rssh [ options... ] [ ... ]
       rssh -v

       rssh  is  a restricted shell for providing limited access to a host via
       ssh(1), allowing a user whose shell is configured to rssh to use one or
       more  of the command(s) scp(1), sftp(1) cvs(1), rdist(1), and rsync(1),
       and only those commands.  It is intended primarily to work with OpenSSH
       (see, but may work with other implementations.

       The  system  administrator  should  install the shell on the restricted
       system.  Then the password file entry  of  any  user  for  whom  it  is
       desireable  to  provide  restricted  access should be edited, such that
       their shell is rssh. For example:


       If invoked with the -v option, rssh will report its version, and  exit.
       All  other  arguments  to rssh are those specified by the remote ssh(1)
       client, and aren't of much concern to the average user.  The  arguments
       provided  must be what a shell on the remote end would receive in order
       to pass control to scp(1), sftp(1), etc.  If  rssh  receives  arguments
       which  do  not conform, it will emit an error message and exit.  If the
       program the user is trying to run is not allowed,  or  contains  syntax
       which  will try to execute a shell command (such as a command substitu-
       tion), it will also emit an error and exit.

       rssh has a configuration file, rssh.conf(5), which allows some  of  the
       behavior of rssh to be customized.  See that man page for details.

       Read  this section with exceptional care, or you may put your system at

   Using rssh With CVS
       If you are using rssh to allow CVS access, it should be noted  that  it
       is  not  possible  to prevent a user who is very familiar with CVS from
       bypassing rssh and getting a shell, unless the user does not have write
       access  in  the repository.  Obviously, the user must have write access
       to the repository in order to update it, which allows  them  to  upload
       arbitrary  programs  into  the repository.  CVS provides several mecha-
       nisms for executing such arbitrary  programs...   The  only  reasonably
       safe  way  to use rssh with CVS is to use the chroot jail facilities to
       place the CVS repository within a chroot jail.  Please  see  below  and
       all  relevant  documentation for details of how to set up chroot jails.
       Note that users will still be able to get shell access within the jail;
       the  only  protection which is provided is that they can not escape the
       jail.  I have been pursuaded to retain support  for  CVS  because  this
       protection is better than no protection.  You have been warned. Use CVS
       at your own risk.

   Potential root Compromise With Old Versions
       Though it should not be strictly necessary,  to  further  protect  your
       system  from  possible  compromise,  it is also advisable to follow the
       section below, entitled "Safeguards Against Bypassing rssh".

   Safeguards Against Bypassing rssh
       rssh is designed to interact with several other programs.  Even if rssh
       is  completely bug-free, changes in those other programs could possibly
       result in methods to circumvent the protection that rssh is intended to
       provide.   It  is  important for you, the system administrator, to stay
       current on the services you make available with rssh, to be  sure  that
       these commands do not provide mechanisms to allow the user to run arbi-
       trary commands. Also, while the goal of every  release  is  to  be  bug
       free,  no  one  is  perfect...   There may be undiscovered bugs in rssh
       which might allow a user to circumvent it.

       You can protect your system from those who would take advantage of such
       weaknesses.   This is not required for rssh to work properly, but it is
       a really good idea.  There are six basic steps:

              1.     protect all non-administrator accounts with rssh (i.e. no
                     regular user should have shell access to the server)

              2.     place your users in a chroot jail

              3.     limit the binaries which live in the jail to the absolute
                     minimum required

              4.     mount their home filesystem with the noexec/nosuid option
                     (i.e.  use  separate partitions in the jail for user home
                     directories and all other files, if possible/reasonable)

              5.     create a group  for  rssh  users,  and  limit  executable
                     access to the binaries to users in that group.

              6.     use standard file permissions carefully and appropriately

       If  possible,  make  sure  that  no  regular user has any kind of shell
       access to the system other than through rssh.   Otherwise,  users  with
       shell   access   could   potentially   exploit   undiscovered  bugs  in
       rssh_chroot_helper to gain root access to the server.

       rssh gives the system administrator the ability to place the users in a
       chroot jail.  See details in the man page for rssh.conf and in the file
       CHROOT which is distributed with the  source  code.   If  you  want  to
       ensure  users can not run arbitrary programs, use a chroot jail, and be
       sure not to put any programs other than what are  absolutely  necessary
       to  provide  the service you are trying to provide.  This prevents them
       from running standard system commands.

       Then, make sure the user's files inside the  jail  are  on  a  separate
       filesystem  from  your system's executables.  If possible in your envi-
       ronment, make sure you mount  this  filesystem  using  the  noexec  and
       nosuid  options, if your operating system provides them.  This prevents
       the users from being able to execute programs which they have  uploaded

              # groupadd rsshuser
              # chown root:rsshuser rssh rssh_chroot_helper
              # chmod 550 rssh
              # chmod 4550 rssh_chroot_helper

       Lastly, use standard Unix/POSIX file permissions to ensure they can not
       access files they should not be able to within the chroot jail.

   Command Line Parser
       As of rssh version 2.2.3, the program must parse out the complete  com-
       mand  line  to  avoid command line options which cause the execution of
       arbitrary programs (and hence bypass the security of rssh).   In  order
       to keep the program source code sane, the parser is a little over-zeal-
       ous about matching command line options.  In  practice,  this  probably
       will not be an issue, but in theory it is possible.

       If  you  run  into  a problem where rssh refuses to run, claiming to be
       rejecting insecure command line options which were not  specified,  try
       changing your command line such that all short options are specified as
       single-letter option flags (e.g. -e -p instead of -ep)  and  make  sure
       you  separate  arguments from their respective options by a space (e.g.
       -p 123 instead of -p123).  In virtually all cases,  this  should  solve
       the  problem.   Admittedly, an exhaustive search was not performed, but
       no problematical cases were found which were likely to be common.

       The alternative would have been  to  include  a  complete  command-line
       parser for rcp, rdist, and rsync; this was way out of the scope of this
       project.  In practice, the existing parser should  suffice.   If,  how-
       ever, you find cases where it does not, please post details to the rssh
       mailing list.  Details about how to post to the  mailing  list  can  be
       found at the rssh homepage.

   OpenSSH Versions and Bypassing rssh
       Prior  to OpenSSH 3.5, sshd(8) will generally attempt to parse files in
       the user's home directory, and may also try to run  a  start-up  script
       from  the  user's  $HOME/.ssh directory.  rssh does not make use of the
       user's environment in any way.  The relevant  command  is  executed  by
       calling  execv(3)  with  the  full path to the command, as specified at
       compile time.  It does not depend upon the user's PATH variable, or  on
       any other environment variable.

       There  are,  however,  several  problems  that  can arise.  This is due
       entirely to the way the OpenSSH Project's sshd works, and is in no  way
       the fault of rssh.  For example, one problem which might exist is that,
       according to the sshd(8) man  page  from  at  least  some  releases  of
       OpenSSH,  the  commands  listed  in the $HOME/.ssh/rc file are executed
       with /bin/sh instead of the user's defined shell.  This appears not  to
       be  the  case  on the systems the author had available to test on; com-
       mands were executed using the user's configured shell (rssh), which did
       not  allow the execution.  However if it is true on your system, then a
       malicious user may be able to circumvent rssh by uploading  a  file  to
       $HOME/.ssh/rc which will be executed by /bin/sh on that system.  If any
       write into their home directory other than in this location.

       A second problem is that after authenticating the user, sshd also reads
       $HOME/.ssh/environment  to  allow  the  user  to set variables in their
       environment.  This allows the user to  completely  circumvent  rssh  by
       clever manipulation of such environment variables as LD_LIBRARY_PATH or
       LD_PRELOAD to link the rssh binary against arbitrary shared  libraries.
       In  order to prevent this from being a problem, as of version 0.9.3, by
       default rssh is now compiled statically.  The  restrictive  work-around
       mentioned above will also defeat this sort of attack.

       As  of  OpenSSH 3.5, sshd now supports the option PermitUserEnvironment
       which is set to "no" by default.  This option allows restricted  shells
       like  rssh  to  function  properly  without requiring them to be linked
       statically.  As of rssh version  1.0.1,  the  configure  script  should
       detect  that  OpenSSH 3.5 is present, and disable the default of static

       None.  =8^)

   A Note About Getting Help
       If you are having trouble getting rssh working,  or  you  think  you've
       found  a  bug,  please  use  the  mailing  list,  and  do not e-mail me
       directly.  You must sign up for the list in order to post.  Information
       about how to sign up is available on the rssh homepage.  If you mail me
       directly with questions, I will almost certainly ignore you, or at  the
       very least ask you to repost your question on the mailing list.  Please
       also feel free to provide feedback about  rssh  on  the  mailing  list,
       whether positive or negative (especially negative).

   Security Problems
       The  only  exception  to  the  above is if you believe you have found a
       security problem with rssh.  If that is the case, then please  do  con-
       tact  me  privately.  If you are unable to find my direct contact info,
       post a message on the mailing list requesting that I contact you  about
       a  potential  security problem.  Security problems should be dealt with
       privately, so that the threat can be properly assessed, and so  as  not
       to needlessly endanger the installations of rssh in production environ-
       ments.  I take security problems seriously, and will  work  to  resolve
       them as quickly as possible.

       Before  you  e-mail me (or the mailing list) with questions, be sure to
       THOROUGHLY read all of the following files:  README,  INSTALL,  CHROOT,
       SECURITY.   All  of  these  files  are distributed with the rssh source
       code, as well as all binary packages of  rssh.   If  you  downloaded  a
       binary  package,  these files should be located wherever your distribu-
       tion keeps its documentation  files  (usually  /usr/share/doc/rssh-ver-
       sion/  or  something  similar).  Also THOROUGHLY read the man pages for
       rssh(1), and rssh.conf(5).  Finally, if you are still having  problems,
       read  the  FAQ  at  If it is
       clear to me that you have not read these documents, I will ignore  you.
       In most cases, these documents will already have everything you need to
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