sar

       sar [ -A ] [ -B ] [ -b ] [ -C ] [ -D ] [ -d ] [ -F [ MOUNT ] ] [ -H ] [
       -h ] [ -p ] [ -q ] [ -R ] [ -r [ ALL ] ] [ -S ] [ -t ] [ -u [ ALL ] ] [
       -V  ]  [ -v ] [ -W ] [ -w ] [ -y ] [ --sadc ] [ -I { int [,...] | SUM |
       ALL | XALL } ] [ -P { cpu [,...] | ALL } ] [ -m { keyword [,...] |  ALL
       }  ]  [ -n { keyword [,...] | ALL } ] [ -j { ID | LABEL | PATH | UUID |
       ... } ] [ -f [ filename ] | -o [ filename ] | -[0-9]+ ] [ -i interval ]
       [ -s [ hh:mm[:ss] ] ] [ -e [ hh:mm[:ss] ] ] [ interval [ count ] ]

DESCRIPTION
       The  sar  command  writes  to  standard output the contents of selected
       cumulative activity counters in the operating  system.  The  accounting
       system,  based  on  the  values  in  the count and interval parameters,
       writes information the specified number of times spaced at  the  speci-
       fied  intervals  in seconds.  If the interval parameter is set to zero,
       the sar command displays the average statistics for the time since  the
       system  was started. If the interval parameter is specified without the
       count parameter, then reports are  generated  continuously.   The  col-
       lected  data can also be saved in the file specified by the -o filename
       flag, in addition to being displayed onto the screen.  If  filename  is
       omitted,  sar  uses  the  standard system activity daily data file (see
       below).  By default all the data available from the kernel are saved in
       the data file.

       The  sar  command extracts and writes to standard output records previ-
       ously saved in a file. This file can be either the one specified by the
       -f  flag  or, by default, the standard system activity daily data file.
       It is also possible to enter -1, -2 etc. as an argument to sar to  dis-
       play  data of that days ago. For example, -1 will point at the standard
       system activity file of yesterday.

       Standard system activity daily data files are named saDD or saYYYYMMDD,
       where YYYY stands for the current year, MM for the current month and DD
       for the current day. They are the default files used by sar  only  when
       no  filename has been explicitly specified.  When used to write data to
       files (with its option -o), sar will use saYYYYMMDD if  option  -D  has
       also  been  specified, else it will use saDD.  When used to display the
       records previously saved in a file, sar will look for the  most  recent
       of saDD and saYYYYMMDD, and use it.

       Standard   system   activity  daily  data  files  are  located  in  the
       /var/log/sysstat directory by default. Yet it is possible to specify an
       alternate  location  for them: If a directory (instead of a plain file)
       is used with options -f or -o then it will be considered as the  direc-
       tory containing the data files.

       Without  the -P flag, the sar command reports system-wide (global among
       all processors) statistics, which are calculated as averages for values
       expressed  as  percentages,  and  as  sums otherwise. If the -P flag is
       given, the sar command reports activity which relates to the  specified
       processor  or  processors.  If -P ALL is given, the sar command reports
       statistics for each individual processor and  global  statistics  among
       all processors.

       You  can  select  information  about  specific  system activities using

       sar -o datafile interval count >/dev/null 2>&1 &

       All  data  are  captured in binary form and saved to a file (datafile).
       The data can then be selectively displayed with the sar  command  using
       the  -f  option.  Set the interval and count parameters to select count
       records at interval second intervals. If the  count  parameter  is  not
       set, all the records saved in the file will be selected.  Collection of
       data in this manner is useful  to  characterize  system  usage  over  a
       period of time and determine peak usage hours.

       Note:     The sar command only reports on local activities.

OPTIONS
       -A     This  is  equivalent to specifying -bBdFHqRSuvwWy -I SUM -I XALL
              -m ALL -n ALL -r ALL -u ALL -P ALL.

       -B     Report paging statistics.  The following values are displayed:

              pgpgin/s
                     Total number of kilobytes the system paged in  from  disk
                     per second.

              pgpgout/s
                     Total  number  of  kilobytes the system paged out to disk
                     per second.

              fault/s
                     Number of page faults (major + minor) made by the  system
                     per second.  This is not a count of page faults that gen-
                     erate I/O, because some page faults can be resolved with-
                     out I/O.

              majflt/s
                     Number  of  major  faults the system has made per second,
                     those which have required  loading  a  memory  page  from
                     disk.

              pgfree/s
                     Number of pages placed on the free list by the system per
                     second.

              pgscank/s
                     Number of pages scanned by the kswapd daemon per second.

              pgscand/s
                     Number of pages scanned directly per second.

              pgsteal/s
                     Number of pages  the  system  has  reclaimed  from  cache
                     (pagecache  and swapcache) per second to satisfy its mem-
                     ory demands.

              %vmeff
                     Total  number of transfers per second that were issued to
                     physical devices.  A transfer is  an  I/O  request  to  a
                     physical  device.  Multiple  logical requests can be com-
                     bined into a single I/O request to the device.  A  trans-
                     fer is of indeterminate size.

              rtps
                     Total number of read requests per second issued to physi-
                     cal devices.

              wtps
                     Total number of write requests per second issued to phys-
                     ical devices.

              bread/s
                     Total  amount of data read from the devices in blocks per
                     second.  Blocks are equivalent to sectors  and  therefore
                     have a size of 512 bytes.

              bwrtn/s
                     Total  amount  of  data  written to devices in blocks per
                     second.

       -C     When reading data from a file, tell sar to display comments that
              have been inserted by sadc.

       -D     Use  saYYYYMMDD  instead of saDD as the standard system activity
              daily data file name. This option works only when used  in  con-
              junction with option -o to save data to file.

       -d     Report activity for each block device.  When data are displayed,
              the device specification devM-n is generally used (DEV  column).
              M  is  the  major  number  of the device and n its minor number.
              Device names may also be pretty-printed if option -p is used  or
              persistent device names can be printed if option -j is used (see
              below).  Note that disk activity depends on sadc options -S DISK
              and  -S  XDISK  to  be  collected. The following values are dis-
              played:

              tps
                     Indicate the number of transfers  per  second  that  were
                     issued  to  the device.  Multiple logical requests can be
                     combined into a single  I/O  request  to  the  device.  A
                     transfer is of indeterminate size.

              rd_sec/s
                     Number  of  sectors  read  from the device. The size of a
                     sector is 512 bytes.

              wr_sec/s
                     Number of sectors written to the device. The  size  of  a
                     sector is 512 bytes.

              avgrq-sz

              svctm
                     The  average  service  time  (in  milliseconds)  for  I/O
                     requests  that were issued to the device. Warning! Do not
                     trust this field any more. This field will be removed  in
                     a future sysstat version.

              %util
                     Percentage of elapsed time during which I/O requests were
                     issued to  the  device  (bandwidth  utilization  for  the
                     device).  Device  saturation  occurs  when  this value is
                     close to 100% for devices serving requests serially.  But
                     for  devices  serving  requests in parallel, such as RAID
                     arrays and modern SSDs,  this  number  does  not  reflect
                     their performance limits.

       -e [ hh:mm[:ss] ]
              Set  the  ending  time of the report. The default ending time is
              18:00:00. Hours must be given in 24-hour  format.   This  option
              can  be  used  when  data  are  read  from  or written to a file
              (options -f or -o).

       -F [ MOUNT ]
              Display   statistics   for   currently   mounted    filesystems.
              Pseudo-filesystems  are  ignored.  At the end of the report, sar
              will display a summary of all those  filesystems.   Use  of  the
              MOUNT  parameter  keyword  indicates  that  mountpoint  will  be
              reported instead of filesystem device.   Note  that  filesystems
              statistics depend on sadc option -S XDISK to be collected.

              The following values are displayed:

              MBfsfree
                     Total  amount  a free space in megabytes (including space
                     available only to privileged user).

              MBfsused
                     Total amount of space used in megabytes.

              %fsused
                     Percentage of filesystem space used, as seen by a  privi-
                     leged user.

              %ufsused
                     Percentage  of  filesystem  space  used,  as  seen  by an
                     unprivileged user.

              Ifree
                     Total number of free file nodes in filesystem.

              Iused
                     Total number of file nodes used in filesystem.

              %Iused

              kbhugfree
                     Amount of hugepages memory in kilobytes that is  not  yet
                     allocated.

              kbhugused
                     Amount  of  hugepages  memory  in kilobytes that has been
                     allocated.

              %hugused
                     Percentage of total hugepages memory that has been  allo-
                     cated.

       -h     Display a short help message then exit.

       -I { int [,...] | SUM | ALL | XALL }
              Report  statistics  for a given interrupt.  int is the interrupt
              number. Specifying multiple -I int  parameters  on  the  command
              line will look at multiple independent interrupts.  The SUM key-
              word indicates that the total number of interrupts received  per
              second  is  to be displayed. The ALL keyword indicates that sta-
              tistics from the first 16 interrupts are to be reported, whereas
              the  XALL keyword indicates that statistics from all interrupts,
              including potential APIC interrupt sources, are to be  reported.
              Note that interrupt statistics depend on sadc option "-S INT" to
              be collected.

       -i interval
              Select data records at seconds as close as possible to the  num-
              ber specified by the interval parameter.

       -j { ID | LABEL | PATH | UUID | ... }
              Display  persistent device names. Use this option in conjunction
              with option -d.  Options ID, LABEL, etc. specify the type of the
              persistent  name.  These options are not limited, only prerequi-
              site is that directory with required persistent names is present
              in  /dev/disk.   If persistent name is not found for the device,
              the device name is pretty-printed (see option -p below).

       -m { keyword [,...] | ALL }
              Report power management statistics.  Note that these  statistics
              depend on sadc's option "-S POWER" to be collected.

              Possible keywords are CPU, FAN, FREQ, IN, TEMP and USB.

              With  the  CPU  keyword, statistics about CPU are reported.  The
              following value is displayed:

              MHz
                     Instantaneous CPU clock frequency in MHz.

              With the FAN keyword, statistics about fans speed are  reported.
              The following values are displayed:


              wghMHz
                     Weighted  average  CPU clock frequency in MHz.  Note that
                     the cpufreq-stats driver must be compiled in  the  kernel
                     for this option to work.

              With  the  IN  keyword,  statistics  about  voltage  inputs  are
              reported.  The following values are displayed:

              inV
                     Voltage input expressed in Volts.

              %in
                     Relative input value. A value of 100% means that  voltage
                     input has reached its high limit (in_max) whereas a value
                     of 0% means that it has reached its low limit (in_min).

              DEVICE
                     Sensor device name.

              With the TEMP keyword, statistics about devices temperature  are
              reported.  The following values are displayed:

              degC
                     Device temperature expressed in degrees Celsius.

              %temp
                     Relative  device  temperature. A value of 100% means that
                     temperature has reached its high limit (temp_max).

              DEVICE
                     Sensor device name.

              With the USB keyword, the sar command takes a  snapshot  of  all
              the USB devices currently plugged into the system. At the end of
              the report, sar will display a summary of all those USB devices.
              The following values are displayed:

              BUS
                     Root hub number of the USB device.

              idvendor
                     Vendor ID number (assigned by USB organization).

              idprod
                     Product ID number (assigned by Manufacturer).

              maxpower
                     Maximum  power  consumption  of  the device (expressed in
                     mA).

              manufact
                     Manufacturer name.

              FC.

              With the DEV keyword, statistics from the  network  devices  are
              reported.  The following values are displayed:

              IFACE
                     Name  of  the  network interface for which statistics are
                     reported.

              rxpck/s
                     Total number of packets received per second.

              txpck/s
                     Total number of packets transmitted per second.

              rxkB/s
                     Total number of kilobytes received per second.

              txkB/s
                     Total number of kilobytes transmitted per second.

              rxcmp/s
                     Number of compressed packets  received  per  second  (for
                     cslip etc.).

              txcmp/s
                     Number of compressed packets transmitted per second.

              rxmcst/s
                     Number of multicast packets received per second.

              %ifutil
                     Utilization  percentage  of  the  network  interface. For
                     half-duplex interfaces, utilization is  calculated  using
                     the  sum  of  rxkB/s  and  txkB/s  as a percentage of the
                     interface speed. For full-duplex, this is the greater  of
                     rxkB/S or txkB/s.

              With  the EDEV keyword, statistics on failures (errors) from the
              network devices are reported.  The  following  values  are  dis-
              played:

              IFACE
                     Name  of  the  network interface for which statistics are
                     reported.

              rxerr/s
                     Total number of bad packets received per second.

              txerr/s
                     Total number of errors that  happened  per  second  while
                     transmitting packets.

              coll/s
                     Number of carrier-errors that happened per  second  while
                     transmitting packets.

              rxfram/s
                     Number of frame alignment errors that happened per second
                     on received packets.

              rxfifo/s
                     Number of FIFO overrun errors that happened per second on
                     received packets.

              txfifo/s
                     Number of FIFO overrun errors that happened per second on
                     transmitted packets.

              With the NFS keyword, statistics about NFS client  activity  are
              reported.  The following values are displayed:

              call/s
                     Number of RPC requests made per second.

              retrans/s
                     Number  of RPC requests per second, those which needed to
                     be retransmitted (for example because of a  server  time-
                     out).

              read/s
                     Number of 'read' RPC calls made per second.

              write/s
                     Number of 'write' RPC calls made per second.

              access/s
                     Number of 'access' RPC calls made per second.

              getatt/s
                     Number of 'getattr' RPC calls made per second.

              With  the NFSD keyword, statistics about NFS server activity are
              reported.  The following values are displayed:

              scall/s
                     Number of RPC requests received per second.

              badcall/s
                     Number of bad RPC requests  received  per  second,  those
                     whose processing generated an error.

              packet/s
                     Number of network packets received per second.

              udp/s
                     Number of UDP packets received per second.

              swrite/s
                     Number of 'write' RPC calls received per second.

              saccess/s
                     Number of 'access' RPC calls received per second.

              sgetatt/s
                     Number of 'getattr' RPC calls received per second.

              With the SOCK keyword, statistics on sockets in use are reported
              (IPv4).  The following values are displayed:

              totsck
                     Total number of sockets used by the system.

              tcpsck
                     Number of TCP sockets currently in use.

              udpsck
                     Number of UDP sockets currently in use.

              rawsck
                     Number of RAW sockets currently in use.

              ip-frag
                     Number of IP fragments currently in queue.

              tcp-tw
                     Number of TCP sockets in TIME_WAIT state.

              With the IP keyword, statistics about IPv4 network  traffic  are
              reported.  Note that IPv4 statistics depend on sadc's option "-S
              SNMP" to be collected.  The following values are displayed (for-
              mal SNMP names between square brackets):

              irec/s
                     The  total number of input datagrams received from inter-
                     faces per  second,  including  those  received  in  error
                     [ipInReceives].

              fwddgm/s
                     The  number of input datagrams per second, for which this
                     entity was not their final IP destination, as a result of
                     which an attempt was made to find a route to forward them
                     to that final destination [ipForwDatagrams].

              idel/s
                     The total number of input datagrams  successfully  deliv-
                     ered  per  second  to  IP user-protocols (including ICMP)
                     [ipInDelivers].

              orq/s
                     The total number of IP datagrams which local IP user-pro-
                     tocols  (including  ICMP)  supplied  per  second to IP in

              fragok/s
                     The number of IP datagrams that  have  been  successfully
                     fragmented at this entity per second [ipFragOKs].

              fragcrt/s
                     The number of IP datagram fragments that have been gener-
                     ated per second as a  result  of  fragmentation  at  this
                     entity [ipFragCreates].

              With  the  EIP keyword, statistics about IPv4 network errors are
              reported.  Note that IPv4 statistics depend on sadc's option "-S
              SNMP" to be collected.  The following values are displayed (for-
              mal SNMP names between square brackets):

              ihdrerr/s
                     The number of input datagrams discarded per second due to
                     errors in their IP headers, including bad checksums, ver-
                     sion number mismatch, other format  errors,  time-to-live
                     exceeded,   errors  discovered  in  processing  their  IP
                     options, etc. [ipInHdrErrors]

              iadrerr/s
                     The  number  of  input  datagrams  discarded  per  second
                     because  the  IP address in their IP header's destination
                     field was not a valid address  to  be  received  at  this
                     entity.  This  count  includes  invalid  addresses (e.g.,
                     0.0.0.0) and  addresses  of  unsupported  Classes  (e.g.,
                     Class  E).  For  entities  which  are  not IP routers and
                     therefore do not forward datagrams, this counter includes
                     datagrams  discarded  because the destination address was
                     not a local address [ipInAddrErrors].

              iukwnpr/s
                     The number of locally-addressed datagrams  received  suc-
                     cessfully  but discarded per second because of an unknown
                     or unsupported protocol [ipInUnknownProtos].

              idisc/s
                     The number of input IP datagrams per second for which  no
                     problems were encountered to prevent their continued pro-
                     cessing, but which were discarded (e.g., for lack of buf-
                     fer  space)  [ipInDiscards].  Note that this counter does
                     not  include  any  datagrams  discarded  while   awaiting
                     re-assembly.

              odisc/s
                     The number of output IP datagrams per second for which no
                     problem was encountered to prevent their transmission  to
                     their  destination,  but  which were discarded (e.g., for
                     lack of buffer space) [ipOutDiscards].   Note  that  this
                     counter  would  include  datagrams counted in fwddgm/s if
                     any such packets met this (discretionary) discard  crite-
                     rion.

                     errors,  etc) [ipReasmFails].  Note that this is not nec-
                     essarily a count of discarded  IP  fragments  since  some
                     algorithms  can  lose track of the number of fragments by
                     combining them as they are received.

              fragf/s
                     The number of IP datagrams that have been  discarded  per
                     second  because  they  needed  to  be  fragmented at this
                     entity but could not be, e.g., because their Don't  Frag-
                     ment flag was set [ipFragFails].

              With  the  ICMP keyword, statistics about ICMPv4 network traffic
              are reported.  Note that  ICMPv4  statistics  depend  on  sadc's
              option "-S SNMP" to be collected.  The following values are dis-
              played (formal SNMP names between square brackets):

              imsg/s
                     The total  number  of  ICMP  messages  which  the  entity
                     received per second [icmpInMsgs].  Note that this counter
                     includes all those counted by ierr/s.

              omsg/s
                     The total number  of  ICMP  messages  which  this  entity
                     attempted  to  send  per second [icmpOutMsgs].  Note that
                     this counter includes all those counted by oerr/s.

              iech/s
                     The number of ICMP Echo (request) messages  received  per
                     second [icmpInEchos].

              iechr/s
                     The  number of ICMP Echo Reply messages received per sec-
                     ond [icmpInEchoReps].

              oech/s
                     The number of ICMP Echo (request) messages sent per  sec-
                     ond [icmpOutEchos].

              oechr/s
                     The  number  of  ICMP Echo Reply messages sent per second
                     [icmpOutEchoReps].

              itm/s
                     The number of ICMP Timestamp (request) messages  received
                     per second [icmpInTimestamps].

              itmr/s
                     The  number of ICMP Timestamp Reply messages received per
                     second [icmpInTimestampReps].

              otm/s
                     The number of ICMP Timestamp (request) messages sent  per
                     second [icmpOutTimestamps].

              oadrmk/s
                     The number of ICMP Address Mask Request messages sent per
                     second [icmpOutAddrMasks].

              oadrmkr/s
                     The  number  of ICMP Address Mask Reply messages sent per
                     second [icmpOutAddrMaskReps].

              With the EICMP keyword, statistics about ICMPv4  error  messages
              are  reported.   Note  that  ICMPv4  statistics depend on sadc's
              option "-S SNMP" to be collected.  The following values are dis-
              played (formal SNMP names between square brackets):

              ierr/s
                     The  number  of ICMP messages per second which the entity
                     received but determined as  having  ICMP-specific  errors
                     (bad ICMP checksums, bad length, etc.) [icmpInErrors].

              oerr/s
                     The  number of ICMP messages per second which this entity
                     did not send due to problems discovered within ICMP  such
                     as a lack of buffers [icmpOutErrors].

              idstunr/s
                     The  number  of  ICMP  Destination  Unreachable  messages
                     received per second [icmpInDestUnreachs].

              odstunr/s
                     The number of ICMP Destination Unreachable messages  sent
                     per second [icmpOutDestUnreachs].

              itmex/s
                     The  number  of  ICMP Time Exceeded messages received per
                     second [icmpInTimeExcds].

              otmex/s
                     The number of ICMP Time Exceeded messages sent per second
                     [icmpOutTimeExcds].

              iparmpb/s
                     The  number  of  ICMP Parameter Problem messages received
                     per second [icmpInParmProbs].

              oparmpb/s
                     The number of ICMP Parameter Problem  messages  sent  per
                     second [icmpOutParmProbs].

              isrcq/s
                     The  number  of  ICMP Source Quench messages received per
                     second [icmpInSrcQuenchs].

              osrcq/s
                     The number of ICMP Source Quench messages sent per second
                     [icmpOutSrcQuenchs].

              (formal SNMP names between square brackets):

              active/s
                     The number of times TCP connections have  made  a  direct
                     transition  to  the  SYN-SENT state from the CLOSED state
                     per second [tcpActiveOpens].

              passive/s
                     The number of times TCP connections have  made  a  direct
                     transition  to  the  SYN-RCVD state from the LISTEN state
                     per second [tcpPassiveOpens].

              iseg/s
                     The total number of segments received per second, includ-
                     ing  those  received  in  error  [tcpInSegs].  This count
                     includes segments received on currently established  con-
                     nections.

              oseg/s
                     The  total  number of segments sent per second, including
                     those on current connections but excluding those contain-
                     ing only retransmitted octets [tcpOutSegs].

              With the ETCP keyword, statistics about TCPv4 network errors are
              reported.  Note that TCPv4 statistics depend  on  sadc's  option
              "-S  SNMP"  to be collected.  The following values are displayed
              (formal SNMP names between square brackets):

              atmptf/s
                     The number of times per second TCP connections have  made
                     a  direct  transition to the CLOSED state from either the
                     SYN-SENT state or the SYN-RCVD state, plus the number  of
                     times per second TCP connections have made a direct tran-
                     sition to  the  LISTEN  state  from  the  SYN-RCVD  state
                     [tcpAttemptFails].

              estres/s
                     The  number of times per second TCP connections have made
                     a direct transition to the CLOSED state from  either  the
                     ESTABLISHED  state  or  the CLOSE-WAIT state [tcpEstabRe-
                     sets].

              retrans/s
                     The total number of segments retransmitted per  second  -
                     that  is, the number of TCP segments transmitted contain-
                     ing one or more  previously  transmitted  octets  [tcpRe-
                     transSegs].

              isegerr/s
                     The total number of segments received in error (e.g., bad
                     TCP checksums) per second [tcpInErrs].

              orsts/s
                     The number of TCP segments sent per second containing the
                     The  total  number  of UDP datagrams sent per second from
                     this entity [udpOutDatagrams].

              noport/s
                     The total number of received UDP datagrams per second for
                     which  there  was  no application at the destination port
                     [udpNoPorts].

              idgmerr/s
                     The number of received  UDP  datagrams  per  second  that
                     could not be delivered for reasons other than the lack of
                     an application at the destination port [udpInErrors].

              With the  SOCK6  keyword,  statistics  on  sockets  in  use  are
              reported  (IPv6).   Note  that  IPv6 statistics depend on sadc's
              option "-S IPV6" to be collected.  The following values are dis-
              played:

              tcp6sck
                     Number of TCPv6 sockets currently in use.

              udp6sck
                     Number of UDPv6 sockets currently in use.

              raw6sck
                     Number of RAWv6 sockets currently in use.

              ip6-frag
                     Number of IPv6 fragments currently in use.

              With  the IP6 keyword, statistics about IPv6 network traffic are
              reported.  Note that IPv6 statistics depend on sadc's option "-S
              IPV6" to be collected.  The following values are displayed (for-
              mal SNMP names between square brackets):

              irec6/s
                     The total number of input datagrams received from  inter-
                     faces  per  second,  including  those  received  in error
                     [ipv6IfStatsInReceives].

              fwddgm6/s
                     The number of output  datagrams  per  second  which  this
                     entity received and forwarded to their final destinations
                     [ipv6IfStatsOutForwDatagrams].

              idel6/s
                     The total number of datagrams successfully delivered  per
                     second  to IPv6 user-protocols (including ICMP) [ipv6IfS-
                     tatsInDelivers].

              orq6/s
                     The total number  of  IPv6  datagrams  which  local  IPv6
                     user-protocols  (including  ICMP)  supplied per second to
                     IPv6  in  requests  for  transmission  [ipv6IfStatsOutRe-

              imcpck6/s
                     The  number  of  multicast packets received per second by
                     the interface [ipv6IfStatsInMcastPkts].

              omcpck6/s
                     The number of multicast packets transmitted per second by
                     the interface [ipv6IfStatsOutMcastPkts].

              fragok6/s
                     The  number of IPv6 datagrams that have been successfully
                     fragmented at this output interface per second  [ipv6IfS-
                     tatsOutFragOKs].

              fragcr6/s
                     The  number  of  output datagram fragments that have been
                     generated per second as a result of fragmentation at this
                     output interface [ipv6IfStatsOutFragCreates].

              With  the EIP6 keyword, statistics about IPv6 network errors are
              reported.  Note that IPv6 statistics depend on sadc's option "-S
              IPV6" to be collected.  The following values are displayed (for-
              mal SNMP names between square brackets):

              ihdrer6/s
                     The number of input datagrams discarded per second due to
                     errors  in  their  IPv6 headers, including version number
                     mismatch, other format errors, hop count exceeded, errors
                     discovered   in   processing  their  IPv6  options,  etc.
                     [ipv6IfStatsInHdrErrors]

              iadrer6/s
                     The  number  of  input  datagrams  discarded  per  second
                     because  the IPv6 address in their IPv6 header's destina-
                     tion field was not a valid address to be received at this
                     entity. This count includes invalid addresses (e.g., ::0)
                     and unsupported addresses (e.g., addresses  with  unallo-
                     cated  prefixes). For entities which are not IPv6 routers
                     and therefore do  not  forward  datagrams,  this  counter
                     includes  datagrams  discarded  because  the  destination
                     address  was  not  a  local  address  [ipv6IfStatsInAddr-
                     Errors].

              iukwnp6/s
                     The  number  of locally-addressed datagrams received suc-
                     cessfully but discarded per second because of an  unknown
                     or unsupported protocol [ipv6IfStatsInUnknownProtos].

              i2big6/s
                     The number of input datagrams that could not be forwarded
                     per second because their size exceeded the  link  MTU  of
                     outgoing interface [ipv6IfStatsInTooBigErrors].

              idisc6/s
                     The  number  of input IPv6 datagrams per second for which
                     if any such packets met this (discretionary) discard cri-
                     terion.

              inort6/s
                     The  number  of  input  datagrams  discarded  per  second
                     because no route could be found to transmit them to their
                     destination [ipv6IfStatsInNoRoutes].

              onort6/s
                     The number of locally generated  IP  datagrams  discarded
                     per  second  because  no route could be found to transmit
                     them to their destination [unknown formal SNMP name].

              asmf6/s
                     The number of failures detected per second  by  the  IPv6
                     re-assembly  algorithm  (for  whatever reason: timed out,
                     errors, etc.) [ipv6IfStatsReasmFails].  Note that this is
                     not necessarily a count of discarded IPv6 fragments since
                     some algorithms can lose track of the number of fragments
                     by combining them as they are received.

              fragf6/s
                     The number of IPv6 datagrams that have been discarded per
                     second because they needed to be fragmented at this  out-
                     put interface but could not be [ipv6IfStatsOutFragFails].

              itrpck6/s
                     The  number  of  input  datagrams  discarded  per  second
                     because datagram frame didn't carry enough data [ipv6IfS-
                     tatsInTruncatedPkts].

              With  the ICMP6 keyword, statistics about ICMPv6 network traffic
              are reported.  Note that  ICMPv6  statistics  depend  on  sadc's
              option "-S IPV6" to be collected.  The following values are dis-
              played (formal SNMP names between square brackets):

              imsg6/s
                     The total number of ICMP messages received by the  inter-
                     face  per  second  which  includes  all  those counted by
                     ierr6/s [ipv6IfIcmpInMsgs].

              omsg6/s
                     The total number of ICMP messages  which  this  interface
                     attempted to send per second [ipv6IfIcmpOutMsgs].

              iech6/s
                     The  number  of  ICMP Echo (request) messages received by
                     the interface per second [ipv6IfIcmpInEchos].

              iechr6/s
                     The number of ICMP Echo Reply messages  received  by  the
                     interface per second [ipv6IfIcmpInEchoReplies].

              oechr6/s

              ogmbr6/s
                     The number of ICMPv6 Group Membership  Response  messages
                     sent per second [ipv6IfIcmpOutGroupMembResponses].

              igmbrd6/s
                     The  number of ICMPv6 Group Membership Reduction messages
                     received by the interface per second  [ipv6IfIcmpInGroup-
                     MembReductions].

              ogmbrd6/s
                     The  number of ICMPv6 Group Membership Reduction messages
                     sent per second [ipv6IfIcmpOutGroupMembReductions].

              irtsol6/s
                     The number of ICMP Router Solicit  messages  received  by
                     the interface per second [ipv6IfIcmpInRouterSolicits].

              ortsol6/s
                     The  number  of ICMP Router Solicitation messages sent by
                     the interface per second [ipv6IfIcmpOutRouterSolicits].

              irtad6/s
                     The number of ICMP Router Advertisement messages received
                     by the interface per second [ipv6IfIcmpInRouterAdvertise-
                     ments].

              inbsol6/s
                     The number of ICMP Neighbor Solicit messages received  by
                     the interface per second [ipv6IfIcmpInNeighborSolicits].

              onbsol6/s
                     The number of ICMP Neighbor Solicitation messages sent by
                     the interface per second [ipv6IfIcmpOutNeighborSolicits].

              inbad6/s
                     The  number  of  ICMP  Neighbor  Advertisement   messages
                     received by the interface per second [ipv6IfIcmpInNeighb-
                     orAdvertisements].

              onbad6/s
                     The number of ICMP Neighbor Advertisement  messages  sent
                     by  the interface per second [ipv6IfIcmpOutNeighborAdver-
                     tisements].

              With the EICMP6 keyword, statistics about ICMPv6 error  messages
              are  reported.   Note  that  ICMPv6  statistics depend on sadc's
              option "-S IPV6" to be collected.  The following values are dis-
              played (formal SNMP names between square brackets):

              ierr6/s
                     The  number  of ICMP messages per second which the inter-
                     face received  but  determined  as  having  ICMP-specific
                     errors   (bad   ICMP   checksums,   bad   length,   etc.)
                     The number of ICMP Time Exceeded messages received by the
                     interface per second [ipv6IfIcmpInTimeExcds].

              otmex6/s
                     The number of ICMP Time Exceeded  messages  sent  by  the
                     interface per second [ipv6IfIcmpOutTimeExcds].

              iprmpb6/s
                     The number of ICMP Parameter Problem messages received by
                     the interface per second [ipv6IfIcmpInParmProblems].

              oprmpb6/s
                     The number of ICMP Parameter Problem messages sent by the
                     interface per second [ipv6IfIcmpOutParmProblems].

              iredir6/s
                     The number of Redirect messages received by the interface
                     per second [ipv6IfIcmpInRedirects].

              oredir6/s
                     The number of Redirect messages sent by the interface  by
                     second [ipv6IfIcmpOutRedirects].

              ipck2b6/s
                     The  number  of  ICMP Packet Too Big messages received by
                     the interface per second [ipv6IfIcmpInPktTooBigs].

              opck2b6/s
                     The number of ICMP Packet Too Big messages  sent  by  the
                     interface per second [ipv6IfIcmpOutPktTooBigs].

              With  the  UDP6  keyword, statistics about UDPv6 network traffic
              are reported.  Note  that  UDPv6  statistics  depend  on  sadc's
              option "-S IPV6" to be collected.  The following values are dis-
              played (formal SNMP names between square brackets):

              idgm6/s
                     The total number of UDP datagrams delivered per second to
                     UDP users [udpInDatagrams].

              odgm6/s
                     The  total  number  of UDP datagrams sent per second from
                     this entity [udpOutDatagrams].

              noport6/s
                     The total number of received UDP datagrams per second for
                     which  there  was  no application at the destination port
                     [udpNoPorts].

              idgmer6/s
                     The number of received  UDP  datagrams  per  second  that
                     could not be delivered for reasons other than the lack of
                     an application at the destination port [udpInErrors].

              fch_txf/s
                     The total number of frames transmitted per second.

              fch_rxw/s
                     The total number of transmission words received per  sec-
                     ond.

              fch_txw/s
                     The  total  number  of transmission words transmitted per
                     second.

              The ALL keyword is equivalent to  specifying  all  the  keywords
              above and therefore all the network activities are reported.

       -o [ filename ]
              Save the readings in the file in binary form. Each reading is in
              a separate record. The default value of the  filename  parameter
              is  the  current  standard  system activity daily data file.  If
              filename is a directory instead of a plain file then it is  con-
              sidered  as  the  directory  where  the standard system activity
              daily data files are located.  The -o option is exclusive of the
              -f  option.  All the data available from the kernel are saved in
              the file (in fact, sar calls its data collector  sadc  with  the
              option "-S ALL".  See sadc(8) manual page).

       -P { cpu [,...] | ALL }
              Report  per-processor  statistics for the specified processor or
              processors.  Specifying the ALL keyword reports  statistics  for
              each  individual  processor,  and  globally  for all processors.
              Note that processor 0 is the first processor.

       -p     Pretty-print device names. Use this option in  conjunction  with
              option -d.  By default names are printed as devM-n where M and n
              are the major and minor numbers for the  device.   Use  of  this
              option displays the names of the devices as they (should) appear
              in /dev.  Name  mappings  are  controlled  by  /etc/sysstat/sys-
              stat.ioconf.

       -q     Report  queue length and load averages. The following values are
              displayed:

              runq-sz
                     Run queue length (number of tasks waiting for run time).

              plist-sz
                     Number of tasks in the task list.

              ldavg-1
                     System load average for the last minute.  The load  aver-
                     age  is  calculated  as the average number of runnable or
                     running tasks (R state), and the number of tasks in unin-
                     terruptible sleep (D state) over the specified interval.

              ldavg-5
                     Number of memory pages freed by the system per second.  A
                     negative  value represents a number of pages allocated by
                     the system.  Note that a page has a size of 4  kiB  or  8
                     kiB according to the machine architecture.

              bufpg/s
                     Number  of additional memory pages used as buffers by the
                     system per second.  A negative value  means  fewer  pages
                     used as buffers by the system.

              campg/s
                     Number  of  additional  memory pages cached by the system
                     per second.  A negative value means fewer  pages  in  the
                     cache.

       -r [ ALL ]
              Report  memory utilization statistics. The ALL keyword indicates
              that all the memory fields should be displayed.   The  following
              values may be displayed:

              kbmemfree
                     Amount of free memory available in kilobytes.

              kbmemused
                     Amount  of  used  memory in kilobytes. This does not take
                     into account memory used by the kernel itself.

              %memused
                     Percentage of used memory.

              kbbuffers
                     Amount of memory used as buffers by the kernel  in  kilo-
                     bytes.

              kbcached
                     Amount  of  memory  used  to  cache data by the kernel in
                     kilobytes.

              kbcommit
                     Amount of memory in kilobytes needed  for  current  work-
                     load.  This is an estimate of how much RAM/swap is needed
                     to guarantee that there never is out of memory.

              %commit
                     Percentage of memory needed for current workload in rela-
                     tion to the total amount of memory (RAM+swap).  This num-
                     ber may be greater than 100% because the  kernel  usually
                     overcommits memory.

              kbactive
                     Amount  of  active  memory  in kilobytes (memory that has
                     been used more recently and usually not reclaimed  unless
                     absolutely necessary).


              kbslab
                     Amount of memory in kilobytes used by the kernel to cache
                     data structures for its own use.

              kbkstack
                     Amount of memory  in  kilobytes  used  for  kernel  stack
                     space.

              kbpgtbl
                     Amount  of  memory  in  kilobytes dedicated to the lowest
                     level of page tables.

              kbvmused
                     Amount of memory in kilobytes  of  used  virtual  address
                     space.

       -S     Report  swap space utilization statistics.  The following values
              are displayed:

              kbswpfree
                     Amount of free swap space in kilobytes.

              kbswpused
                     Amount of used swap space in kilobytes.

              %swpused
                     Percentage of used swap space.

              kbswpcad
                     Amount of cached swap memory in kilobytes.  This is  mem-
                     ory  that  once  was  swapped out, is swapped back in but
                     still also is in the swap area (if memory  is  needed  it
                     doesn't  need  to  be  swapped  out  again  because it is
                     already in the swap area. This saves I/O).

              %swpcad
                     Percentage of cached  swap  memory  in  relation  to  the
                     amount of used swap space.

       -s [ hh:mm[:ss] ]
              Set  the  starting  time of the data, causing the sar command to
              extract records time-tagged at, or following,  the  time  speci-
              fied.  The  default  starting  time  is 08:00:00.  Hours must be
              given in 24-hour format. This option can be used only when  data
              are read from a file (option -f).

       --sadc Indicate  which  data  collector  is called by sar.  If the data
              collector is sought in PATH then  enter  "which  sadc"  to  know
              where it is located.

       -t     When  reading  data  from  a  daily data file, indicate that sar
              should display the timestamps in the original local time of  the
              data file creator. Without this option, the sar command displays
              %usr
                     Percentage of CPU utilization that occurred while execut-
                     ing at the user level (application). Note that this field
                     does NOT include time spent running virtual processors.

              %nice
                     Percentage of CPU utilization that occurred while execut-
                     ing at the user level with nice priority.

              %system
                     Percentage of CPU utilization that occurred while execut-
                     ing at the system level (kernel). Note  that  this  field
                     includes  time  spent  servicing  hardware  and  software
                     interrupts.

              %sys
                     Percentage of CPU utilization that occurred while execut-
                     ing  at  the  system level (kernel). Note that this field
                     does NOT include time spent servicing hardware  or  soft-
                     ware interrupts.

              %iowait
                     Percentage  of time that the CPU or CPUs were idle during
                     which the system had an outstanding disk I/O request.

              %steal
                     Percentage of time spent in involuntary wait by the  vir-
                     tual  CPU  or  CPUs  while  the  hypervisor was servicing
                     another virtual processor.

              %irq
                     Percentage of time spent by the CPU or  CPUs  to  service
                     hardware interrupts.

              %soft
                     Percentage  of  time  spent by the CPU or CPUs to service
                     software interrupts.

              %guest
                     Percentage of time spent by the CPU or CPUs to run a vir-
                     tual processor.

              %gnice
                     Percentage  of  time  spent  by  the CPU or CPUs to run a
                     niced guest.

              %idle
                     Percentage of time that the CPU or CPUs were idle and the
                     system did not have an outstanding disk I/O request.

              Note:  On SMP machines a processor that does not have any activ-
              ity at all (0.00 for every field) is a disabled  (offline)  pro-
              cessor.

                     Number of inode handlers used by the system.

              pty-nr
                     Number of pseudo-terminals used by the system.

       -W     Report swapping statistics. The following values are displayed:

              pswpin/s
                     Total number of swap pages the system brought in per sec-
                     ond.

              pswpout/s
                     Total  number  of  swap  pages the system brought out per
                     second.

       -w     Report task creation and system switching activity.

              proc/s
                     Total number of tasks created per second.

              cswch/s
                     Total number of context switches per second.

       -y     Report TTY devices activity. The following values are displayed:

              rcvin/s
                     Number of  receive  interrupts  per  second  for  current
                     serial  line. Serial line number is given in the TTY col-
                     umn.

              xmtin/s
                     Number of transmit  interrupts  per  second  for  current
                     serial line.

              framerr/s
                     Number  of  frame  errors  per  second for current serial
                     line.

              prtyerr/s
                     Number of parity errors per  second  for  current  serial
                     line.

              brk/s
                     Number of breaks per second for current serial line.

              ovrun/s
                     Number  of  overrun  errors per second for current serial
                     line.

ENVIRONMENT
       The sar command takes into account the following environment variables:

       S_COLORS
              When this variable is set, display statistics in  color  on  the
              C=36;22:H=31;1:I=32;22:M=34;1:N=33;1:R=31;22:Z=33;22.  Supported
              capabilities are:

              C=     SGR  (Select  Graphic  Rendition)  substring for comments
                     inserted in the binary daily data files.

              H=     SGR substring for percentage values greater than or equal
                     to 75%.

              I=     SGR  substring  for  item  names  or  values (eg. network
                     interfaces, CPU number...)

              M=     SGR substring for percentage values in the range from 50%
                     to 75%.

              N=     SGR substring for non-zero statistics values.

              R=     SGR substring for restart messages.

              Z=     SGR substring for zero values.

       S_TIME_DEF_TIME
              If  this variable exists and its value is UTC then sar will save
              its data in UTC time (data will  still  be  displayed  in  local
              time).   sar  will  also  use  UTC time instead of local time to
              determine  the  current  daily  data   file   located   in   the
              /var/log/sysstat  directory.  This  variable  may  be useful for
              servers with users located across several timezones.

       S_TIME_FORMAT
              If this variable exists and its value is ISO  then  the  current
              locale  will  be  ignored  when  printing the date in the report
              header.   The  sar  command  will  use  the  ISO   8601   format
              (YYYY-MM-DD) instead.

EXAMPLES
       sar -u 2 5
              Report  CPU  utilization  for  each  2 seconds. 5 lines are dis-
              played.

       sar -I 14 -o int14.file 2 10
              Report statistics on IRQ 14 for each 2  seconds.  10  lines  are
              displayed.  Data are stored in a file called int14.file.

       sar -r -n DEV -f /var/log/sysstat/sa16
              Display  memory  and network statistics saved in daily data file
              'sa16'.

       sar -A
              Display all the statistics saved in current daily data file.

BUGS
       /proc filesystem must be mounted for the sar command to work.


AUTHOR
       Sebastien Godard (sysstat <at> orange.fr)

SEE ALSO
       sadc(8), sa1(8), sa2(8),  sadf(1),  pidstat(1),  mpstat(1),  iostat(1),
       vmstat(8)

       http://pagesperso-orange.fr/sebastien.godard/

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