ps2eps [-f] [-q] [-N] [-O] [-n] [-P] [-c] [-C] [-m] [-B] [-E]
[-s pagedim] [-t offset] [-r resolution] [-R +|-|^] [-l] [-g]
[-H] [-d] [-h|--help] [-a] [-W] [-L] [-V|--version] [--]
[psfile1] [psfile2] [...]
This manual page documents ps2eps version 1.68.
ps2eps is a tool (written in Perl) to produce Encapsulated PostScript
Files (EPS/EPSF) from usual one-paged Postscript documents. It
calculates correct Bounding Boxes for those EPS files and filters some
special postscript command sequences that can produce erroneous results
on printers. EPS files are often needed for including (scalable)
graphics of high quality into TeX/LaTeX (or even Word) documents.
Without any argument, ps2eps reads from standard input and writes to
standard output. If filenames are given as arguments they are processed
one by one and output files are written to filenames with extension
.eps. If input filenames have the extension .ps or .prn, this extension
is replaced with .eps. In all other cases .eps is appended to the input
filename. Please note that PostScript files for input should contain
only one single page (you can possibly use the psselect from the
psutils package to extract a single page from a document that contains
If BoundingBox in output seems to be wrong, please try options --size
or --ignoreBB. See also section TROUBLESHOOTING.
ps2eps follows the usual GNU command line syntax, with long options
starting with two dashes (`-'). A summary of options is included below.
Show summary of options.
Show version of program.
Force overwriting existing files. ps2eps will not overwrite files
by default to avoid deleting original EPS files accidently.
quiet operation (no output while processing files, except errors).
do not insert any postscript code. Normally a few postscript
instructions are added around the original postscript code by
ps2eps which can be turned off by this option.
do not filter %%Orientation: header comment.
insert postscript code for clipping. Unless --nohires is specified,
the HiResBoundingBox (enlarged by 0.1 points) is used for clipping.
use black/white bitmap as base for calculation (default: off).
where pagedim is a pre-defined standard page size (e.g.,
a4,a0,b0,letter,...) or explicitly specified in a format
pagedim:=XxY[cm|in], where X and Y are numbers (floating points are
accepted) followed by units centimeter (cm) or inch (in), (default:
cm). Use --size=list to list pre-defined pagesizes. See also
environment variable PS2EPS_SIZE.
specify an x,y offset (may be negative) in postscript points (1/72
dpi) for drawing. This option may be required if your drawing has
negative coordinates which usually lets ghostscript cut the
negative part of your picture, because it starts to render at
positive coordinates. The resulting output will also be shifted.
specify a resolution in dpi (dots per inch) for drawing under
ghostscript. Default resolution is 144 dpi which is the double of
the typical 72 dpi. This option may help if there is a hardware
dependent resolution encoded in the postscript, e.g., 600dpi.
Example: ps2eps -l -r 600 test.ps
This option rotates the resulting EPS output. The parameter
direction determines the direction of rotation: + means +90 degrees
(clockwise),- means -90 degrees (counter-clockwise), and ^ means
180 degrees (up-side down).
expand the original tight bounding box by one point in each
do not use existing bounding box as page size for rendering.
do not use %%EOF as hint for end of file. Otherwise, ps2eps assumes
that postscript code ends after the last %%EOF comment, because
some drivers add trailing binary "garbage" code which gets deleted
by ps2eps by default.
use internal bbox device of ghostscript instead of the external C
program bbox. The internal bbox device of ghostscript generates
different values (sometimes even incorrect), so using the provided
bbox should be more robust. See also environment variable
show ghostscript call. This may be helpful for solving problems
that occur during a ghostscript call.
show warnings about sanity of generated EPS file. Certain
postscript commands should not be contained in an EPS file. With
this option set ps2eps will issue a warning if it detects at least
one of them.
Based on the given postscript source code (in most cases generated by
some postscript printer driver) there are many potential obstacles or
problems that may occur when trying to create proper EPS files. Please
read this section carefully to be aware of common pitfalls.
or how to determine the right size for ghostscript.
If you have documents that are larger than your ghostscript default
(usually A4 or US letter), you have to specify the page dimensions
explicitly using the -s option. Otherwise your EPS might be cut off
during rasterizing by ghostscript resulting in a wrongly calculated
bounding box. You can pass all pre-defined page sizes to -s that
ghostscript understands. These are currently: 11x17, ledger, legal,
letter, lettersmall, archA, archB, archC, archD, archE a0, a1, a2, a3,
a4, a5, a6, a7, a8, a9, a10, isob0, isob1, isob2, isob3, isob4, isob5,
isob6, b0, b1, b2, b3, b4, b5, c0, c1, c2, c3, c4, c5, c6, jisb0,
jisb1, jisb2, jisb3, jisb4, jisb5, jisb6, flsa, flse, halfletter.
Unfortunately, all sizes are currently only available in portrait
orientation (not landscape).
By default, ps2eps uses an already given %%BoundingBox from the source
file, which often corresponds to the size of the physical page format
for which the document was printed. However, you should be aware that
this already specified bounding box may be not correct, thus resulting
in a wrongly cropped (or even no usable) .eps-file. ps2eps can only do
as good as ghostscript does in rendering the original postscript file
(though ps2eps even works with negative and fractional values are
contained in the original bounding box by using automatic translation).
Therefore, if the given bounding box is to small or incorrect anyway,
you can ignore the existing bounding box with the -B option, which will
cause ghostscript to use its internal default size (or use -s).
However, if the BoundingBox has negative coordinates, which is not
allowed by the specification, ps2eps will shift the output to positive
Hint: to avoid rotating the picture if you have the original drawing in
landscape format, you may use the "Encapsulated Postscript" option in
the printer driver which should generate an EPS file (but with a
bounding box of the sheet size!). But some Windows printer drivers are
drawing the image with an offset from the bottom of the portrait page,
so that a part of it is drawn outside the landscape oriented page. In
this case, you'll have to specify a square size of the page using the
maximum length, e.g., 29.7cm x 29.7cm for an A4 page.
very badly behaving Postscript code (initclip) which will even override
the outer clipping! Thus, a new filter had to be installed in ps2eps
which will fix it.
However, because most programs clip directly on the bounding box, you
still may loose some pixels of your image, because the bounding box is
described in the coarse resolution of postscript points, i.e. 72 dpi.
In order to prevent this, you can use the -l option or -C option (for
the latter, clipping by the importing program should be disabled then)
to allow for a 1 point larger bounding box. -C clips around a 1 point
enlarged bounding box and -l enlarges the bounding box values by 1
point (you can also combine both options).
Some postscript sequences, e.g., for using specific printer features
(featurebegin ...), are not working well within an .eps file, so ps2eps
tries to filter them out. But please note that filters for postscript
code may not work properly for your printer driver (ps2eps was mainly
tested with HP and Adobe printer drivers, although it may work for all
printers using the PScript.dll). In this case you can try to turn of
filtering by using option -n, or try to find the bad sequence in the
postscript code and adapt the filter rule in the ps2eps script
(variables $linefilter, $rangefilter_begin, $rangefilter_end;
linefilter is an expression for filtering single lines, rangefilter_...
are expressions that filter all lines between a pattern matching
$rangefilter_begin and $rangefilter_end; drop me an e-mail with your
modifications). However, things may change as the printer drivers
(e.g., PScript.dll) or postscript language evolve.
Some applications or drivers generate postscript code with leading or
trailing binary code, which often confuses older postscript
interpreters. ps2eps tries to remove such code, but it may sometimes
make a wrong guess about start and end of the real postscript code
(drop me an e-mail with a zipped postscript source, see section BUGS).
Comment lines or even blank lines are removed (which is the default to
make .eps files smaller), which may corrupt your output. Please check
the next section how to fix this. ps2eps removes blank lines and also
<CR> (carriage ceturn "\r") at the end of lines. However, nicely
formatted postscript code gives a hint by using
"%%BeginBinary""%%EndBinary" comments. When ps2eps detects these
comments it will refrain from any filtering action within the marked
ps2eps filters also %%Orientation: comments by default (you can use
option -O to turn off filtering), because ghostscript may
"automagically" rotate images when generating PDF images, which is not
desired in most cases. Hint: you can turn off that feature in
ghostscript unconditionally by specifying -dAutoRotatePages=/None.
Some postscript code may get corrupted when comment lines or even blank
lines are removed (which is the default to make .eps files smaller),
because those files may contain encoded images which also have a % as
may thus suppress objects drawn in light colors.
Another option in case of memory problems and too long run times is to
use the much more memory efficient internal ghostscript bbox by using
the -g option.
Please note that a command line option always takes precedence over the
related environment variable.
The environment variable PS2EPS_SIZE can be used to specify a default
page size and take any argument that --size accepts. Examples: export
PS2EPS_SIZE=a0 (bash-like syntax) or setenv PS2EPS_SIZE letter (csh
If the environment variable PS2EPS_GSBBOX is set the internal bbox
device of ghostscript will be used instead of the external command
bbox. Examples: export PS2EPS_GSBBOX=true (bash-like syntax) or setenv
PS2EPS_GSBBOX 1 (csh syntax).
The usual call is simply: ps2eps -l file
A relatively failsafe call would be (if your postscript is smaller than
iso b0 [100cm x 141.4cm] and you have a fast computer with enough
memory): ps2eps -l -B -s b0 -c -n file
If output is not correct try: ps2eps -l -B -s b0 -F file
ps2eps was written by Roland Bless.
Other programs like ps2epsi do not calculate the bounding box always
correctly (because the values are put on the postscript stack which may
get corrupted by bad postscript code) or rounded it off so that
clipping the EPS cut off some part of the image. ps2eps uses a double
precision resolution of 144 dpi and appropriate rounding to get a
proper bounding box. The internal bbox device of ghostscript generates
different values (sometimes even incorrect), so using the provided bbox
should be more robust. However, because normal clipping has only a
resolution of 1/72dpi (postscript point), the clipping process may
still erase parts of your EPS image. In this case please use the -l
option to add an additional point of white space around the tight
Some people contributed code or suggestions to improve ps2eps. Here are
at least some names (sorry if I forgot your name): Christophe Druet,
Hans Ecke, Berend Hasselman, Erik Joergensen, Koji Nakamaru, Hans
Fredrik Nordhaug, Michael Sharpe. Special thanks goes to Michael Sharpe
from UCSD who suggested a lot of useful features for ps2eps and who
fixed bbox to become more precise and robust.
at idp44610832 or send a gzipped file of relevant postscript source
code with your error description and ps2eps version number to <roland
at bless.de> (please allow some time to reply).
bbox (1), gs (1), ps2epsi (1)
Copyright (C) 2009 Roland Bless
PS2EPS 1.68 May 7, 2010 PS2EPS(1)
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