, other users
       may  obtain the writelock (automatically). The writelock of the current
       window is disabled by the command "writelock off". If the  user  issues
       the  command  "writelock  on"  he  keeps the exclusive write permission
       while switching to other windows.

       xoff
       xon
       a  zmodem  endpoint and starts the corresponding rz/sz commands. If the
       mode is set to "auto", screen will use "catch" if the window is  a  tty
       (e.g. a serial line), otherwise it will use "pass".
       You can define the templates screen uses in "catch" mode via the second
       and the third form.
       Note also that this is an experimental feature.

       zombie [keys[onerror]]
       defzombie [keys]

       Per default screen windows are removed from the window list as soon  as
       the  windows  process  (e.g. shell) exits. When a string of two keys is
       specified to the zombie command, `dead'  windows  will  remain  in  the
       list.   The  kill command may be used to remove such a window. Pressing
       the first key in the dead window has the same effect. When pressing the
       second  key,  screen  will attempt to resurrect the window. The process
       that was initially running in the window will be launched again.  Call-
       ing  zombie without parameters will clear the zombie setting, thus mak-
       ing windows disappear when their process exits.

       As the zombie-setting is manipulated globally  for  all  windows,  this
       command  should  only  be called defzombie. Until we need this as a per
       window setting, the commands zombie and defzombie are synonymous.

       Optionally you can put the word "onerror" after  the  keys.  This  will
       cause  screen to monitor exit status of the process running in the win-
       dow. If it exits normally ('0'), the window disappears. Any other  exit
       value causes the window to become a zombie.


THE MESSAGE LINE
       Screen  displays informational messages and other diagnostics in a mes-
       sage line.  While this line is distributed to appear at the  bottom  of
       the screen, it can be defined to appear at the top of the screen during
       compilation.  If your terminal has a status line defined in  its  term-
       cap, screen will use this for displaying its messages, otherwise a line
       of the current screen will be temporarily overwritten and  output  will
       be  momentarily  interrupted. The message line is automatically removed
       after a few seconds delay, but it can also be removed early (on  termi-
       nals without a status line) by beginning to type.

       The  message line facility can be used by an application running in the
       current window by means of the ANSI Privacy message  control  sequence.
       For instance, from within the shell, try something like:

              echo '<esc>^Hello world from window '$WINDOW'<esc>\\'

       where  '<esc>'  is an escape, '^' is a literal up-arrow, and '\\' turns
       into a single backslash.


WINDOW TYPES
       Screen provides three different window types. New windows  are  created
       with screen's screen command (see also the entry in chapter "CUSTOMIZA-
          ified as the first parameter, then the window is directly  connected
          to  this  device.   This  window  type  is  similar to "screen cu -l
          /dev/ttya".  Read and write access is required on the  device  node,
          an  exclusive  open  is attempted on the node to mark the connection
          line as busy.  An optional parameter  is  allowed  consisting  of  a
          comma separated list of flags in the notation used by stty(1):

          <baud_rate>
                 Usually  300,  1200, 9600 or 19200. This affects transmission
                 as well as receive speed.

          cs8 or cs7
                 Specify the transmission of eight (or seven) bits per byte.

          ixon or -ixon
                 Enables (or disables) software  flow-control  (CTRL-S/CTRL-Q)
                 for sending data.

          ixoff or -ixoff
                 Enables  (or  disables)  software  flow-control for receiving
                 data.

          istrip or -istrip
                 Clear (or keep) the eight bit in each received byte.

          You may want to specify as many  of  these  options  as  applicable.
          Unspecified options cause the terminal driver to make up the parame-
          ter values of the connection.  These values are system dependent and
          may be in defaults or values saved from a previous connection.

          For  tty  windows,  the info command shows some of the modem control
          lines in the status line. These may  include  `RTS',  `CTS',  'DTR',
          `DSR',  `CD'  and more.  This depends on the available ioctl()'s and
          system header files as well as the on the physical  capabilities  of
          the  serial  board.   Signals  that  are logical low (inactive) have
          their name preceded by an exclamation mark (!), otherwise the signal
          is logical high (active).  Signals not supported by the hardware but
          available to the ioctl() interface are usually shown low.
          When the CLOCAL status bit is true, the whole set of  modem  signals
          is  placed inside curly braces ({ and }).  When the CRTSCTS or TIOC-
          SOFTCAR bit is set, the signals `CTS' or `CD' are shown in parenthe-
          sis, respectively.


          For tty windows, the command break causes the Data transmission line
          (TxD) to go low for a specified period of time. This is expected  to
          be  interpreted  as break signal on the other side.  No data is sent
          and no modem control line is changed when a break is issued.

       o  If the first  parameter  is  "//telnet",  the  second  parameter  is
          expected  to  be  a  host  name, and an optional third parameter may
          specify a TCP port number (default decimal 23).  Screen will connect
          to a server listening on the remote host and use the telnet protocol
          to communicate with that server.
                 erwise (see also the command `term').

          w      NAWS. The remote site is notified about window size changes.

          f      LFLOW. The remote host will send  flow  control  information.
                 (Ignored at the moment.)

          Additional  flags for debugging are x, t and n (XDISPLOC, TSPEED and
          NEWENV).

          For telnet windows, the command break  sends  the  telnet  code  IAC
          BREAK (decimal 243) to the remote host.


          This  window  type is only available if screen was compiled with the
          BUILTIN_TELNET option defined.



STRING ESCAPES
       Screen provides an escape mechanism to insert information like the cur-
       rent time into messages or file names. The escape character is '%' with
       one exception: inside of a window's  hardstatus  '^%'  ('^E')  is  used
       instead.

       Here is the full list of supported escapes:

       %      the escape character itself

       a      either 'am' or 'pm'

       A      either 'AM' or 'PM'

       c      current time HH:MM in 24h format

       C      current time HH:MM in 12h format

       d      day number

       D      weekday name

       f      flags of the window

       F      sets %? to true if the window has the focus

       h      hardstatus of the window

       H      hostname of the system

       l      current load of the system

       m      month number

       M      month name

       W      all window numbers and names except the current one

       y      last two digits of the year number

       Y      full year number

       ?      the  part  to  the  next  '%?' is displayed only if a '%' escape
              inside the part expands to a non-empty string

       :      else part of '%?'

       =      pad the string to the display's width (like TeX's hfill).  If  a
              number  is  specified,  pad  to  the  percentage of the window's
              width.  A '0' qualifier tells screen  to  treat  the  number  as
              absolute  position.  You can specify to pad relative to the last
              absolute pad position by adding a '+' qualifier or to pad  rela-
              tive to the right margin by using '-'. The padding truncates the
              string if the specified position lies before the  current  posi-
              tion. Add the 'L' qualifier to change this.

       <      same as '%=' but just do truncation, do not fill with spaces

       >      mark  the  current  text  position for the next truncation. When
              screen needs to do truncation, it tries to do it in a  way  that
              the  marked  position  gets moved to the specified percentage of
              the output area. (The area starts from  the  last  absolute  pad
              position  and ends with the position specified by the truncation
              operator.) The 'L' qualifier tells screen to mark the  truncated
              parts with '...'.

       {      attribute/color modifier string terminated by the next "}"

       `      Substitute  with  the output of a 'backtick' command. The length
              qualifier is misused to identify one of the commands.

       The 'c' and 'C' escape may be qualified with a '0' to make  screen  use
       zero  instead  of space as fill character. The '0' qualifier also makes
       the '=' escape use absolute positions. The 'n' and '='  escapes  under-
       stand a length qualifier (e.g. '%3n'), 'D' and 'M' can be prefixed with
       'L' to generate long names, 'w' and 'W' also show the window  flags  if
       'L' is given.

       An  attribute/color modifier is is used to change the attributes or the
       color settings. Its format is  "[attribute  modifier]  [color  descrip-
       tion]".  The attribute modifier must be prefixed by a change type indi-
       cator if it can be confused with a  color  description.  The  following
       change types are known:

       +      add the specified set to the current attributes

       -      remove the set from the current attributes

       !      invert the set in the current attributes

       Colors are coded either as a hexadecimal number or two letters specify-
       ing  the  desired  background and foreground color (in that order). The
       following colors are known:

       k      black
       r      red
       g      green
       y      yellow
       b      blue
       m      magenta
       c      cyan
       w      white
       d      default color
       .      leave color unchanged

       The capitalized versions of the letter specify bright colors.  You  can
       also  use the pseudo-color 'i' to set just the brightness and leave the
       color unchanged.
       A one digit/letter color description is treated as foreground or  back-
       ground  color  dependent  on the current attributes: if reverse mode is
       set, the background color is changed instead of the  foreground  color.
       If  you  don't  like this, prefix the color with a ".". If you want the
       same behavior for two-letter color descriptions, also prefix them  with
       a ".".
       As  a special case, "%{-}" restores the attributes and colors that were
       set before the last change was made (i.e., pops one level of the color-
       change stack).

       Examples:

       "G"    set color to bright green

       "+b r" use bold red

       "= yd" clear  all  attributes,  write  in default color on yellow back-
              ground.

       %-Lw%{= BW}%50>%n%f* %t%{-}%+Lw%<
              The available windows centered at the current window  and  trun-
              cated  to  the  available width. The current window is displayed
              white on blue.  This can be used  with  "hardstatus  alwayslast-
              line".

       %?%F%{.R.}%?%3n %t%? [%h]%?
              The  window number and title and the window's hardstatus, if one
              is set.  Also use a red background if this is the active  focus.
              Useful for "caption string".

FLOW-CONTROL
       Each window has a flow-control setting that determines how screen deals
       with the XON and XOFF characters (and perhaps the interrupt character).
       When  flow-control is turned off, screen ignores the XON and XOFF char-
       acters, which allows the user to send them to the  current  program  by
       set  to  automatic  flow-switching.  It can then be toggled between the
       three states 'fixed on', 'fixed off' and 'automatic' interactively with
       the "flow" command bound to "C-a f".

       The  automatic  flow-switching  mode  deals with flow control using the
       TIOCPKT mode (like "rlogin" does). If the tty driver does  not  support
       TIOCPKT,  screen  tries to find out the right mode based on the current
       setting of the application keypad - when it is enabled, flow-control is
       turned  off  and visa versa.  Of course, you can still manipulate flow-
       control manually when needed.

       If you're running with flow-control enabled and find that pressing  the
       interrupt  key  (usually  C-c)  does  not  interrupt  the display until
       another 6-8 lines have scrolled by, try running screen with the "inter-
       rupt"  option  (add  the "interrupt" flag to the "flow" command in your
       .screenrc, or use the -i command-line option).  This causes the  output
       that screen has accumulated from the interrupted program to be flushed.
       One disadvantage is that the virtual  terminal's  memory  contains  the
       non-flushed  version of the output, which in rare cases can cause minor
       inaccuracies in the output.  For example, if  you  switch  screens  and
       return,  or update the screen with "C-a l" you would see the version of
       the output you would have gotten without "interrupt" being  on.   Also,
       you  might need to turn off flow-control (or use auto-flow mode to turn
       it off automatically) when running a program that expects you  to  type
       the  interrupt  character  as input, as it is possible to interrupt the
       output of the virtual terminal to your physical terminal when flow-con-
       trol  is enabled.  If this happens, a simple refresh of the screen with
       "C-a l" will restore it.  Give each mode a try, and use whichever  mode
       you find more comfortable.



TITLES (naming windows)
       You can customize each window's name in the window display (viewed with
       the "windows" command (C-a w)) by setting it with one of the title com-
       mands.   Normally  the name displayed is the actual command name of the
       program created in the window.  However, it is sometimes useful to dis-
       tinguish  various  programs  of the same name or to change the name on-
       the-fly to reflect the current state of the window.

       The default name for all shell windows can be set with the "shelltitle"
       command in the .screenrc file, while all other windows are created with
       a "screen" command and thus can have their name set with the -t option.
       Interactively,    there    is    the    title-string    escape-sequence
       (<esc>kname<esc>\) and the "title" command (C-a A).  The former can  be
       output  from an application to control the window's name under software
       control, and the latter will prompt for a name  when  typed.   You  can
       also  bind  pre-defined  names  to keys with the "title" command to set
       things quickly without prompting.

       Finally, screen has a shell-specific heuristic that is enabled by  set-
       ting  the  window's  name to "search|name" and arranging to have a null
       title escape-sequence output as a part of your prompt.  The search por-
       tion  specifies  an end-of-prompt search string, while the name portion
       from the shell, a search is made for the end of the prompt.  If  found,
       it  will grab the first word after the matched string and use it as the
       command name.  If the command name begins with either '!', '%', or  '^'
       screen  will  use  the  first  word on the following line (if found) in
       preference to the just-found name.  This helps  csh  users  get  better
       command names when using job control or history recall commands.

       Here's some .screenrc examples:

              screen -t top 2 nice top

       Adding  this line to your .screenrc would start a nice-d version of the
       "top" command in window 2 named "top" rather than "nice".

                   shelltitle '> |csh'
                   screen 1

       These commands would start a shell  with  the  given  shelltitle.   The
       title  specified  is an auto-title that would expect the prompt and the
       typed command to look something like the following:

              /usr/joe/src/dir> trn

       (it looks after the '> ' for the  command  name).   The  window  status
       would  show the name "trn" while the command was running, and revert to
       "csh" upon completion.

              bind R screen -t '% |root:' su

       Having this command in your .screenrc would bind the key sequence  "C-a
       R"  to the "su" command and give it an auto-title name of "root:".  For
       this auto-title to work, the screen could look something like this:

                   % !em
                   emacs file.c

       Here the user typed the csh history command "!em" which ran the  previ-
       ously   entered   "emacs"   command.   The  window  status  would  show
       "root:emacs" during the execution of the command, and revert to  simply
       "root:" at its completion.

                   bind o title
                   bind E title ""
                   bind u title (unknown)

       The  first  binding  doesn't have any arguments, so it would prompt you
       for a title. when you type "C-a o".  The second binding would clear  an
       auto-title's  current setting (C-a E).  The third binding would set the
       current window's title to "(unknown)" (C-a u).

       One thing to keep in mind when adding a null  title-escape-sequence  to
       your  prompt  is that some shells (like the csh) count all the non-con-
       trol characters as part of the prompt's  length.   If  these  invisible
       characters  aren't  a  multiple  of  8 then backspacing over a tab will
       (I used "134" to output a `\' because of a bug in bash v1.04).



THE VIRTUAL TERMINAL
       Each window in a screen session emulates a VT100  terminal,  with  some
       extra  functions added. The VT100 emulator is hard-coded, no other ter-
       minal types can be emulated.
       Usually screen tries to emulate as much of the VT100/ANSI  standard  as
       possible.  But  if your terminal lacks certain capabilities, the emula-
       tion may not be complete. In these cases screen has to tell the  appli-
       cations  that  some  of the features are missing. This is no problem on
       machines using termcap, because screen can use the $TERMCAP variable to
       customize the standard screen termcap.

       But if you do a rlogin on another machine or your machine supports only
       terminfo this method fails. Because of this, screen  offers  a  way  to
       deal with these cases.  Here is how it works:

       When  screen  tries  to figure out a terminal name for itself, it first
       looks for an entry named "screen.<term>", where <term> is the  contents
       of your $TERM variable.  If no such entry exists, screen tries "screen"
       (or "screen-w" if the terminal is wide (132 cols or  more)).   If  even
       this entry cannot be found, "vt100" is used as a substitute.

       The idea is that if you have a terminal which doesn't support an impor-
       tant feature (e.g. delete char or clear to EOS) you  can  build  a  new
       termcap/terminfo  entry for screen (named "screen.<dumbterm>") in which
       this capability has been disabled. If this entry is installed  on  your
       machines  you  are able to do a rlogin and still keep the correct term-
       cap/terminfo entry.  The terminal name is put in the $TERM variable  of
       all new windows.  Screen also sets the $TERMCAP variable reflecting the
       capabilities of the virtual terminal emulated. Notice that, however, on
       machines using the terminfo database this variable has no effect.  Fur-
       thermore, the variable $WINDOW is set to the window number of each win-
       dow.

       The  actual  set  of  capabilities  supported  by  the virtual terminal
       depends on the capabilities supported by the  physical  terminal.   If,
       for  instance,  the physical terminal does not support underscore mode,
       screen does not put the `us' and `ue' capabilities  into  the  window's
       $TERMCAP variable, accordingly.  However, a minimum number of capabili-
       ties must be supported by a terminal in order  to  run  screen;  namely
       scrolling,  clear  screen,  and  direct cursor addressing (in addition,
       screen does not run on hardcopy terminals or on  terminals  that  over-
       strike).

       Also,  you can customize the $TERMCAP value used by screen by using the
       "termcap" .screenrc command, or by  defining  the  variable  $SCREENCAP
       prior to startup.  When the is latter defined, its value will be copied
       verbatim into each window's $TERMCAP variable.  This can either be  the
       full  terminal  definition,  or  a filename where the terminal "screen"
       (and/or "screen-w") is defined.

       capabilities `S0', `E0', and `C0' if present. `S0' is the sequence  the
       terminal  uses  to  enable  and start the graphics character set rather
       than SI.  `E0' is the corresponding replacement for SO.  `C0'  gives  a
       character  by  character  translation  string that is used during semi-
       graphics mode. This string is built like the `acsc'  terminfo  capabil-
       ity.

       When the `po' and `pf' capabilities are present in the terminal's term-
       cap entry, applications running in a screen window can send  output  to
       the printer port of the terminal.  This allows a user to have an appli-
       cation in one window sending output to a printer connected to the  ter-
       minal,  while  all  other windows are still active (the printer port is
       enabled and disabled again for each  chunk  of  output).   As  a  side-
       effect,  programs  running  in different windows can send output to the
       printer simultaneously.  Data sent to the printer is not  displayed  in
       the window.  The info command displays a line starting `PRIN' while the
       printer is active.

       Screen maintains a hardstatus line for every window. If a  window  gets
       selected,  the  display's  hardstatus will be updated to match the win-
       dow's hardstatus line. If the display has no hardstatus the  line  will
       be  displayed as a standard screen message.  The hardstatus line can be
       changed   with   the   ANSI   Application   Program   Command    (APC):
       "ESC_<string>ESC\".  As  a  convenience  for  xterm  users the sequence
       "ESC]0..2;<string>^G" is also accepted.

       Some capabilities are only put into the $TERMCAP variable of  the  vir-
       tual  terminal  if  they can be efficiently implemented by the physical
       terminal.  For instance, `dl' (delete line) is only put into the $TERM-
       CAP  variable  if  the  terminal  supports either delete line itself or
       scrolling regions. Note that this may provoke confusion, when the  ses-
       sion  is  reattached  on a different terminal, as the value of $TERMCAP
       cannot be modified by parent processes.

       The "alternate screen" capability is not enabled by default.   Set  the
       altscreen .screenrc command to enable it.

       The  following  is  a  list  of control sequences recognized by screen.
       "(V)" and "(A)" indicate VT100-specific and ANSI- or ISO-specific func-
       tions, respectively.

       ESC E                      Next Line

       ESC D                      Index

       ESC M                      Reverse Index

       ESC H                      Horizontal Tab Set

       ESC Z                      Send VT100 Identification String

       ESC 7                 (V)  Save Cursor and Attributes

       ESC 8                 (V)  Restore Cursor and Attributes

                7                 Visible

       ESC =                 (V)  Application Keypad Mode

       ESC >                 (V)  Numeric Keypad Mode

       ESC # 8               (V)  Fill Screen with E's

       ESC \                 (A)  String Terminator

       ESC ^                 (A)  Privacy Message String (Message Line)

       ESC !                      Global Message String (Message Line)

       ESC k                      A.k.a. Definition String

       ESC P                 (A)  Device  Control  String.   Outputs  a string
                                  directly to the host terminal without inter-
                                  pretation.

       ESC _                 (A)  Application Program Command (Hardstatus)

       ESC ] 0 ; string ^G   (A)  Operating  System Command (Hardstatus, xterm
                                  title hack)

       ESC ] 83 ; cmd ^G     (A)  Execute screen command. This only  works  if
                                  multi-user  support is compiled into screen.
                                  The pseudo-user ":window:" is used to  check
                                  the  access  control list. Use "addacl :win-
                                  dow: -rwx #?"  to  create  a  user  with  no
                                  rights and allow only the needed commands.

       Control-N             (A)  Lock Shift G1 (SO)

       Control-O             (A)  Lock Shift G0 (SI)

       ESC n                 (A)  Lock Shift G2

       ESC o                 (A)  Lock Shift G3

       ESC N                 (A)  Single Shift G2

       ESC O                 (A)  Single Shift G3

       ESC ( Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G0

       ESC ) Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G1

       ESC * Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G2

       ESC + Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G3

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn H            Direct Cursor Addressing

             Pn = None or 0       From Cursor to End of Line

                  1               From Beginning of Line to Cursor

                  2               Entire Line

       ESC [ Pn X                 Erase character

       ESC [ Pn A                 Cursor Up

       ESC [ Pn B                 Cursor Down

       ESC [ Pn C                 Cursor Right

       ESC [ Pn D                 Cursor Left

       ESC [ Pn E                 Cursor next line

       ESC [ Pn F                 Cursor previous line

       ESC [ Pn G                 Cursor horizontal position

       ESC [ Pn `                 same as above

       ESC [ Pn d                 Cursor vertical position

       ESC [ Ps ;...; Ps m        Select Graphic Rendition

             Ps = None or 0       Default Rendition

                  1               Bold

                  2          (A)  Faint

                  3          (A)  Standout Mode (ANSI: Italicized)

                  4               Underlined

                  5               Blinking

                  7               Negative Image

                  22         (A)  Normal Intensity

                  23         (A)  Standout Mode off (ANSI: Italicized off)

                  24         (A)  Not Underlined

                  25         (A)  Not Blinking

                  27         (A)  Positive Image

                  30         (A)  Foreground Black

                  37         (A)  Foreground White

                  39         (A)  Foreground Default

                  40         (A)  Background Black

                  ...             ...

                  49         (A)  Background Default

       ESC [ Pn g                 Tab Clear

             Pn = None or 0       Clear Tab at Current Position

                  3               Clear All Tabs

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn r       (V)  Set Scrolling Region

       ESC [ Pn I            (A)  Horizontal Tab

       ESC [ Pn Z            (A)  Backward Tab

       ESC [ Pn L            (A)  Insert Line

       ESC [ Pn M            (A)  Delete Line

       ESC [ Pn @            (A)  Insert Character

       ESC [ Pn P            (A)  Delete Character

       ESC [ Pn S                 Scroll Scrolling Region Up

       ESC [ Pn T                 Scroll Scrolling Region Down

       ESC [ Pn ^                 same as above

       ESC [ Ps ;...; Ps h        Set Mode

       ESC [ Ps ;...; Ps l        Reset Mode

             Ps = 4          (A)  Insert Mode

                  20         (A)  Automatic Linefeed Mode

                  34              Normal Cursor Visibility

                  ?1         (V)  Application Cursor Keys

                  ?3         (V)  Change Terminal Width to 132 columns

                  ?5         (V)  Reverse Video

                  ?6         (V)  Origin Mode

                  ?1049           Alternate Screen (new xterm code)

       ESC [ 5 i             (A)  Start relay to printer (ANSI Media Copy)

       ESC [ 4 i             (A)  Stop relay to printer (ANSI Media Copy)

       ESC [ 8 ; Ph ; Pw t        Resize  the  window  to  `Ph' lines and `Pw'
                                  columns (SunView special)

       ESC [ c                    Send VT100 Identification String

       ESC [ x                    Send Terminal Parameter Report

       ESC [ > c                  Send  VT220  Secondary   Device   Attributes
                                  String

       ESC [ 6 n                  Send Cursor Position Report



INPUT TRANSLATION
       In  order  to  do  a  full  VT100 emulation screen has to detect that a
       sequence of characters in the input stream was generated by a  keypress
       on  the  user's  keyboard  and  insert the VT100 style escape sequence.
       Screen has a very flexible way of doing this by making it  possible  to
       map  arbitrary commands on arbitrary sequences of characters. For stan-
       dard VT100 emulation the command will always insert  a  string  in  the
       input  buffer  of the window (see also command stuff in the command ta-
       ble).  Because the sequences generated by a keypress can change after a
       reattach  from  a  different terminal type, it is possible to bind com-
       mands to the termcap name of the keys.  Screen will insert the  correct
       binding  after  each  reattach.  See  the  bindkey  command for further
       details on the syntax and examples.

       Here is the table of the default key bindings. (A) means that the  com-
       mand is executed if the keyboard is switched into application mode.

       Key name          Termcap name    Command
       ______________________________________________________
       Cursor up             ku          stuff \033[A
                                         stuff \033OA    (A)
       Cursor down           kd          stuff \033[B
                                         stuff \033OB    (A)
       Cursor right          kr          stuff \033[C
                                         stuff \033OC    (A)
       Cursor left           kl          stuff \033[D
                                         stuff \033OD    (A)
       Function key 0        k0          stuff \033[10~
       Function key 1        k1          stuff \033OP
       Function key 2        k2          stuff \033OQ
       Function key 3        k3          stuff \033OR
       Function key 4        k4          stuff \033OS
       Function key 5        k5          stuff \033[15~
       Page down             kN          stuff \033[6~
       Keypad 0              f0          stuff 0
                                         stuff \033Op    (A)
       Keypad 1              f1          stuff 1
                                         stuff \033Oq    (A)
       Keypad 2              f2          stuff 2
                                         stuff \033Or    (A)
       Keypad 3              f3          stuff 3
                                         stuff \033Os    (A)
       Keypad 4              f4          stuff 4
                                         stuff \033Ot    (A)
       Keypad 5              f5          stuff 5
                                         stuff \033Ou    (A)
       Keypad 6              f6          stuff 6
                                         stuff \033Ov    (A)
       Keypad 7              f7          stuff 7
                                         stuff \033Ow    (A)
       Keypad 8              f8          stuff 8
                                         stuff \033Ox    (A)
       Keypad 9              f9          stuff 9
                                         stuff \033Oy    (A)
       Keypad +              f+          stuff +
                                         stuff \033Ok    (A)
       Keypad -              f-          stuff -
                                         stuff \033Om    (A)
       Keypad *              f*          stuff *
                                         stuff \033Oj    (A)
       Keypad /              f/          stuff /
                                         stuff \033Oo    (A)
       Keypad =              fq          stuff =
                                         stuff \033OX    (A)
       Keypad .              f.          stuff .
                                         stuff \033On    (A)
       Keypad ,              f,          stuff ,
                                         stuff \033Ol    (A)
       Keypad enter          fe          stuff \015
                                         stuff \033OM    (A)



SPECIAL TERMINAL CAPABILITIES
       The following table describes all terminal capabilities that are recog-
       nized by screen and are not in the termcap(5) manual.   You  can  place
       these  capabilities  in your termcap entries (in `/etc/termcap') or use
       them with the commands `termcap', `terminfo' and `termcapinfo' in  your
       screenrc files. It is often not possible to place these capabilities in
       the terminfo database.

       LP   (bool)  Terminal has VT100 style margins (`magic  margins').  Note
                    that  this  capability is obsolete because screen uses the
                    standard 'xn' instead.

       Z0   (str)   Change width to 132 columns.

                    '\E(%.'.

       E0   (str)   Switch charset 'G0' back to standard charset.  Default  is
                    '\E(B'.

       C0   (str)   Use the string as a conversion table for font '0'. See the
                    'ac' capability for more details.

       CS   (str)   Switch cursor-keys to application mode.

       CE   (str)   Switch cursor-keys back to normal mode.

       AN   (bool)  Turn on autonuke. See  the  'autonuke'  command  for  more
                    details.

       OL   (num)   Set  the  output buffer limit. See the 'obuflimit' command
                    for more details.

       KJ   (str)   Set the encoding of the terminal. See the 'encoding'  com-
                    mand for valid encodings.

       AF   (str)   Change  character foreground color in an ANSI conform way.
                    This capability will almost always  be  set  to  '\E[3%dm'
                    ('\E[3%p1%dm' on terminfo machines).

       AB   (str)   Same as 'AF', but change background color.

       AX   (bool)  Does  understand  ANSI  set  default fg/bg color (\E[39m /
                    \E[49m).

       XC   (str)   Describe a translation of characters to strings  depending
                    on  the current font. More details follow in the next sec-
                    tion.

       XT   (bool)  Terminal understands special xterm sequences  (OSC,  mouse
                    tracking).

       C8   (bool)  Terminal needs bold to display high-intensity colors (e.g.
                    Eterm).

       TF   (bool)  Add missing capabilities to the termcap/info  entry.  (Set
                    by default).


CHARACTER TRANSLATION
       Screen  has  a  powerful mechanism to translate characters to arbitrary
       strings depending on the current font and terminal type.  Use this fea-
       ture  if  you  want  to  work with a common standard character set (say
       ISO8851-latin1) even on terminals that scatter the more unusual charac-
       ters over several national language font pages.

       Syntax:
           XC=<charset-mapping>{,,<charset-mapping>}
           <charset-mapping> := <designator><template>{,<mapping>}

       the  full  string  in  <template-arg>. A quoting mechanism was added to
       make it possible to use a real '%'. The '\' character quotes  the  spe-
       cial characters '\', '%', and ','.

       Here is an example:

           termcap hp700 'XC=B\E(K%\E(B,\304[,\326\\\\,\334]'

       This  tells  screen how to translate ISOlatin1 (charset 'B') upper case
       umlaut characters on a hp700 terminal that has a German charset. '\304'
       gets  translated  to  '\E(K[\E(B'  and so on.  Note that this line gets
       parsed *three* times before the internal lookup table is built,  there-
       fore a lot of quoting is needed to create a single '\'.

       Another  extension  was  added  to  allow  more emulation: If a mapping
       translates the unquoted '%' char, it will be sent to the terminal when-
       ever screen switches to the corresponding <designator>. In this special
       case the template is assumed to be just '%' because the charset  switch
       sequence and the character mappings normally haven't much in common.

       This example shows one use of the extension:

           termcap xterm 'XC=K%,%\E(B,[\304,\\\\\326,]\334'

       Here,  a  part of the German ('K') charset is emulated on an xterm.  If
       screen has to change to the 'K' charset, '\E(B' will  be  sent  to  the
       terminal,  i.e. the ASCII charset is used instead. The template is just
       '%', so the mapping is straightforward: '[' to '\304', '\'  to  '\326',
       and ']' to '\334'.


ENVIRONMENT
       COLUMNS        Number  of  columns  on  the terminal (overrides termcap
                      entry).
       HOME           Directory in which to look for .screenrc.
       LINES          Number of  lines  on  the  terminal  (overrides  termcap
                      entry).
       LOCKPRG        Screen lock program.
       NETHACKOPTIONS Turns on nethack option.
       PATH           Used for locating programs to run.
       SCREENCAP      For customizing a terminal's TERMCAP value.
       SCREENDIR      Alternate socket directory.
       SCREENRC       Alternate user screenrc file.
       SHELL          Default  shell  program  for  opening  windows  (default
                      "/bin/sh").
       STY            Alternate socket name.
       SYSSCREENRC    Alternate system screenrc file.
       TERM           Terminal name.
       TERMCAP        Terminal description.
       WINDOW         Window number of a window (at creation time).

FILES
       .../screen-4.?.??/etc/screenrc
       .../screen-4.?.??/etc/etcscreenrc Examples in the  screen  distribution
       /tmp/screen-exchange              screen   `interprocess  communication
                                         buffer'
       hardcopy.[0-9]                    Screen images created by the hardcopy
                                         function
       screenlog.[0-9]                   Output  log  files created by the log
                                         function
       /usr/lib/terminfo/?/*             or
       /etc/termcap                      Terminal capability databases
       /var/run/utmp                     Login records
       $LOCKPRG                          Program that locks a terminal.


SEE ALSO
       termcap(5), utmp(5), vi(1), captoinfo(1), tic(1)


AUTHORS
       Originally created by Oliver Laumann, this latest version was  produced
       by Wayne Davison, Juergen Weigert and Michael Schroeder.

COPYLEFT
       Copyright (C) 1993-2003
            Juergen Weigert (jnweiger@immd4.informatik.uni-erlangen.de)
            Michael Schroeder (mlschroe@immd4.informatik.uni-erlangen.de)
       Copyright (C) 1987 Oliver Laumann
       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
       under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published  by  the
       Free  Software  Foundation;  either  version 2, or (at your option) any
       later version.
       This program is distributed in the hope that it  will  be  useful,  but
       WITHOUT  ANY  WARRANTY;  without  even  the  implied  warranty  of MER-
       CHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU  General
       Public License for more details.
       You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along
       with this program (see the file COPYING); if not,  write  to  the  Free
       Software  Foundation,  Inc.,  59  Temple  Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA
       02111-1307, USA

CONTRIBUTORS
       Ken Beal (kbeal@amber.ssd.csd.harris.com),
       Rudolf Koenig (rfkoenig@immd4.informatik.uni-erlangen.de),
       Toerless Eckert (eckert@immd4.informatik.uni-erlangen.de),
       Wayne Davison (davison@borland.com),
       Patrick Wolfe (pat@kai.com, kailand!pat),
       Bart Schaefer (schaefer@cse.ogi.edu),
       Nathan Glasser (nathan@brokaw.lcs.mit.edu),
       Larry W. Virden (lvirden@cas.org),
       Howard Chu (hyc@hanauma.jpl.nasa.gov),
       Tim MacKenzie (tym@dibbler.cs.monash.edu.au),
       Markku Jarvinen (mta@{cc,cs,ee}.tut.fi),
       Marc Boucher (marc@CAM.ORG),
       Doug Siebert (dsiebert@isca.uiowa.edu),
       Ken Stillson (stillson@tsfsrv.mitre.org),
       Ian Frechett (frechett@spot.Colorado.EDU),


VERSION
       This is version 4.0.2. Its roots are a merge of a custom version 2.3PR7
       by  Wayne  Davison and several enhancements to Oliver Laumann's version
       2.0. Note that all versions numbered 2.x are copyright by  Oliver  Lau-
       mann.

AVAILABILITY
       The  latest official release of screen available via anonymous ftp from
       gnudist.gnu.org, nic.funet.fi or any other GNU distribution  site.  The
       home site of screen is ftp.uni-erlangen.de, in the directory pub/utili-
       ties/screen. The subdirectory `private' contains the latest beta  test-
       ing  release.  If  you  want  to help, send a note to screen@uni-erlan-
       gen.de.

BUGS
       o  `dm' (delete mode) and `xs' are  not  handled  correctly  (they  are
          ignored). `xn' is treated as a magic-margin indicator.

       o  Screen has no clue about double-high or double-wide characters.  But
          this is the only area where vttest is allowed to fail.

       o  It is not possible to change the environment variable $TERMCAP  when
          reattaching under a different terminal type.

       o  The  support of terminfo based systems is very limited. Adding extra
          capabilities to $TERMCAP may not have any effects.

       o  Screen does not make use of hardware tabs.

       o  Screen must be installed as set-uid with owner root on most  systems
          in  order to be able to correctly change the owner of the tty device
          file for each window.  Special permission may also  be  required  to
          write the file "/var/run/utmp".

       o  Entries  in  "/var/run/utmp"  are  not removed when screen is killed
          with SIGKILL.  This will cause some programs (like "w" or "rwho") to
          advertise that a user is logged on who really isn't.

       o  Screen may give a strange warning when your tty has no utmp entry.

       o  When the modem line was hung up, screen may not automatically detach
          (or quit) unless the device driver is configured to  send  a  HANGUP
          signal.   To  detach  a screen session use the -D or -d command line
          option.

       o  If a password is set, the command  line  options  -d  and  -D  still
          detach a session without asking.

       o  Both  "breaktype"  and  "defbreaktype"  change  the break generating
          method used by all terminal devices. The first should change a  win-
          dow  specific  setting,  where  the  latter  should  change only the
          default for new windows.



4th Berkeley Distribution          Aug 2003                          SCREEN(1)
Man Pages Copyright Respective Owners. Site Copyright (C) 1994 - 2017 Hurricane Electric. All Rights Reserved.