pnmtofiasco [option]... [filename]...
pnmtofiasco compresses the named pbm, pgm, or ppm image files, or Stan-
dard Input if no file is named, and produces a FIASCO file on Standard
All option names may be abbreviated; for example, --optimize may be
written --optim or --opt. For most options a one letter short option is
provided. Mandatory or optional arguments to long options are manda-
tory or optional for short options, too. Both short and long options
are case sensitive.
The basic options are:
-i name, --input-name=name
Compress the named images, not Standard Input. If name is -,
read Standard Input. name has to be either an image filename or
a template of the form:
Templates are useful when compressing video streams: e.g., if
you specify the template img0[12-01-2].pgm, then pnmtofiasco
compresses the images img012.pgm, img010.pgm, ..., img002.pgm.
If name is a relative path, pnmtofiasco searches for the image
files in the current directory and in the (colon-separated) list
of directories given by the environment variable FIASCO_IMAGES.
-o output-file, --output-name=name
Write FIASCO output to the named file, not to Standard Output.
If name is a relative path and the environment variable
FIASCO_DATA is a (colon-separated) list of directories, then
pnmtofiasco writes the output file to the first (writable)
directory of this list. Otherwise, pnmtofiasco write it to the
-q N, --quality=N
Set quality of compression to N. Quality is 1 (worst) to 100
(best); default is 20.
Print pnmtofiasco version number, then exit.
-V N, --verbose N
Set level of verbosity to N. Level is 0 (no output at all), 1
(show progress meter), or 2 (show detailed compression statis-
tics); default is 1.
-B N, --progress-meter N
Set type of progress-meter to N. The following types are avail-
(in the specified order):
1) Global ressource file /etc/system.fiascorc
3) command line
Print brief help, then exit.
Print detailed help, then exit.
The options for advanced users are:
-b name, --basis-name=name
Preload compression basis name into FIASCO. The basis name pro-
vides the initial compression dictionary. Either use one of the
files "small.fco", "medium.fco", or "large.fco" that come with
pnmtofiasco or create a new ASCII basis file.
-z N, --optimize=N Set optimization level to
N. Level is 0 (fastes) to 3 (slowest); default is 1. Be warned,
the encoding time dramatically increased when N=2 or N=3 while
the compression performance only slightly improves.
Use additional predictive coding. If this optimization is
enabled then the image is compressed in two steps. In the first
step, a coarse approximation of the image is computed using
large unichrome blocks. Finally, the delta image is computed and
the prediction error is approximated using the standard FIASCO
-D N, --dictionary-size=N
Set size of dictionary that is used when coding the luminance
band to N; default is 10000, i.e., the dictionary is not
-C N, --chroma-dictionary=N
Set size of dictionary that is used when coding chroma bands to
N; default is 40.
-Q N, --chroma-qfactor=N
Reduce the quality of chroma band compression N-times with
respect to the user defined quality q of the luminance band com-
pression (--quality=q); default is 2.
-t N, --tiling-exponent=N
Subdivide the image into 2^N tiles prior coding; default is 4,
i.e. the image is subdivided into 16 tiles. The processing order
desc-spiral: Tiles are process in spiral order starting in the
asc-spiral: Tiles are process in spiral order starting at the
Use N mantissa bits for quantized coefficients.
Use N mantissa bits for quantized DC coefficients.
Coefficients outside the quantization interval [-N,+N] are set
DC coefficients outside the quantization interval [-N,+N] are
set to zero.
Additional options for video compression are:
-s N, --smooth=N
Smooth decompressed reference frames along the partitioning bor-
ders by the given amount N. N is 0 (no smoothing) to 100;
default is 70. This factor is stored in the FIASCO file.
-m N, --min-level=N
Start prediction (motion compensated prediction or additional
prediction) on block level N; default is level 6. I.e., motion
compensation is applied to all image blocks of at least 8x8 pix-
els (binary tree level N=6), 16x8 (N=7), 16x16 (N=8), etc.
-M N, --max-level=N
Stop prediction (motion compensated prediction or additional
prediction) on block level N; default is level 10. I.e., motion
compensation is applied to all image blocks of at most 16x16
pixels (N=8), 32x16 (N=9), 32x32 (N=10), etc.
Use half pixel precise motion compensation.
-F N, --fps=N
Set number of frames per second to N. This value is stored in
the FIASCO output file and is used in the decoder dfiasco(1) to
control the framerate.
-p type, --pattern=type
Defines the type of inter frame compression which should be
applied to individual frames of a video stream. type is a
sequence of characters; default is "IPPPPPPPPP". Element N
defines the type of predicting which should be used for frame N;
the frame type pattern is periodically extended. Valid charac-
Instead of using exhaustive search the "Cross-B-Search" algo-
rithm is used to find the best interpolated prediction of B-
Also use previously encoded B-frames when prediction the current
frame. If this option is not set, only I- and P-frames are used
to predict the current frame.
pnmtofiasco < foo.ppm >foo.wfa
Compress the still image "foo.ppm" to the FIASCO file "foo.wfa"
using the default options.
pnmtofiasco -2 -p "IBBPBBPBB" -fps 15 -o video.wfa foo0*.ppm
Compress the video frames "foo0*.ppm" to the FIASCO file
"video.wfa" using half pixel precise motion compensation at a
frame rate of 15 frames per second. Intra frame 1 is used to
predict P-frame 4, frames 1 and 4 are used to predict B-frames 2
and 3, and so on. Frame 10 is again an intra-frame.
The systemwide initialization file.
The personal initialization file.
Search path for image files. Default is "./".
Search and save path for FIASCO files. Default is "./".
fiascotopnm(1), ppmtojpeg(1), pnmtojbig(1), ppmtogif(1), pnm(5)
Ullrich Hafner, Juergen Albert, Stefan Frank, and Michael Unger.
Weighted Finite Automata for Video Compression, IEEE Journal on
Selected Areas In Communications, January 1998
Ullrich Hafner. Low Bit-Rate Image and Video Coding with Weighted
Finite Automata, Ph.D. thesis, Mensch & Buch Verlag, ISBN
3-89820-002-7, October 1999.
Ullrich Hafner <firstname.lastname@example.org>
July 12, 2000 pnmmtofiasco(1)
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