perltrap


DESCRIPTION
       The biggest trap of all is forgetting to "use warnings" or use the -w
       switch; see perllexwarn and perlrun. The second biggest trap is not
       making your entire program runnable under "use strict".  The third
       biggest trap is not reading the list of changes in this version of
       Perl; see perldelta.

   Awk Traps
       Accustomed awk users should take special note of the following:

       o   A Perl program executes only once, not once for each input line.
           You can do an implicit loop with "-n" or "-p".

       o   The English module, loaded via

               use English;

           allows you to refer to special variables (like $/) with names (like
           $RS), as though they were in awk; see perlvar for details.

       o   Semicolons are required after all simple statements in Perl (except
           at the end of a block).  Newline is not a statement delimiter.

       o   Curly brackets are required on "if"s and "while"s.

       o   Variables begin with "$", "@" or "%" in Perl.

       o   Arrays index from 0.  Likewise string positions in substr() and
           index().

       o   You have to decide whether your array has numeric or string
           indices.

       o   Hash values do not spring into existence upon mere reference.

       o   You have to decide whether you want to use string or numeric
           comparisons.

       o   Reading an input line does not split it for you.  You get to split
           it to an array yourself.  And the split() operator has different
           arguments than awk's.

       o   The current input line is normally in $_, not $0.  It generally
           does not have the newline stripped.  ($0 is the name of the program
           executed.)  See perlvar.

       o   $<digit> does not refer to fields--it refers to substrings matched
           by the last match pattern.

       o   The print() statement does not add field and record separators
           unless you set $, and "$\".  You can set $OFS and $ORS if you're
           using the English module.

       o   The concatenation operator is ".", not the null string.  (Using the
           null string would render "/pat/ /pat/" unparsable, because the
           third slash would be interpreted as a division operator--the
           tokenizer is in fact slightly context sensitive for operators like
           "/", "?", and ">".  And in fact, "." itself can be the beginning of
           a number.)

       o   The "next", "exit", and "continue" keywords work differently.

       o   The following variables work differently:

                 Awk       Perl
                 ARGC      scalar @ARGV (compare with $#ARGV)
                 ARGV[0]   $0
                 FILENAME  $ARGV
                 FNR       $. - something
                 FS        (whatever you like)
                 NF        $#Fld, or some such
                 NR        $.
                 OFMT      $#
                 OFS       $,
                 ORS       $\
                 RLENGTH   length($&)
                 RS        $/
                 RSTART    length($`)
                 SUBSEP    $;

       o   You cannot set $RS to a pattern, only a string.

       o   When in doubt, run the awk construct through a2p and see what it
           gives you.

   C/C++ Traps
       Cerebral C and C++ programmers should take note of the following:

       o   Curly brackets are required on "if"'s and "while"'s.

       o   You must use "elsif" rather than "else if".

       o   The "break" and "continue" keywords from C become in Perl "last"
           and "next", respectively.  Unlike in C, these do not work within a
           "do { } while" construct.  See "Loop Control" in perlsyn.

       o   The switch statement is called "given/when" and only available in
           perl 5.10 or newer. See "Switch statements" in perlsyn.

       o   Variables begin with "$", "@" or "%" in Perl.

       o   Comments begin with "#", not "/*" or "//".  Perl may interpret
           C/C++ comments as division operators, unterminated regular
           expressions or the defined-or operator.

       o   You can't take the address of anything, although a similar operator
           in Perl is the backslash, which creates a reference.

       Seasoned sed programmers should take note of the following:

       o   A Perl program executes only once, not once for each input line.
           You can do an implicit loop with "-n" or "-p".

       o   Backreferences in substitutions use "$" rather than "\".

       o   The pattern matching metacharacters "(", ")", and "|" do not have
           backslashes in front.

       o   The range operator is "...", rather than comma.

   Shell Traps
       Sharp shell programmers should take note of the following:

       o   The backtick operator does variable interpolation without regard to
           the presence of single quotes in the command.

       o   The backtick operator does no translation of the return value,
           unlike csh.

       o   Shells (especially csh) do several levels of substitution on each
           command line.  Perl does substitution in only certain constructs
           such as double quotes, backticks, angle brackets, and search
           patterns.

       o   Shells interpret scripts a little bit at a time.  Perl compiles the
           entire program before executing it (except for "BEGIN" blocks,
           which execute at compile time).

       o   The arguments are available via @ARGV, not $1, $2, etc.

       o   The environment is not automatically made available as separate
           scalar variables.

       o   The shell's "test" uses "=", "!=", "<" etc for string comparisons
           and "-eq", "-ne", "-lt" etc for numeric comparisons. This is the
           reverse of Perl, which uses "eq", "ne", "lt" for string
           comparisons, and "==", "!=" "<" etc for numeric comparisons.

   Perl Traps
       Practicing Perl Programmers should take note of the following:

       o   Remember that many operations behave differently in a list context
           than they do in a scalar one.  See perldata for details.

       o   Avoid barewords if you can, especially all lowercase ones.  You
           can't tell by just looking at it whether a bareword is a function
           or a string.  By using quotes on strings and parentheses on
           function calls, you won't ever get them confused.

       o   You cannot discern from mere inspection which builtins are unary
           operators (like chop() and chdir()) and which are list operators
           (like print() and unlink()).  (Unless prototyped, user-defined
               while (defined($_ = <FH>)) { }..
               <FH>;  # data discarded!

       o   Remember not to use "=" when you need "=~"; these two constructs
           are quite different:

               $x =  /foo/;
               $x =~ /foo/;

       o   The "do {}" construct isn't a real loop that you can use loop
           control on.

       o   Use "my()" for local variables whenever you can get away with it
           (but see perlform for where you can't).  Using "local()" actually
           gives a local value to a global variable, which leaves you open to
           unforeseen side-effects of dynamic scoping.

       o   If you localize an exported variable in a module, its exported
           value will not change.  The local name becomes an alias to a new
           value but the external name is still an alias for the original.

   Perl4 to Perl5 Traps
       Practicing Perl4 Programmers should take note of the following
       Perl4-to-Perl5 specific traps.

       They're crudely ordered according to the following list:

       Discontinuance, Deprecation, and BugFix traps
           Anything that's been fixed as a perl4 bug, removed as a perl4
           feature or deprecated as a perl4 feature with the intent to
           encourage usage of some other perl5 feature.

       Parsing Traps
           Traps that appear to stem from the new parser.

       Numerical Traps
           Traps having to do with numerical or mathematical operators.

       General data type traps
           Traps involving perl standard data types.

       Context Traps - scalar, list contexts
           Traps related to context within lists, scalar
           statements/declarations.

       Precedence Traps
           Traps related to the precedence of parsing, evaluation, and
           execution of code.

       General Regular Expression Traps using s///, etc.
           Traps related to the use of pattern matching.

       Subroutine, Signal, Sorting Traps
           Traps related to the use of signals and signal handlers, general

       If you find an example of a conversion trap that is not listed here,
       please submit it to <perlbug@perl.org> for inclusion.  Also note that
       at least some of these can be caught with the "use warnings" pragma or
       the -w switch.

   Discontinuance, Deprecation, and BugFix traps
       Anything that has been discontinued, deprecated, or fixed as a bug from
       perl4.

       o   Symbols starting with "_" no longer forced into main

           Symbols starting with "_" are no longer forced into package main,
           except for $_ itself (and @_, etc.).

               package test;
               $_legacy = 1;

               package main;
               print "\$_legacy is ",$_legacy,"\n";

               # perl4 prints: $_legacy is 1
               # perl5 prints: $_legacy is

       o   Double-colon valid package separator in variable name

           Double-colon is now a valid package separator in a variable name.
           Thus these behave differently in perl4 vs. perl5, because the
           packages don't exist.

               $a=1;$b=2;$c=3;$var=4;
               print "$a::$b::$c ";
               print "$var::abc::xyz\n";

               # perl4 prints: 1::2::3 4::abc::xyz
               # perl5 prints: 3

           Given that "::" is now the preferred package delimiter, it is
           debatable whether this should be classed as a bug or not.  (The
           older package delimiter, ' ,is used here)

               $x = 10;
               print "x=${'x}\n";

               # perl4 prints: x=10
               # perl5 prints: Can't find string terminator "'" anywhere before EOF

           You can avoid this problem, and remain compatible with perl4, if
           you always explicitly include the package name:

               $x = 10;
               print "x=${main'x}\n";

           Also see precedence traps, for parsing $:.

               # perl5 prints: c d e

       o   Can't do "goto" into a block that is optimized away

           You can't do a "goto" into a block that is optimized away.  Darn.

               goto marker1;

               for(1){
               marker1:
                   print "Here I is!\n";
               }

               # perl4 prints: Here I is!
               # perl5 errors: Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop

       o   Can't use whitespace as variable name or quote delimiter

           It is no longer syntactically legal to use whitespace as the name
           of a variable, or as a delimiter for any kind of quote construct.
           Double darn.

               $a = ("foo bar");
               $b = q baz ;
               print "a is $a, b is $b\n";

               # perl4 prints: a is foo bar, b is baz
               # perl5 errors: Bareword found where operator expected

       o   "while/if BLOCK BLOCK" gone

           The archaic while/if BLOCK BLOCK syntax is no longer supported.

               if { 1 } {
                   print "True!";
               }
               else {
                   print "False!";
               }

               # perl4 prints: True!
               # perl5 errors: syntax error at test.pl line 1, near "if {"

       o   "**" binds tighter than unary minus

           The "**" operator now binds more tightly than unary minus.  It was
           documented to work this way before, but didn't.

               print -4**2,"\n";

               # perl4 prints: 16
               # perl5 prints: -16

       o   "foreach" changed when iterating over a list
               print (join(':',@list));

               # perl4 prints: ab:abc:bcd:def
               # perl5 prints: 1:1:bcd:def

           To retain Perl4 semantics you need to assign your list explicitly
           to a temporary array and then iterate over that.  For example, you
           might need to change

               foreach $var (grep(/ab/,@list)){

           to

               foreach $var (@tmp = grep(/ab/,@list)){

           Otherwise changing $var will clobber the values of @list.  (This
           most often happens when you use $_ for the loop variable, and call
           subroutines in the loop that don't properly localize $_.)

       o   "split" with no args behavior changed

           "split" with no arguments now behaves like "split ' '" (which
           doesn't return an initial null field if $_ starts with whitespace),
           it used to behave like "split /\s+/" (which does).

               $_ = ' hi mom';
               print join(':', split);

               # perl4 prints: :hi:mom
               # perl5 prints: hi:mom

       o   -e behavior fixed

           Perl 4 would ignore any text which was attached to an -e switch,
           always taking the code snippet from the following arg.
           Additionally, it would silently accept an -e switch without a
           following arg.  Both of these behaviors have been fixed.

               perl -e'print "attached to -e"' 'print "separate arg"'

               # perl4 prints: separate arg
               # perl5 prints: attached to -e

               perl -e

               # perl4 prints:
               # perl5 dies: No code specified for -e.

       o   "push" returns number of elements in resulting list

           In Perl 4 the return value of "push" was undocumented, but it was
           actually the last value being pushed onto the target list.  In Perl
           5 the return value of "push" is documented, but has changed, it is
           the number of elements in the resulting list.

           In Perl 4, if in list context the delimiters to the first argument
           of "split()" were "??", the result would be placed in @_ as well as
           being returned.   Perl 5 has more respect for your subroutine
           arguments.

       o   Bugs removed

           Some bugs may have been inadvertently removed.  :-)

   Parsing Traps
       Perl4-to-Perl5 traps from having to do with parsing.

       o   Space between . and = triggers syntax error

           Note the space between . and =

               $string . = "more string";
               print $string;

               # perl4 prints: more string
               # perl5 prints: syntax error at - line 1, near ". ="

       o   Better parsing in perl 5

           Better parsing in perl 5

               sub foo {}
               &foo
               print("hello, world\n");

               # perl4 prints: hello, world
               # perl5 prints: syntax error

       o   Function parsing

           "if it looks like a function, it is a function" rule.

             print
               ($foo == 1) ? "is one\n" : "is zero\n";

               # perl4 prints: is zero
               # perl5 warns: "Useless use of a constant in void context" if using -w

       o   String interpolation of $#array differs

           String interpolation of the $#array construct differs when braces
           are to used around the name.

               @a = (1..3);
               print "${#a}";

               # perl4 prints: 2
               # perl5 fails with syntax error

           will report a syntax error near the "}" and the missing (or
           unexpected) comma.

           Use unary "+" before "{" on a hash reference, and unary "+" applied
           to the first thing in a BLOCK (after "{"), for perl to guess right
           all the time. (See "map" in perlfunc.)

   Numerical Traps
       Perl4-to-Perl5 traps having to do with numerical operators, operands,
       or output from same.

       o    Formatted output and significant digits

            Formatted output and significant digits.  In general, Perl 5 tries
            to be more precise.  For example, on a Solaris Sparc:

                print 7.373504 - 0, "\n";
                printf "%20.18f\n", 7.373504 - 0;

                # Perl4 prints:
                7.3750399999999996141
                7.375039999999999614

                # Perl5 prints:
                7.373504
                7.373503999999999614

            Notice how the first result looks better in Perl 5.

            Your results may vary, since your floating point formatting
            routines and even floating point format may be slightly different.

       o    Auto-increment operator over signed int limit deleted

            This specific item has been deleted.  It demonstrated how the
            auto-increment operator would not catch when a number went over
            the signed int limit.  Fixed in version 5.003_04.  But always be
            wary when using large integers.  If in doubt:

               use Math::BigInt;

       o    Assignment of return values from numeric equality tests doesn't
            work

            Assignment of return values from numeric equality tests does not
            work in perl5 when the test evaluates to false (0).  Logical tests
            now return a null, instead of 0

                $p = ($test == 1);
                print $p,"\n";

                # perl4 prints: 0
                # perl5 prints:

                $fred = "10";
                $barney = "12";
                $betty = $fred & $barney;
                print "$betty\n";
                # Uncomment the next line to change perl4's behavior
                # ($dummy) = vec("dummy", 0, 0);

                # Perl4 prints:
                8

                # Perl5 prints:
                10

                # If vec() is used anywhere in the program, both print:
                10

   General data type traps
       Perl4-to-Perl5 traps involving most data-types, and their usage within
       certain expressions and/or context.

       o    Negative array subscripts now count from the end of array

            Negative array subscripts now count from the end of the array.

                @a = (1, 2, 3, 4, 5);
                print "The third element of the array is $a[3] also expressed as $a[-2] \n";

                # perl4 prints: The third element of the array is 4 also expressed as
                # perl5 prints: The third element of the array is 4 also expressed as 4

       o    Setting $#array lower now discards array elements

            Setting $#array lower now discards array elements, and makes them
            impossible to recover.

                @a = (a,b,c,d,e);
                print "Before: ",join('',@a);
                $#a =1;
                print ", After: ",join('',@a);
                $#a =3;
                print ", Recovered: ",join('',@a),"\n";

                # perl4 prints: Before: abcde, After: ab, Recovered: abcd
                # perl5 prints: Before: abcde, After: ab, Recovered: ab

       o    Hashes get defined before use

            Hashes get defined before use

                local($s,@a,%h);
                die "scalar \$s defined" if defined($s);
                die "array \@a defined" if defined(@a);
                die "hash \%h defined" if defined(%h);

                *b = *a;
                local(@a);
                print @b,"\n";

                # perl4 prints: This is Perl 4
                # perl5 prints:

       o    Assigning "undef" to glob

            Assigning "undef" to a glob has no effect in Perl 5.   In Perl 4
            it undefines the associated scalar (but may have other side
            effects including SEGVs). Perl 5 will also warn if "undef" is
            assigned to a typeglob. (Note that assigning "undef" to a typeglob
            is different than calling the "undef" function on a typeglob
            ("undef *foo"), which has quite a few effects.

                $foo = "bar";
                *foo = undef;
                print $foo;

                # perl4 prints:
                # perl4 warns: "Use of uninitialized variable" if using -w
                # perl5 prints: bar
                # perl5 warns: "Undefined value assigned to typeglob" if using -w

       o    Changes in unary negation (of strings)

            Changes in unary negation (of strings) This change effects both
            the return value and what it does to auto(magic)increment.

                $x = "aaa";
                print ++$x," : ";
                print -$x," : ";
                print ++$x,"\n";

                # perl4 prints: aab : -0 : 1
                # perl5 prints: aab : -aab : aac

       o    Modifying of constants prohibited

            perl 4 lets you modify constants:

                $foo = "x";
                &mod($foo);
                for ($x = 0; $x < 3; $x++) {
                    &mod("a");
                }
                sub mod {
                    print "before: $_[0]";
                    $_[0] = "m";
                    print "  after: $_[0]\n";
                }

                # perl4:

            The behavior is slightly different for:

                print "$x", defined $x

                # perl 4: 1
                # perl 5: <no output, $x is not called into existence>

       o    Variable Suicide

            Variable suicide behavior is more consistent under Perl 5.  Perl5
            exhibits the same behavior for hashes and scalars, that perl4
            exhibits for only scalars.

                $aGlobal{ "aKey" } = "global value";
                print "MAIN:", $aGlobal{"aKey"}, "\n";
                $GlobalLevel = 0;
                &test( *aGlobal );

                sub test {
                    local( *theArgument ) = @_;
                    local( %aNewLocal ); # perl 4 != 5.001l,m
                    $aNewLocal{"aKey"} = "this should never appear";
                    print "SUB: ", $theArgument{"aKey"}, "\n";
                    $aNewLocal{"aKey"} = "level $GlobalLevel";   # what should print
                    $GlobalLevel++;
                    if( $GlobalLevel<4 ) {
                        &test( *aNewLocal );
                    }
                }

                # Perl4:
                # MAIN:global value
                # SUB: global value
                # SUB: level 0
                # SUB: level 1
                # SUB: level 2

                # Perl5:
                # MAIN:global value
                # SUB: global value
                # SUB: this should never appear
                # SUB: this should never appear
                # SUB: this should never appear

   Context Traps - scalar, list contexts
       o    Elements of argument lists for formats evaluated in list context

            The elements of argument lists for formats are now evaluated in
            list context.  This means you can interpolate list values now.

                @fmt = ("foo","bar","baz");
                format STDOUT=
                @<<<<< @||||| @>>>>>
                @fmt;

                caller() ? (print "You rang?\n") : (print "Got a 0\n");

                # perl4 errors: There is no caller
                # perl5 prints: Got a 0

       o    Comma operator in scalar context gives scalar context to args

            The comma operator in a scalar context is now guaranteed to give a
            scalar context to its last argument. It gives scalar or void
            context to any preceding arguments, depending on circumstances.

                @y= ('a','b','c');
                $x = (1, 2, @y);
                print "x = $x\n";

                # Perl4 prints:  x = c   # Interpolates array @y into the list
                # Perl5 prints:  x = 3   # Evaluates array @y in scalar context

       o    "sprintf()" prototyped as "($;@)"

            "sprintf()" is prototyped as ($;@), so its first argument is given
            scalar context. Thus, if passed an array, it will probably not do
            what you want, unlike Perl 4:

                @z = ('%s%s', 'foo', 'bar');
                $x = sprintf(@z);
                print $x;

                # perl4 prints: foobar
                # perl5 prints: 3

            "printf()" works the same as it did in Perl 4, though:

                @z = ('%s%s', 'foo', 'bar');
                printf STDOUT (@z);

                # perl4 prints: foobar
                # perl5 prints: foobar

   Precedence Traps
       Perl4-to-Perl5 traps involving precedence order.

       Perl 4 has almost the same precedence rules as Perl 5 for the operators
       that they both have.  Perl 4 however, seems to have had some
       inconsistencies that made the behavior differ from what was documented.

       o    LHS vs. RHS of any assignment operator

            LHS vs. RHS of any assignment operator.  LHS is evaluated first in
            perl4, second in perl5; this can affect the relationship between
            side-effects in sub-expressions.

                @arr = ( 'left', 'right' );
                $n = shift @list + 2;   # first item in list plus 2
                print "n is $n, ";
                $m = keys %map + 2;     # number of items in hash plus 2
                print "m is $m\n";

                # perl4 prints: n is 3, m is 6
                # perl5 errors and fails to compile

       o    Precedence of assignment operators same as the precedence of
            assignment

            The precedence of assignment operators is now the same as the
            precedence of assignment.  Perl 4 mistakenly gave them the
            precedence of the associated operator.  So you now must
            parenthesize them in expressions like

                /foo/ ? ($a += 2) : ($a -= 2);

            Otherwise

                /foo/ ? $a += 2 : $a -= 2

            would be erroneously parsed as

                (/foo/ ? $a += 2 : $a) -= 2;

            On the other hand,

                $a += /foo/ ? 1 : 2;

            now works as a C programmer would expect.

       o    "open" requires parentheses around filehandle

                open FOO || die;

            is now incorrect.  You need parentheses around the filehandle.
            Otherwise, perl5 leaves the statement as its default precedence:

                open(FOO || die);

                # perl4 opens or dies
                # perl5 opens FOO, dying only if 'FOO' is false, i.e. never

       o    $: precedence over $:: gone

            perl4 gives the special variable, $: precedence, where perl5
            treats $:: as main "package"

                $a = "x"; print "$::a";

                # perl 4 prints: -:a
                # perl 5 prints: x


       o    "keys", "each", "values" are regular named unary operators

            In perl4, keys(), each() and values() were special high-precedence
            operators that operated on a single hash, but in perl5, they are
            regular named unary operators.  As documented, named unary
            operators have lower precedence than the arithmetic and
            concatenation operators "+ - .", but the perl4 variants of these
            operators actually bind tighter than "+ - .".  Thus, for:

                %foo = 1..10;
                print keys %foo - 1

                # perl4 prints: 4
                # perl5 prints: Type of arg 1 to keys must be hash (not subtraction)

            The perl4 behavior was probably more useful, if less consistent.

   General Regular Expression Traps using s///, etc.
       All types of RE traps.

       o    "s'$lhs'$rhs'" interpolates on either side

            "s'$lhs'$rhs'" now does no interpolation on either side.  It used
            to interpolate $lhs but not $rhs.  (And still does not match a
            literal '$' in string)

                $a=1;$b=2;
                $string = '1 2 $a $b';
                $string =~ s'$a'$b';
                print $string,"\n";

                # perl4 prints: $b 2 $a $b
                # perl5 prints: 1 2 $a $b

       o    "m//g" attaches its state to the searched string

            "m//g" now attaches its state to the searched string rather than
            the regular expression.  (Once the scope of a block is left for
            the sub, the state of the searched string is lost)

                $_ = "ababab";
                while(m/ab/g){
                    &doit("blah");
                }
                sub doit{local($_) = shift; print "Got $_ "}

                # perl4 prints: Got blah Got blah Got blah Got blah
                # perl5 prints: infinite loop blah...

       o    "m//o" used within an anonymous sub

            Currently, if you use the "m//o" qualifier on a regular expression
            within an anonymous sub, all closures generated from that
                print $bad->('foo stuff bar') ? "not ok\n" : "ok\n";

            For most builds of Perl5, this will print: ok not ok not ok

            build_match() will always return a sub which matches the contents
            of $left and $right as they were the first time that build_match()
            was called, not as they are in the current call.

       o    $+ isn't set to whole match

            If no parentheses are used in a match, Perl4 sets $+ to the whole
            match, just like $&. Perl5 does not.

                "abcdef" =~ /b.*e/;
                print "\$+ = $+\n";

                # perl4 prints: bcde
                # perl5 prints:

       o    Substitution now returns null string if it fails

            substitution now returns the null string if it fails

                $string = "test";
                $value = ($string =~ s/foo//);
                print $value, "\n";

                # perl4 prints: 0
                # perl5 prints:

            Also see "Numerical Traps" for another example of this new
            feature.

       o    "s`lhs`rhs`" is now a normal substitution

            "s`lhs`rhs`" (using backticks) is now a normal substitution, with
            no backtick expansion

                $string = "";
                $string =~ s`^`hostname`;
                print $string, "\n";

                # perl4 prints: <the local hostname>
                # perl5 prints: hostname

       o    Stricter parsing of variables in regular expressions

            Stricter parsing of variables used in regular expressions

                s/^([^$grpc]*$grpc[$opt$plus$rep]?)//o;

                # perl4: compiles w/o error
                # perl5: with Scalar found where operator expected ..., near "$opt$plus"

                # perl5 prints: foobar

       o    "m?x?" matches only once

            Under perl5, "m?x?" matches only once, like "?x?". Under perl4, it
            matched repeatedly, like "/x/" or "m!x!".

                $test = "once";
                sub match { $test =~ m?once?; }
                &match();
                if( &match() ) {
                    # m?x? matches more then once
                    print "perl4\n";
                } else {
                    # m?x? matches only once
                    print "perl5\n";
                }

                # perl4 prints: perl4
                # perl5 prints: perl5

       o    Failed matches don't reset the match variables

            Unlike in Ruby, failed matches in Perl do not reset the match
            variables ($1, $2, ..., "$`", ...).

   Subroutine, Signal, Sorting Traps
       The general group of Perl4-to-Perl5 traps having to do with Signals,
       Sorting, and their related subroutines, as well as general subroutine
       traps.  Includes some OS-Specific traps.

       o    Barewords that used to look like strings look like subroutine
            calls

            Barewords that used to look like strings to Perl will now look
            like subroutine calls if a subroutine by that name is defined
            before the compiler sees them.

                sub SeeYa { warn"Hasta la vista, baby!" }
                $SIG{'TERM'} = SeeYa;
                print "SIGTERM is now $SIG{'TERM'}\n";

                # perl4 prints: SIGTERM is now main'SeeYa
                # perl5 prints: SIGTERM is now main::1 (and warns "Hasta la vista, baby!")

            Use -w to catch this one

       o    Reverse is no longer allowed as the name of a sort subroutine

            reverse is no longer allowed as the name of a sort subroutine.

                sub reverse{ print "yup "; $a <=> $b }
                print sort reverse (2,1,3);

                # perl5 prints: String found where operator expected

   OS Traps
       o    SysV resets signal handler correctly

            Under HPUX, and some other SysV OSes, one had to reset any signal
            handler, within  the signal handler function, each time a signal
            was handled with perl4.  With perl5, the reset is now done
            correctly.  Any code relying on the handler _not_ being reset will
            have to be reworked.

            Since version 5.002, Perl uses sigaction() under SysV.

                sub gotit {
                    print "Got @_... ";
                }
                $SIG{'INT'} = 'gotit';

                $| = 1;
                $pid = fork;
                if ($pid) {
                    kill('INT', $pid);
                    sleep(1);
                    kill('INT', $pid);
                } else {
                    while (1) {sleep(10);}
                }

                # perl4 (HPUX) prints: Got INT...
                # perl5 (HPUX) prints: Got INT... Got INT...

       o    SysV "seek()" appends correctly

            Under SysV OSes, "seek()" on a file opened to append ">>" now does
            the right thing w.r.t. the fopen() manpage. e.g., - When a file is
            opened for append,  it  is  impossible to overwrite information
            already in the file.

                open(TEST,">>seek.test");
                $start = tell TEST;
                foreach(1 .. 9){
                    print TEST "$_ ";
                }
                $end = tell TEST;
                seek(TEST,$start,0);
                print TEST "18 characters here";

                # perl4 (solaris) seek.test has: 18 characters here
                # perl5 (solaris) seek.test has: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 18 characters here

   Interpolation Traps
       Perl4-to-Perl5 traps having to do with how things get interpolated
       within certain expressions, statements, contexts, or whatever.

            Double-quoted strings may no longer end with an unescaped $.

                $foo = "foo$";
                print "foo is $foo\n";

                # perl4 prints: foo is foo$
                # perl5 errors: Final $ should be \$ or $name

            Note: perl5 DOES NOT error on the terminating @ in $bar

       o    Arbitrary expressions are evaluated inside braces within double
            quotes

            Perl now sometimes evaluates arbitrary expressions inside braces
            that occur within double quotes (usually when the opening brace is
            preceded by "$" or "@").

                @www = "buz";
                $foo = "foo";
                $bar = "bar";
                sub foo { return "bar" };
                print "|@{w.w.w}|${main'foo}|";

                # perl4 prints: |@{w.w.w}|foo|
                # perl5 prints: |buz|bar|

            Note that you can "use strict;" to ward off such trappiness under
            perl5.

       o    $$x now tries to dereference $x

            The construct "this is $$x" used to interpolate the pid at that
            point, but now tries to dereference $x.  $$ by itself still works
            fine, however.

                $s = "a reference";
                $x = *s;
                print "this is $$x\n";

                # perl4 prints: this is XXXx   (XXX is the current pid)
                # perl5 prints: this is a reference

       o    Creation of hashes on the fly with "eval "EXPR"" requires
            protection

            Creation of hashes on the fly with "eval "EXPR"" now requires
            either both "$"'s to be protected in the specification of the hash
            name, or both curlies to be protected.  If both curlies are
            protected, the result will be compatible with perl4 and perl5.
            This is a very common practice, and should be changed to use the
            block form of "eval{}"  if possible.

                $hashname = "foobar";
                $key = "baz";

                eval "\$\$hashname{'$key'} = q|$value|";

            causes the following result:

                # perl4 prints: Nope
                # perl5 prints: Yup

            or, changing to

                eval "\$$hashname\{'$key'\} = q|$value|";

            causes the following result:

                # perl4 prints: Yup
                # perl5 prints: Yup
                # and is compatible for both versions

       o    Bugs in earlier perl versions

            perl4 programs which unconsciously rely on the bugs in earlier
            perl versions.

                perl -e '$bar=q/not/; print "This is $foo{$bar} perl5"'

                # perl4 prints: This is not perl5
                # perl5 prints: This is perl5

       o    Array and hash brackets during interpolation

            You also have to be careful about array and hash brackets during
            interpolation.

                print "$foo["

                perl 4 prints: [
                perl 5 prints: syntax error

                print "$foo{"

                perl 4 prints: {
                perl 5 prints: syntax error

            Perl 5 is expecting to find an index or key name following the
            respective brackets, as well as an ending bracket of the
            appropriate type.  In order to mimic the behavior of Perl 4, you
            must escape the bracket like so.

                print "$foo\[";
                print "$foo\{";

       o    Interpolation of "\$$foo{bar}"

            Similarly, watch out for: "\$$foo{bar}"

            "qq()" string passed to "eval"

                eval qq(
                    foreach \$y (keys %\$x\) {
                        \$count++;
                    }
                );

                # perl4 runs this ok
                # perl5 prints: Can't find string terminator ")"

   DBM Traps
       General DBM traps.

       o    Perl5 must have been linked with same dbm/ndbm as the default for
            "dbmopen()"

            Existing dbm databases created under perl4 (or any other dbm/ndbm
            tool) may cause the same script, run under perl5, to fail.  The
            build of perl5 must have been linked with the same dbm/ndbm as the
            default for "dbmopen()" to function properly without "tie"'ing to
            an extension dbm implementation.

                dbmopen (%dbm, "file", undef);
                print "ok\n";

                # perl4 prints: ok
                # perl5 prints: ok (IFF linked with -ldbm or -lndbm)

       o    DBM exceeding limit on the key/value size will cause perl5 to exit
            immediately

            Existing dbm databases created under perl4 (or any other dbm/ndbm
            tool) may cause the same script, run under perl5, to fail.  The
            error generated when exceeding the limit on the key/value size
            will cause perl5 to exit immediately.

                dbmopen(DB, "testdb",0600) || die "couldn't open db! $!";
                $DB{'trap'} = "x" x 1024;  # value too large for most dbm/ndbm
                print "YUP\n";

                # perl4 prints:
                dbm store returned -1, errno 28, key "trap" at - line 3.
                YUP

                # perl5 prints:
                dbm store returned -1, errno 28, key "trap" at - line 3.

   Unclassified Traps
       Everything else.

       o    "require"/"do" trap using returned value

            Running doit.pl gives the following:

                # perl 4 prints: 3 (aborts the subroutine early)
                # perl 5 prints: 8

            Same behavior if you replace "do" with "require".

       o    "split" on empty string with LIMIT specified

                $string = '';
                @list = split(/foo/, $string, 2)

            Perl4 returns a one element list containing the empty string but
            Perl5 returns an empty list.

       As always, if any of these are ever officially declared as bugs,
       they'll be fixed and removed.



perl v5.14.2                      2011-09-19                       PERLTRAP(1)
Man Pages Copyright Respective Owners. Site Copyright (C) 1994 - 2017 Hurricane Electric. All Rights Reserved.