This document describes various features of HP's Unix operating system
       (HP-UX) that will affect how Perl version 5 (hereafter just Perl) is
       compiled and/or runs.

   Using perl as shipped with HP-UX
       Application release September 2001, HP-UX 11.00 is the first to ship
       with Perl. By the time it was perl-5.6.1 in /opt/perl. The first
       occurrence is on CD 5012-7954 and can be installed using

         swinstall -s /cdrom perl

       assuming you have mounted that CD on /cdrom.

       That build was a portable hppa-1.1 multithread build that supports
       large files compiled with gcc-2.9-hppa-991112.

       If you perform a new installation, then (a newer) Perl will be
       installed automatically.  Pre-installed HP-UX systems now have more
       recent versions of Perl and the updated modules.

       The official (threaded) builds from HP, as they are shipped on the
       Application DVD/CD's are available on
       for both PA-RISC and IPF (Itanium Processor Family). They are built
       with the HP ANSI-C compiler. Up till 5.8.8 that was done by

       To see what version is included on the DVD (assumed here to be mounted
       on /cdrom), issue this command:

         # swlist -s /cdrom perl
         # perl           D.5.8.8.B  5.8.8 Perl Programming Language
           perl.Perl5-32  D.5.8.8.B  32-bit 5.8.8 Perl Programming Language with Extensions
           perl.Perl5-64  D.5.8.8.B  64-bit 5.8.8 Perl Programming Language with Extensions

       To see what is installed on your system:

         # swlist -R perl
         # perl                    E.5.8.8.J  Perl Programming Language
         # perl.Perl5-32           E.5.8.8.J  32-bit Perl Programming Language with Extensions
           perl.Perl5-32.PERL-MAN  E.5.8.8.J  32-bit Perl Man Pages for IA
           perl.Perl5-32.PERL-RUN  E.5.8.8.J  32-bit Perl Binaries for IA
         # perl.Perl5-64           E.5.8.8.J  64-bit Perl Programming Language with Extensions
           perl.Perl5-64.PERL-MAN  E.5.8.8.J  64-bit Perl Man Pages for IA
           perl.Perl5-64.PERL-RUN  E.5.8.8.J  64-bit Perl Binaries for IA

   Using perl from HP's porting centre
       HP porting centre tries to keep up with customer demand and release
       updates from the Open Source community. Having precompiled Perl
       binaries available is obvious, though "up-to-date" is something
       relative. At the moment of writing only perl-5.10.1 was available (with
       5.16.3 being the latest stable release from the porters point of view).

       The HP porting centres are limited in what systems they are allowed to
       H.Merijn Brand's site at <>.
       Carefully read the notes to see if the available versions suit your

   Compiling Perl 5 on HP-UX
       When compiling Perl, you must use an ANSI C compiler.  The C compiler
       that ships with all HP-UX systems is a K&R compiler that should only be
       used to build new kernels.

       Perl can be compiled with either HP's ANSI C compiler or with gcc.  The
       former is recommended, as not only can it compile Perl with no
       difficulty, but also can take advantage of features listed later that
       require the use of HP compiler-specific command-line flags.

       If you decide to use gcc, make sure your installation is recent and
       complete, and be sure to read the Perl INSTALL file for more gcc-
       specific details.

       HP's HP9000 Unix systems run on HP's own Precision Architecture (PA-
       RISC) chip.  HP-UX used to run on the Motorola MC68000 family of chips,
       but any machine with this chip in it is quite obsolete and this
       document will not attempt to address issues for compiling Perl on the
       Motorola chipset.

       The version of PA-RISC at the time of this document's last update is
       2.0, which is also the last there will be. HP PA-RISC systems are
       usually referred to with model description "HP 9000". The last CPU in
       this series is the PA-8900.  Support for PA-RISC architectured machines
       officially ends as shown in the following table:

          PA-RISC End-of-Life Roadmap
        | HP9000 | Superdome      | PA-8700        | Spring 2011     |
        | 4-128  |                | PA-8800/sx1000 | Summer 2012     |
        | cores  |                | PA-8900/sx1000 | 2014            |
        |        |                | PA-8900/sx2000 | 2015            |
        | HP9000 | rp7410, rp8400 | PA-8700        | Spring 2011     |
        | 2-32   | rp7420, rp8420 | PA-8800/sx1000 | 2012            |
        | cores  | rp7440, rp8440 | PA-8900/sx1000 | Autumn 2013     |
        |        |                | PA-8900/sx2000 | 2015            |
        | HP9000 | rp44x0         | PA-8700        | Spring 2011     |
        | 1-8    |                | PA-8800/rp44x0 | 2012            |
        | cores  |                | PA-8900/rp44x0 | 2014            |
        | HP9000 | rp34x0         | PA-8700        | Spring 2011     |
        | 1-4    |                | PA-8800/rp34x0 | 2012            |
        | cores  |                | PA-8900/rp34x0 | 2014            |

       From <>

   Portability Between PA-RISC Versions
       An executable compiled on a PA-RISC 2.0 platform will not execute on a
       PA-RISC 1.1 platform, even if they are running the same version of HP-
       UX.  If you are building Perl on a PA-RISC 2.0 platform and want that
       Perl to also run on a PA-RISC 1.1, the compiler flags +DAportable and
       +DS32 should be used.

       It is no longer possible to compile PA-RISC 1.0 executables on either
       the PA-RISC 1.1 or 2.0 platforms.  The command-line flags are accepted,
       but the resulting executable will not run when transferred to a PA-RISC
       1.0 system.

   PA-RISC 1.0
       The original version of PA-RISC, HP no longer sells any system with
       this chip.

       The following systems contained PA-RISC 1.0 chips:

         600, 635, 645, 808, 815, 822, 825, 832, 834, 835, 840, 842, 845, 850,
         852, 855, 860, 865, 870, 890

   PA-RISC 1.1
       An upgrade to the PA-RISC design, it shipped for many years in many
       different system.

       The following systems contain with PA-RISC 1.1 chips:

         705, 710, 712, 715, 720, 722, 725, 728, 730, 735, 742, 743, 744, 745,
         747, 750, 755, 770, 777, 778, 779, 800, 801, 803, 806, 807, 809, 811,
         813, 816, 817, 819, 821, 826, 827, 829, 831, 837, 839, 841, 847, 849,
         851, 856, 857, 859, 867, 869, 877, 887, 891, 892, 897, A180, A180C,
         B115, B120, B132L, B132L+, B160L, B180L, C100, C110, C115, C120,
         C160L, D200, D210, D220, D230, D250, D260, D310, D320, D330, D350,
         D360, D410, DX0, DX5, DXO, E25, E35, E45, E55, F10, F20, F30, G30,
         G40, G50, G60, G70, H20, H30, H40, H50, H60, H70, I30, I40, I50, I60,
         I70, J200, J210, J210XC, K100, K200, K210, K220, K230, K400, K410,
         K420, S700i, S715, S744, S760, T500, T520

   PA-RISC 2.0
       The most recent upgrade to the PA-RISC design, it added support for
       64-bit integer data.

       As of the date of this document's last update, the following systems
       contain PA-RISC 2.0 chips:

         700, 780, 781, 782, 783, 785, 802, 804, 810, 820, 861, 871, 879, 889,
         893, 895, 896, 898, 899, A400, A500, B1000, B2000, C130, C140, C160,
         C180, C180+, C180-XP, C200+, C400+, C3000, C360, C3600, CB260, D270,
         D280, D370, D380, D390, D650, J220, J2240, J280, J282, J400, J410,
         J5000, J5500XM, J5600, J7000, J7600, K250, K260, K260-EG, K270, K360,
         K370, K380, K450, K460, K460-EG, K460-XP, K470, K570, K580, L1000,
         L2000, L3000, N4000, R380, R390, SD16000, SD32000, SD64000, T540,
         T600, V2000, V2200, V2250, V2500, V2600

       The current naming convention is:

         ||||`+- 00 - 99 relative capacity & newness (upgrades, etc.)
         |||`--- unique number for each architecture to ensure different
         |||     systems do not have the same numbering across
         |||     architectures
         ||`---- 1 - 9 identifies family and/or relative positioning
         |`----- c = ia32 (cisc)
         |       p = pa-risc
         |       x = ia-64 (Itanium & Itanium 2)
         |       h = housing
         `------ t = tower
                 r = rack optimized
                 s = super scalable
                 b = blade
                 sa = appliance

   Itanium Processor Family (IPF) and HP-UX
       HP-UX also runs on the new Itanium processor.  This requires the use of
       a different version of HP-UX (currently 11.23 or 11i v2), and with the
       exception of a few differences detailed below and in later sections,
       Perl should compile with no problems.

       Although PA-RISC binaries can run on Itanium systems, you should not
       attempt to use a PA-RISC version of Perl on an Itanium system.  This is
       because shared libraries created on an Itanium system cannot be loaded
       while running a PA-RISC executable.

       HP Itanium 2 systems are usually referred to with model description "HP

   Itanium, Itanium 2 & Madison 6
       HP also ships servers with the 128-bit Itanium processor(s). The cx26x0
       is told to have Madison 6. As of the date of this document's last
       update, the following systems contain Itanium or Itanium 2 chips (this
       is likely to be out of date):

         BL60p, BL860c, BL870c, BL890c, cx2600, cx2620, rx1600, rx1620, rx2600,
         rx2600hptc, rx2620, rx2660, rx2800, rx3600, rx4610, rx4640, rx5670,
         rx6600, rx7420, rx7620, rx7640, rx8420, rx8620, rx8640, rx9610,
         sx1000, sx2000

       To see all about your machine, type

         # model
         ia64 hp server rx2600
         # /usr/contrib/bin/machinfo

   HP-UX versions
       Not all architectures (PA = PA-RISC, IPF = Itanium Processor Family)
       support all versions of HP-UX, here is a short list

   Building Dynamic Extensions on HP-UX
       HP-UX supports dynamically loadable libraries (shared libraries).
       Shared libraries end with the suffix .sl.  On Itanium systems, they end
       with the suffix .so.

       Shared libraries created on a platform using a particular PA-RISC
       version are not usable on platforms using an earlier PA-RISC version by
       default.  However, this backwards compatibility may be enabled using
       the same +DAportable compiler flag (with the same PA-RISC 1.0 caveat
       mentioned above).

       Shared libraries created on an Itanium platform cannot be loaded on a
       PA-RISC platform.  Shared libraries created on a PA-RISC platform can
       only be loaded on an Itanium platform if it is a PA-RISC executable
       that is attempting to load the PA-RISC library.  A PA-RISC shared
       library cannot be loaded into an Itanium executable nor vice-versa.

       To create a shared library, the following steps must be performed:

         1. Compile source modules with +z or +Z flag to create a .o module
            which contains Position-Independent Code (PIC).  The linker will
            tell you in the next step if +Z was needed.
            (For gcc, the appropriate flag is -fpic or -fPIC.)

         2. Link the shared library using the -b flag.  If the code calls
            any functions in other system libraries (e.g., libm), it must
            be included on this line.

       (Note that these steps are usually handled automatically by the
       extension's Makefile).

       If these dependent libraries are not listed at shared library creation
       time, you will get fatal "Unresolved symbol" errors at run time when
       the library is loaded.

       You may create a shared library that refers to another library, which
       may be either an archive library or a shared library.  If this second
       library is a shared library, this is called a "dependent library".  The
       dependent library's name is recorded in the main shared library, but it
       is not linked into the shared library.  Instead, it is loaded when the
       main shared library is loaded.  This can cause problems if you build an
       extension on one system and move it to another system where the
       libraries may not be located in the same place as on the first system.

       If the referred library is an archive library, then it is treated as a
       simple collection of .o modules (all of which must contain PIC).  These
       modules are then linked into the shared library.

       Note that it is okay to create a library which contains a dependent
       library that is already linked into perl.

       Some extensions, like DB_File and Compress::Zlib use/require prebuilt
       libraries for the perl extensions/modules to work. If these libraries
       are built using the default configuration, it might happen that you run
         # vi Makefile
         ... add +Z to all cflags to create shared objects
         CFLAGS=         -c $(CPPFLAGS) +Z -Ae +O2 +Onolimit \
                         -I/usr/local/include -I/usr/include/X11R6
         CXXFLAGS=       -c $(CPPFLAGS) +Z -Ae +O2 +Onolimit \
                         -I/usr/local/include -I/usr/include/X11R6

         # make clean
         # make
         # mkdir tmp
         # cd tmp
         # ar x ../libdb.a
         # ld -b -o *.o
         # mv /usr/local/lib
         # rm *.o
         # cd /usr/local/lib
         # rm -f
         # ln -s

         # cd .../DB_File-1.76
         # make distclean
         # perl Makefile.PL
         # make
         # make test
         # make install

       As of db-4.2.x it is no longer needed to do this by hand. Sleepycat has
       changed the configuration process to add +z on HP-UX automatically.

         # cd .../db-4.2.25/build_unix
         # env CFLAGS=+DD64 LDFLAGS=+DD64 ../dist/configure

       should work to generate 64bit shared libraries for HP-UX 11.00 and 11i.

       It is no longer possible to link PA-RISC 1.0 shared libraries (even
       though the command-line flags are still present).

       PA-RISC and Itanium object files are not interchangeable.  Although you
       may be able to use ar to create an archive library of PA-RISC object
       files on an Itanium system, you cannot link against it using an Itanium
       link editor.

   The HP ANSI C Compiler
       When using this compiler to build Perl, you should make sure that the
       flag -Aa is added to the cpprun and cppstdin variables in the
       file (though see the section on 64-bit perl below). If you are using a
       recent version of the Perl distribution, these flags are set

       Even though HP-UX 10.20 and 11.00 are not actively maintained by HP
       anymore, updates for the HP ANSI C compiler are still available from
       time to time, and it might be advisable to see if updates are
       applicable.  At the moment of writing, the latests available patches
       for 11.00 that should be applied are PHSS_35098, PHSS_35175,
       the same package available).

       Most mentioned distributions are depots. H.Merijn Brand has made
       prebuilt gcc binaries available on
       <> and/or
       <> for HP-UX 10.20 (only 32bit), HP-UX
       11.00, HP-UX 11.11 (HP-UX 11i v1), and HP-UX 11.23 (HP-UX 11i v2 PA-
       RISC) in both 32- and 64-bit versions. For HP-UX 11.23 IPF and HP-UX
       11.31 IPF depots are available too. The IPF versions do not need two
       versions of GNU gcc.

       On PA-RISC you need a different compiler for 32-bit applications and
       for 64-bit applications. On PA-RISC, 32-bit objects and 64-bit objects
       do not mix. Period. There is no different behaviour for HP C-ANSI-C or
       GNU gcc. So if you require your perl binary to use 64-bit libraries,
       like Oracle-64bit, you MUST build a 64-bit perl.

       Building a 64-bit capable gcc on PA-RISC from source is possible only
       when you have the HP C-ANSI C compiler or an already working 64-bit
       binary of gcc available. Best performance for perl is achieved with
       HP's native compiler.

   Using Large Files with Perl on HP-UX
       Beginning with HP-UX version 10.20, files larger than 2GB (2^31 bytes)
       may be created and manipulated.  Three separate methods of doing this
       are available.  Of these methods, the best method for Perl is to
       compile using the -Duselargefiles flag to Configure.  This causes Perl
       to be compiled using structures and functions in which these are 64
       bits wide, rather than 32 bits wide.  (Note that this will only work
       with HP's ANSI C compiler.  If you want to compile Perl using gcc, you
       will have to get a version of the compiler that supports 64-bit
       operations. See above for where to find it.)

       There are some drawbacks to this approach.  One is that any extension
       which calls any file-manipulating C function will need to be recompiled
       (just follow the usual "perl Makefile.PL; make; make test; make
       install" procedure).

       The list of functions that will need to recompiled is:
         creat,          fgetpos,        fopen,
         freopen,        fsetpos,        fstat,
         fstatvfs,       fstatvfsdev,    ftruncate,
         ftw,            lockf,          lseek,
         lstat,          mmap,           nftw,
         open,           prealloc,       stat,
         statvfs,        statvfsdev,     tmpfile,
         truncate,       getrlimit,      setrlimit

       Another drawback is only valid for Perl versions before 5.6.0.  This
       drawback is that the seek and tell functions (both the builtin version
       and POSIX module version) will not perform correctly.

       It is strongly recommended that you use this flag when you run
       Configure.  If you do not do this, but later answer the question about
       with. The hints provided for HP-UX during Configure will try very hard
       to get this right for you.

       HP-UX versions before 10.30 require a separate installation of a POSIX
       threads library package. Two examples are the HP DCE package, available
       on "HP-UX Hardware Extensions 3.0, Install and Core OS, Release 10.20,
       April 1999 (B3920-13941)" or the Freely available PTH package,
       available on H.Merijn's site (<>).
       The use of PTH will be unsupported in perl-5.12 and up and is rather
       buggy in 5.11.x.

       If you are going to use the HP DCE package, the library used for
       threading is /usr/lib/, but there have been multiple updates
       of that library over time. Perl will build with the first version, but
       it will not pass the test suite. Older Oracle versions might be a
       compelling reason not to update that library, otherwise please find a
       newer version in one of the following patches: PHSS_19739, PHSS_20608,
       or PHSS_23672

       reformatted output:

         d3:/usr/lib 106 > what libcma-*.1
            HP DCE/9000 1.5               Module: (Export)
                                          Date: Apr 29 1996 22:11:24
            HP DCE/9000 1.5 PHSS_19739-40 Module: (Export)
                                          Date: Sep  4 1999 01:59:07
            HP DCE/9000 1.5 PHSS_20608    Module: libcma.1 (Export)
                                          Date: Dec  8 1999 18:41:23
            HP DCE/9000 1.5 PHSS_23672    Module: libcma.1 (Export)
                                          Date: Apr  9 2001 10:01:06
         d3:/usr/lib 107 >

       If you choose for the PTH package, use swinstall to install pth in the
       default location (/opt/pth), and then make symbolic links to the
       libraries from /usr/lib

         # cd /usr/lib
         # ln -s /opt/pth/lib/libpth* .

       For building perl to support Oracle, it needs to be linked with libcl
       and libpthread. So even if your perl is an unthreaded build, these
       libraries might be required. See "Oracle on HP-UX" below.

   64-bit Perl on HP-UX
       Beginning with HP-UX 11.00, programs compiled under HP-UX can take
       advantage of the LP64 programming environment (LP64 means Longs and
       Pointers are 64 bits wide), in which scalar variables will be able to
       hold numbers larger than 2^32 with complete precision.  Perl has proven
       to be consistent and reliable in 64bit mode since 5.8.1 on all HP-UX

       You can also use the -Duse64bitint flag to Configure.  Although there
       are some minor differences between compiling Perl with this flag versus
       the -Duse64bitall flag, they should not be noticeable from a Perl
       user's perspective. When configuring -Duse64bitint using a 64bit gcc on
       a pa-risc architecture, -Duse64bitint is silently promoted to

       In both cases, it is strongly recommended that you use these flags when
       you run Configure.  If you do not use do this, but later answer the
       questions about 64-bit numbers when Configure asks you, you may get a
       configuration that cannot be compiled, or that does not function as

   Oracle on HP-UX
       Using perl to connect to Oracle databases through DBI and DBD::Oracle
       has caused a lot of people many headaches. Read README.hpux in the
       DBD::Oracle for much more information. The reason to mention it here is
       that Oracle requires a perl built with libcl and libpthread, the latter
       even when perl is build without threads. Building perl using all
       defaults, but still enabling to build DBD::Oracle later on can be
       achieved using

         Configure -A prepend:libswanted='cl pthread ' ...

       Do not forget the space before the trailing quote.

       Also note that this does not (yet) work with all configurations, it is
       known to fail with 64-bit versions of GCC.

   GDBM and Threads on HP-UX
       If you attempt to compile Perl with (POSIX) threads on an 11.X system
       and also link in the GDBM library, then Perl will immediately core dump
       when it starts up.  The only workaround at this point is to relink the
       GDBM library under 11.X, then relink it into Perl.

       the error might show something like:

       Pthread internal error: message: __libc_reinit() failed, file:
       ../pthreads/pthread.c, line: 1096 Return Pointer is 0xc082bf33 sh: 5345

       and Configure will give up.

   NFS filesystems and utime(2) on HP-UX
       If you are compiling Perl on a remotely-mounted NFS filesystem, the
       test io/fs.t may fail on test #18.  This appears to be a bug in HP-UX
       and no fix is currently available.

   HP-UX Kernel Parameters (maxdsiz) for Compiling Perl
       By default, HP-UX comes configured with a maximum data segment size of
       64MB.  This is too small to correctly compile Perl with the maximum
       optimization levels.  You can increase the size of the maxdsiz kernel
       parameter through the use of SAM.
       You may get a bus error core dump from the op/pwent or op/grent tests.
       If compiled with -g you will see a stack trace much like the following:

         #0  0xc004216c in  () from /usr/lib/libc.2
         #1  0xc00d7550 in __nss_src_state_destr () from /usr/lib/libc.2
         #2  0xc00d7768 in __nss_src_state_destr () from /usr/lib/libc.2
         #3  0xc00d78a8 in nss_delete () from /usr/lib/libc.2
         #4  0xc01126d8 in endpwent () from /usr/lib/libc.2
         #5  0xd1950 in Perl_pp_epwent () from ./perl
         #6  0x94d3c in Perl_runops_standard () from ./perl
         #7  0x23728 in S_run_body () from ./perl
         #8  0x23428 in perl_run () from ./perl
         #9  0x2005c in main () from ./perl

       The key here is the "nss_delete" call.  One workaround for this bug
       seems to be to create add to the file /etc/nsswitch.conf (at least) the
       following lines

         group: files
         passwd: files

       Whether you are using NIS does not matter.  Amazingly enough, the same
       bug also affects Solaris.

error: pasting ")" and "l" does not give a valid preprocessing token
       There seems to be a broken system header file in HP-UX 11.00 that
       breaks perl building in 32bit mode with GNU gcc-4.x causing this error.
       The same file for HP-UX 11.11 (even though the file is older) does not
       show this failure, and has the correct definition, so the best fix is
       to patch the header to match:

        --- /usr/include/inttypes.h  2001-04-20 18:42:14 +0200
        +++ /usr/include/inttypes.h  2000-11-14 09:00:00 +0200
        @@ -72,7 +72,7 @@
         #define UINT32_C(__c)                   __CONCAT_U__(__c)
         #else /* __LP64 */
         #define INT32_C(__c)                    __CONCAT__(__c,l)
        -#define UINT32_C(__c)                   __CONCAT__(__CONCAT_U__(__c),l)
        +#define UINT32_C(__c)                   __CONCAT__(__c,ul)
         #endif /* __LP64 */

         #define INT64_C(__c)                    __CONCAT_L__(__c,l)

Redeclaration of "sendpath" with a different storage class specifier
       The following compilation warnings may happen in HP-UX releases earlier
       than 11.31 but are harmless:

         cc: "/usr/include/sys/socket.h", line 535: warning 562: Redeclaration of "sendfile" with a different storage class specifier: "sendfile" will have internal linkage.
         cc: "/usr/include/sys/socket.h", line 536: warning 562: Redeclaration of "sendpath" with a different storage class specifier: "sendpath" will have internal linkage.

       They seem to be caused by broken system header files, and also other
       open source projects are seeing them.  The following HP-UX patches
       should make the warnings go away:

       whether utime() can change timestamps.  The Y2K patch seems to break
       utime() so that over NFS the timestamps do not get changed (on local
       filesystems utime() still works). This has probably been fixed on your
       system by now.

       H.Merijn Brand <> Jeff Okamoto <>

       With much assistance regarding shared libraries from Marc Sabatella.

perl v5.22.1                      2018-11-19                       PERLHPUX(1)
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