mysqlbinlog

MYSQLBINLOG(1)               MySQL Database System              MYSQLBINLOG(1)

NAME
       mysqlbinlog - utility for processing binary log files

SYNOPSIS
       mysqlbinlog [options] log_file ...

DESCRIPTION
       The server's binary log consists of files containing "events" that
       describe modifications to database contents. The server writes these
       files in binary format. To display their contents in text format, use
       the mysqlbinlog utility. You can also use mysqlbinlog to display the
       contents of relay log files written by a replica server in a
       replication setup because relay logs have the same format as binary
       logs. The binary log and relay log are discussed further in
       Section 5.4.4, "The Binary Log", and Section 16.2.4, "Relay Log and
       Replication Metadata Repositories".

       Invoke mysqlbinlog like this:

           shell> mysqlbinlog [options] log_file ...

       For example, to display the contents of the binary log file named
       binlog.000003, use this command:

           shell> mysqlbinlog binlog.0000003

       The output includes events contained in binlog.000003. For
       statement-based logging, event information includes the SQL statement,
       the ID of the server on which it was executed, the timestamp when the
       statement was executed, how much time it took, and so forth. For
       row-based logging, the event indicates a row change rather than an SQL
       statement. See Section 16.2.1, "Replication Formats", for information
       about logging modes.

       Events are preceded by header comments that provide additional
       information. For example:

           # at 141
           #100309  9:28:36 server id 123  end_log_pos 245
             Query thread_id=3350  exec_time=11  error_code=0

       In the first line, the number following at indicates the file offset,
       or starting position, of the event in the binary log file.

       The second line starts with a date and time indicating when the
       statement started on the server where the event originated. For
       replication, this timestamp is propagated to replica servers.  server
       id is the server_id value of the server where the event originated.
       end_log_pos indicates where the next event starts (that is, it is the
       end position of the current event + 1).  thread_id indicates which
       thread executed the event.  exec_time is the time spent executing the
       event, on a source server. On a replica, it is the difference of the
       end execution time on the replica minus the beginning execution time on
       the source. The difference serves as an indicator of how much
       replication lags behind the source.  error_code indicates the result
       from executing the event. Zero means that no error occurred.

           Note
           When using event groups, the file offsets of events may be grouped
           together and the comments of events may be grouped together. Do not
           mistake these grouped events for blank file offsets.

       The output from mysqlbinlog can be re-executed (for example, by using
       it as input to mysql) to redo the statements in the log. This is useful
       for recovery operations after an unexpected server exit. For other
       usage examples, see the discussion later in this section and in
       Section 7.5, "Point-in-Time (Incremental) Recovery".

       Normally, you use mysqlbinlog to read binary log files directly and
       apply them to the local MySQL server. It is also possible to read
       binary logs from a remote server by using the --read-from-remote-server
       option. To read remote binary logs, the connection parameter options
       can be given to indicate how to connect to the server. These options
       are --host, --password, --port, --protocol, --socket, and --user.

       When running mysqlbinlog against a large binary log, be careful that
       the filesystem has enough space for the resulting files. To configure
       the directory that mysqlbinlog uses for temporary files, use the TMPDIR
       environment variable.

       mysqlbinlog sets the value of pseudo_slave_mode to true before
       executing any SQL statements. This system variable affects the handling
       of XA transactions.

       mysqlbinlog supports the following options, which can be specified on
       the command line or in the [mysqlbinlog] and [client] groups of an
       option file. For information about option files used by MySQL programs,
       see Section 4.2.2.2, "Using Option Files".

       o   --help, -?  Display a help message and exit.

       o   --base64-output=value This option determines when events should be
           displayed encoded as base-64 strings using BINLOG statements. The
           option has these permissible values (not case-sensitive):

           o   AUTO ("automatic") or UNSPEC ("unspecified") displays BINLOG
               statements automatically when necessary (that is, for format
               description events and row events). If no --base64-output
               option is given, the effect is the same as
               --base64-output=AUTO.

                   Note
                   Automatic BINLOG display is the only safe behavior if you
                   intend to use the output of mysqlbinlog to re-execute
                   binary log file contents. The other option values are
                   intended only for debugging or testing purposes because
                   they may produce output that does not include all events in
                   executable form.

           o   NEVER causes BINLOG statements not to be displayed.
               mysqlbinlog exits with an error if a row event is found that
               must be displayed using BINLOG.

           o   DECODE-ROWS specifies to mysqlbinlog that you intend for row
               events to be decoded and displayed as commented SQL statements
               by also specifying the --verbose option. Like NEVER,
               DECODE-ROWS suppresses display of BINLOG statements, but unlike
               NEVER, it does not exit with an error if a row event is found.

           For examples that show the effect of --base64-output and --verbose
           on row event output, see the section called "MYSQLBINLOG ROW EVENT
           DISPLAY".

       o   --bind-address=ip_address On a computer having multiple network
           interfaces, use this option to select which interface to use for
           connecting to the MySQL server.

       o   --binlog-row-event-max-size=N

           +--------------------+-------------------------+
           |Command-Line Format | --binlog-row-event-max- |
           |                    | size=#                  |
           +--------------------+-------------------------+
           |Type                | Numeric                 |
           +--------------------+-------------------------+
           |Default Value       | 4294967040              |
           +--------------------+-------------------------+
           |Minimum Value       | 256                     |
           +--------------------+-------------------------+
           |Maximum Value       | 18446744073709547520    |
           +--------------------+-------------------------+
           Specify the maximum size of a row-based binary log event, in bytes.
           Rows are grouped into events smaller than this size if possible.
           The value should be a multiple of 256. The default is 4GB.

       o   --character-sets-dir=dir_name The directory where character sets
           are installed. See Section 10.15, "Character Set Configuration".

       o   --connection-server-id=server_id This option is used to test a
           MySQL server for support of the BINLOG_DUMP_NON_BLOCK connection
           flag. It is not required for normal operations.

           The effective default and minimum values for this option depend on
           whether mysqlbinlog is run in blocking mode or non-blocking mode.
           When mysqlbinlog is run in blocking mode, the default (and minimum)
           value is 1; when run in non-blocking mode, the default (and
           minimum) value is 0.

       o   --database=db_name, -d db_name This option causes mysqlbinlog to
           output entries from the binary log (local log only) that occur
           while db_name is been selected as the default database by USE.

           The --database option for mysqlbinlog is similar to the
           --binlog-do-db option for mysqld, but can be used to specify only
           one database. If --database is given multiple times, only the last
           instance is used.

           The effects of this option depend on whether the statement-based or
           row-based logging format is in use, in the same way that the
           effects of --binlog-do-db depend on whether statement-based or
           row-based logging is in use.

           Statement-based logging. The --database option works as follows:

           o   While db_name is the default database, statements are output
               whether they modify tables in db_name or a different database.

           o   Unless db_name is selected as the default database, statements
               are not output, even if they modify tables in db_name.

           o   There is an exception for CREATE DATABASE, ALTER DATABASE, and
               DROP DATABASE. The database being created, altered, or dropped
               is considered to be the default database when determining
               whether to output the statement.

           Suppose that the binary log was created by executing these
           statements using statement-based-logging:

               INSERT INTO test.t1 (i) VALUES(100);
               INSERT INTO db2.t2 (j)  VALUES(200);
               USE test;
               INSERT INTO test.t1 (i) VALUES(101);
               INSERT INTO t1 (i)      VALUES(102);
               INSERT INTO db2.t2 (j)  VALUES(201);
               USE db2;
               INSERT INTO test.t1 (i) VALUES(103);
               INSERT INTO db2.t2 (j)  VALUES(202);
               INSERT INTO t2 (j)      VALUES(203);

           mysqlbinlog --database=test does not output the first two INSERT
           statements because there is no default database. It outputs the
           three INSERT statements following USE test, but not the three
           INSERT statements following USE db2.

           mysqlbinlog --database=db2 does not output the first two INSERT
           statements because there is no default database. It does not output
           the three INSERT statements following USE test, but does output the
           three INSERT statements following USE db2.

           Row-based logging. mysqlbinlog outputs only entries that change
           tables belonging to db_name. The default database has no effect on
           this. Suppose that the binary log just described was created using
           row-based logging rather than statement-based logging.  mysqlbinlog
           --database=test outputs only those entries that modify t1 in the
           test database, regardless of whether USE was issued or what the
           default database is.  If a server is running with binlog_format set
           to MIXED and you want it to be possible to use mysqlbinlog with the
           --database option, you must ensure that tables that are modified
           are in the database selected by USE. (In particular, no
           cross-database updates should be used.)

           When used together with the --rewrite-db option, the --rewrite-db
           option is applied first; then the --database option is applied,
           using the rewritten database name. The order in which the options
           are provided makes no difference in this regard.

       o   --debug[=debug_options], -# [debug_options] Write a debugging log.
           A typical debug_options string is d:t:o,file_name. The default is
           d:t:o,/tmp/mysqlbinlog.trace.

           This option is available only if MySQL was built using WITH_DEBUG.
           MySQL release binaries provided by Oracle are not built using this
           option.

       o   --debug-check Print some debugging information when the program
           exits.

           This option is available only if MySQL was built using WITH_DEBUG.
           MySQL release binaries provided by Oracle are not built using this
           option.

       o   --debug-info Print debugging information and memory and CPU usage
           statistics when the program exits.

           This option is available only if MySQL was built using WITH_DEBUG.
           MySQL release binaries provided by Oracle are not built using this
           option.

       o   --default-auth=plugin A hint about which client-side authentication
           plugin to use. See Section 6.2.13, "Pluggable Authentication".

       o   --defaults-extra-file=file_name Read this option file after the
           global option file but (on Unix) before the user option file. If
           the file does not exist or is otherwise inaccessible, an error
           occurs.  file_name is interpreted relative to the current directory
           if given as a relative path name rather than a full path name.

           For additional information about this and other option-file
           options, see Section 4.2.2.3, "Command-Line Options that Affect
           Option-File Handling".

       o   --defaults-file=file_name Use only the given option file. If the
           file does not exist or is otherwise inaccessible, an error occurs.
           file_name is interpreted relative to the current directory if given
           as a relative path name rather than a full path name.

           Exception: Even with --defaults-file, client programs read
           .mylogin.cnf.

           For additional information about this and other option-file
           options, see Section 4.2.2.3, "Command-Line Options that Affect
           Option-File Handling".

       o   --defaults-group-suffix=str Read not only the usual option groups,
           but also groups with the usual names and a suffix of str. For
           example, mysqlbinlog normally reads the [client] and [mysqlbinlog]
           groups. If the --defaults-group-suffix=_other option is given,
           mysqlbinlog also reads the [client_other] and [mysqlbinlog_other]
           groups.

           For additional information about this and other option-file
           options, see Section 4.2.2.3, "Command-Line Options that Affect
           Option-File Handling".

       o   --disable-log-bin, -D Disable binary logging. This is useful for
           avoiding an endless loop if you use the --to-last-log option and
           are sending the output to the same MySQL server. This option also
           is useful when restoring after an unexpected exit to avoid
           duplication of the statements you have logged.

           This option causes mysqlbinlog to include a SET sql_log_bin = 0
           statement in its output to disable binary logging of the remaining
           output. Manipulating the session value of the sql_log_bin system
           variable is a restricted operation, so this option requires that
           you have privileges sufficient to set restricted session variables.
           See Section 5.1.8.1, "System Variable Privileges".

       o   --exclude-gtids=gtid_set Do not display any of the groups listed in
           the gtid_set.

       o   --force-if-open, -F Read binary log files even if they are open or
           were not closed properly.

       o   --force-read, -f With this option, if mysqlbinlog reads a binary
           log event that it does not recognize, it prints a warning, ignores
           the event, and continues. Without this option, mysqlbinlog stops if
           it reads such an event.

       o   --get-server-public-key Request from the server the public key
           required for RSA key pair-based password exchange. This option
           applies to clients that authenticate with the caching_sha2_password
           authentication plugin. For that plugin, the server does not send
           the public key unless requested. This option is ignored for
           accounts that do not authenticate with that plugin. It is also
           ignored if RSA-based password exchange is not used, as is the case
           when the client connects to the server using a secure connection.

           If --server-public-key-path=file_name is given and specifies a
           valid public key file, it takes precedence over
           --get-server-public-key.

           For information about the caching_sha2_password plugin, see
           Section 6.4.1.4, "Caching SHA-2 Pluggable Authentication".

           The --get-server-public-key option was added in MySQL 5.7.23.

       o   --hexdump, -H Display a hex dump of the log in comments, as
           described in the section called "MYSQLBINLOG HEX DUMP FORMAT". The
           hex output can be helpful for replication debugging.

       o   --host=host_name, -h host_name Get the binary log from the MySQL
           server on the given host.

       o   --idempotent Tell the MySQL Server to use idempotent mode while
           processing updates; this causes suppression of any duplicate-key or
           key-not-found errors that the server encounters in the current
           session while processing updates. This option may prove useful
           whenever it is desirable or necessary to replay one or more binary
           logs to a MySQL Server which may not contain all of the data to
           which the logs refer.

           The scope of effect for this option includes the current
           mysqlbinlog client and session only.

       o   --include-gtids=gtid_set Display only the groups listed in the
           gtid_set.

       o   --local-load=dir_name, -l dir_name For data loading operations
           corresponding to LOAD DATA statements, mysqlbinlog extracts the
           files from the binary log events, writes them as temporary ffiles
           to the local file system, and writes LOAD DATA LOCAL statements to
           cause the files to be loaded. By default, mysqlbinlog writes these
           temporary files to an operating system-specific directory. The
           --local-load option can be used to explicitly specify the directory
           where mysqlbinlog should prepare local temporary files.

               Important
               These temporary files are not automatically removed by
               mysqlbinlog or any other MySQL program.

       o   --login-path=name Read options from the named login path in the
           .mylogin.cnf login path file. A "login path" is an option group
           containing options that specify which MySQL server to connect to
           and which account to authenticate as. To create or modify a login
           path file, use the mysql_config_editor utility. See
           mysql_config_editor(1).

           For additional information about this and other option-file
           options, see Section 4.2.2.3, "Command-Line Options that Affect
           Option-File Handling".

       o   --no-defaults Do not read any option files. If program startup
           fails due to reading unknown options from an option file,
           --no-defaults can be used to prevent them from being read.

           The exception is that the .mylogin.cnf file, if it exists, is read
           in all cases. This permits passwords to be specified in a safer way
           than on the command line even when --no-defaults is used.
           (.mylogin.cnf is created by the mysql_config_editor utility. See
           mysql_config_editor(1).)

           For additional information about this and other option-file
           options, see Section 4.2.2.3, "Command-Line Options that Affect
           Option-File Handling".

       o   --offset=N, -o N Skip the first N entries in the log.

       o   --open-files-limit=N Specify the number of open file descriptors to
           reserve.

       o   --password[=password], -p[password] The password of the MySQL
           account used for connecting to the server. The password value is
           optional. If not given, mysqlbinlog prompts for one. If given,
           there must be no space between --password= or -p and the password
           following it. If no password option is specified, the default is to
           send no password.

           Specifying a password on the command line should be considered
           insecure. To avoid giving the password on the command line, use an
           option file. See Section 6.1.2.1, "End-User Guidelines for Password
           Security".

           To explicitly specify that there is no password and that
           mysqlbinlog should not prompt for one, use the --skip-password
           option.

       o   --plugin-dir=dir_name The directory in which to look for plugins.
           Specify this option if the --default-auth option is used to specify
           an authentication plugin but mysqlbinlog does not find it. See
           Section 6.2.13, "Pluggable Authentication".

       o   --port=port_num, -P port_num The TCP/IP port number to use for
           connecting to a remote server.

       o   --print-defaults Print the program name and all options that it
           gets from option files.

           For additional information about this and other option-file
           options, see Section 4.2.2.3, "Command-Line Options that Affect
           Option-File Handling".

       o   --protocol={TCP|SOCKET|PIPE|MEMORY} The transport protocol to use
           for connecting to the server. It is useful when the other
           connection parameters normally result in use of a protocol other
           than the one you want. For details on the permissible values, see
           Section 4.2.5, "Connection Transport Protocols".

       o   --raw By default, mysqlbinlog reads binary log files and writes
           events in text format. The --raw option tells mysqlbinlog to write
           them in their original binary format. Its use requires that
           --read-from-remote-server also be used because the files are
           requested from a server.  mysqlbinlog writes one output file for
           each file read from the server. The --raw option can be used to
           make a backup of a server's binary log. With the --stop-never
           option, the backup is "live" because mysqlbinlog stays connected to
           the server. By default, output files are written in the current
           directory with the same names as the original log files. Output
           file names can be modified using the --result-file option. For more
           information, see the section called "USING MYSQLBINLOG TO BACK UP
           BINARY LOG FILES".

       o   --read-from-remote-master=type Read binary logs from a MySQL server
           with the COM_BINLOG_DUMP or COM_BINLOG_DUMP_GTID commands by
           setting the option value to either BINLOG-DUMP-NON-GTIDS or
           BINLOG-DUMP-GTIDS, respectively. If
           --read-from-remote-master=BINLOG-DUMP-GTIDS is combined with
           --exclude-gtids, transactions can be filtered out on the source,
           avoiding unnecessary network traffic.

           The connection parameter options are used with this option or the
           --read-from-remote-server option. These options are --host,
           --password, --port, --protocol, --socket, and --user. If neither of
           the remote options is specified, the connection parameter options
           are ignored.

           The REPLICATION SLAVE privilege is required to use this option.

       o   --read-from-remote-server, -R Read the binary log from a MySQL
           server rather than reading a local log file. This option requires
           that the remote server be running. It works only for binary log
           files on the remote server, not relay log files.

           The connection parameter options are used with this option or the
           --read-from-remote-master option. These options are --host,
           --password, --port, --protocol, --socket, and --user. If neither of
           the remote options is specified, the connection parameter options
           are ignored.

           The REPLICATION SLAVE privilege is required to use this option.

           This option is like
           --read-from-remote-master=BINLOG-DUMP-NON-GTIDS.

       o   --result-file=name, -r name Without the --raw option, this option
           indicates the file to which mysqlbinlog writes text output. With
           --raw, mysqlbinlog writes one binary output file for each log file
           transferred from the server, writing them by default in the current
           directory using the same names as the original log file. In this
           case, the --result-file option value is treated as a prefix that
           modifies output file names.

       o   --rewrite-db='from_name->to_name' When reading from a row-based or
           statement-based log, rewrite all occurrences of from_name to
           to_name. Rewriting is done on the rows, for row-based logs, as well
           as on the USE clauses, for statement-based logs. In MySQL versions
           prior to 5.7.8, this option was only for use when restoring tables
           logged using the row-based format.

               Warning
               Statements in which table names are qualified with database
               names are not rewritten to use the new name when using this
               option.
           The rewrite rule employed as a value for this option is a string
           having the form 'from_name->to_name', as shown previously, and for
           this reason must be enclosed by quotation marks.

           To employ multiple rewrite rules, specify the option multiple
           times, as shown here:

               shell> mysqlbinlog --rewrite-db='dbcurrent->dbold' --rewrite-db='dbtest->dbcurrent' \
                                    binlog.00001 > /tmp/statements.sql

           When used together with the --database option, the --rewrite-db
           option is applied first; then --database option is applied, using
           the rewritten database name. The order in which the options are
           provided makes no difference in this regard.

           This means that, for example, if mysqlbinlog is started with
           --rewrite-db='mydb->yourdb' --database=yourdb, then all updates to
           any tables in databases mydb and yourdb are included in the output.
           On the other hand, if it is started with
           --rewrite-db='mydb->yourdb' --database=mydb, then mysqlbinlog
           outputs no statements at all: since all updates to mydb are first
           rewritten as updates to yourdb before applying the --database
           option, there remain no updates that match --database=mydb.

       o   --secure-auth Do not send passwords to the server in old (pre-4.1)
           format. This prevents connections except for servers that use the
           newer password format.

           As of MySQL 5.7.5, this option is deprecated; expect it to be
           removed in a future MySQL release. It is always enabled and
           attempting to disable it (--skip-secure-auth, --secure-auth=0)
           produces an error. Before MySQL 5.7.5, this option is enabled by
           default but can be disabled.

               Note
               Passwords that use the pre-4.1 hashing method are less secure
               than passwords that use the native password hashing method and
               should be avoided. Pre-4.1 passwords are deprecated and support
               for them was removed in MySQL 5.7.5. For account upgrade
               instructions, see Section 6.4.1.3, "Migrating Away from Pre-4.1
               Password Hashing and the mysql_old_password Plugin".

       o   --server-id=id Display only those events created by the server
           having the given server ID.

       o   --server-id-bits=N Use only the first N bits of the server_id to
           identify the server. If the binary log was written by a mysqld with
           server-id-bits set to less than 32 and user data stored in the most
           significant bit, running mysqlbinlog with --server-id-bits set to
           32 enables this data to be seen.

           This option is supported only by the versions of mysqlbinlog
           supplied with the NDB Cluster distribution, or built from the NDB
           Cluster sources.

       o   --server-public-key-path=file_name The path name to a file in PEM
           format containing a client-side copy of the public key required by
           the server for RSA key pair-based password exchange. This option
           applies to clients that authenticate with the sha256_password or
           caching_sha2_password authentication plugin. This option is ignored
           for accounts that do not authenticate with one of those plugins. It
           is also ignored if RSA-based password exchange is not used, as is
           the case when the client connects to the server using a secure
           connection.

           If --server-public-key-path=file_name is given and specifies a
           valid public key file, it takes precedence over
           --get-server-public-key.

           For sha256_password, this option applies only if MySQL was built
           using OpenSSL.

           For information about the sha256_password and caching_sha2_password
           plugins, see Section 6.4.1.5, "SHA-256 Pluggable Authentication",
           and Section 6.4.1.4, "Caching SHA-2 Pluggable Authentication".

           The --server-public-key-path option was added in MySQL 5.7.23.

       o   --set-charset=charset_name Add a SET NAMES charset_name statement
           to the output to specify the character set to be used for
           processing log files.

       o   --shared-memory-base-name=name On Windows, the shared-memory name
           to use for connections made using shared memory to a local server.
           The default value is MYSQL. The shared-memory name is
           case-sensitive.

           This option applies only if the server was started with the
           shared_memory system variable enabled to support shared-memory
           connections.

       o   --short-form, -s Display only the statements contained in the log,
           without any extra information or row-based events. This is for
           testing only, and should not be used in production systems.

       o   --skip-gtids[=(true|false)] Do not display any GTIDs in the output.
           This is needed when writing to a dump file from one or more binary
           logs containing GTIDs, as shown in this example:

               shell> mysqlbinlog --skip-gtids binlog.000001 >  /tmp/dump.sql
               shell> mysqlbinlog --skip-gtids binlog.000002 >> /tmp/dump.sql
               shell> mysql -u root -p -e "source /tmp/dump.sql"

           The use of this option is otherwise not normally recommended in
           production.

       o   --socket=path, -S path For connections to localhost, the Unix
           socket file to use, or, on Windows, the name of the named pipe to
           use.

           On Windows, this option applies only if the server was started with
           the named_pipe system variable enabled to support named-pipe
           connections. In addition, the user making the connection must be a
           member of the Windows group specified by the
           named_pipe_full_access_group system variable.

       o   --ssl* Options that begin with --ssl specify whether to connect to
           the server using SSL and indicate where to find SSL keys and
           certificates. See the section called "Command Options for Encrypted
           Connections".

       o   --start-datetime=datetime Start reading the binary log at the first
           event having a timestamp equal to or later than the datetime
           argument. The datetime value is relative to the local time zone on
           the machine where you run mysqlbinlog. The value should be in a
           format accepted for the DATETIME or TIMESTAMP data types. For
           example:

               shell> mysqlbinlog --start-datetime="2005-12-25 11:25:56" binlog.000003

           This option is useful for point-in-time recovery. See Section 7.5,
           "Point-in-Time (Incremental) Recovery".

       o   --start-position=N, -j N Start reading the binary log at the first
           event having a position equal to or greater than N. This option
           applies to the first log file named on the command line.

           This option is useful for point-in-time recovery. See Section 7.5,
           "Point-in-Time (Incremental) Recovery".

       o   --stop-datetime=datetime Stop reading the binary log at the first
           event having a timestamp equal to or later than the datetime
           argument. See the description of the --start-datetime option for
           information about the datetime value.

           This option is useful for point-in-time recovery. See Section 7.5,
           "Point-in-Time (Incremental) Recovery".

       o   --stop-never This option is used with --read-from-remote-server. It
           tells mysqlbinlog to remain connected to the server. Otherwise
           mysqlbinlog exits when the last log file has been transferred from
           the server.  --stop-never implies --to-last-log, so only the first
           log file to transfer need be named on the command line.

           --stop-never is commonly used with --raw to make a live binary log
           backup, but also can be used without --raw to maintain a continuous
           text display of log events as the server generates them.

       o   --stop-never-slave-server-id=id With --stop-never, mysqlbinlog
           reports a server ID of 65535 when it connects to the server.
           --stop-never-slave-server-id explicitly specifies the server ID to
           report. It can be used to avoid a conflict with the ID of a replica
           server or another mysqlbinlog process. See the section called
           "SPECIFYING THE MYSQLBINLOG SERVER ID".

       o   --stop-position=N Stop reading the binary log at the first event
           having a position equal to or greater than N. This option applies
           to the last log file named on the command line.

           This option is useful for point-in-time recovery. See Section 7.5,
           "Point-in-Time (Incremental) Recovery".

       o   --tls-version=protocol_list The permissible TLS protocols for
           encrypted connections. The value is a list of one or more
           comma-separated protocol names. The protocols that can be named for
           this option depend on the SSL library used to compile MySQL. For
           details, see Section 6.3.2, "Encrypted Connection TLS Protocols and
           Ciphers".

           This option was added in MySQL 5.7.10.

       o   --to-last-log, -t Do not stop at the end of the requested binary
           log from a MySQL server, but rather continue printing until the end
           of the last binary log. If you send the output to the same MySQL
           server, this may lead to an endless loop. This option requires
           --read-from-remote-server.

       o   --user=user_name, -u user_name The user name of the MySQL account
           to use when connecting to a remote server.

       o   --verbose, -v Reconstruct row events and display them as commented
           SQL statements. If this option is given twice (by passing in either
           "-vv" or "--verbose --verbose"), the output includes comments to
           indicate column data types and some metadata, and row query log
           events if so configured.

           For examples that show the effect of --base64-output and --verbose
           on row event output, see the section called "MYSQLBINLOG ROW EVENT
           DISPLAY".

       o   --verify-binlog-checksum, -c Verify checksums in binary log files.

       o   --version, -V Display version information and exit.

           In MySQL 5.7, the mysqlbinlog version number is 3.4.

       You can pipe the output of mysqlbinlog into the mysql client to execute
       the events contained in the binary log. This technique is used to
       recover from an unexpected exit when you have an old backup (see
       Section 7.5, "Point-in-Time (Incremental) Recovery"). For example:

           shell> mysqlbinlog binlog.000001 | mysql -u root -p

       Or:

           shell> mysqlbinlog binlog.[0-9]* | mysql -u root -p

       If the statements produced by mysqlbinlog may contain BLOB values,
       these may cause problems when mysql processes them. In this case,
       invoke mysql with the --binary-mode option.

       You can also redirect the output of mysqlbinlog to a text file instead,
       if you need to modify the statement log first (for example, to remove
       statements that you do not want to execute for some reason). After
       editing the file, execute the statements that it contains by using it
       as input to the mysql program:

           shell> mysqlbinlog binlog.000001 > tmpfile
           shell> ... edit tmpfile ...
           shell> mysql -u root -p < tmpfile

       When mysqlbinlog is invoked with the --start-position option, it
       displays only those events with an offset in the binary log greater
       than or equal to a given position (the given position must match the
       start of one event). It also has options to stop and start when it sees
       an event with a given date and time. This enables you to perform
       point-in-time recovery using the --stop-datetime option (to be able to
       say, for example, "roll forward my databases to how they were today at
       10:30 a.m.").

       If you have more than one binary log to execute on the MySQL server,
       the safe method is to process them all using a single connection to the
       server. Here is an example that demonstrates what may be unsafe:

           shell> mysqlbinlog binlog.000001 | mysql -u root -p # DANGER!!
           shell> mysqlbinlog binlog.000002 | mysql -u root -p # DANGER!!

       Processing binary logs this way using multiple connections to the
       server causes problems if the first log file contains a CREATE
       TEMPORARY TABLE statement and the second log contains a statement that
       uses the temporary table. When the first mysql process terminates, the
       server drops the temporary table. When the second mysql process
       attempts to use the table, the server reports "unknown table."

       To avoid problems like this, use a single mysql process to execute the
       contents of all binary logs that you want to process. Here is one way
       to do so:

           shell> mysqlbinlog binlog.000001 binlog.000002 | mysql -u root -p

       Another approach is to write all the logs to a single file and then
       process the file:

           shell> mysqlbinlog binlog.000001 >  /tmp/statements.sql
           shell> mysqlbinlog binlog.000002 >> /tmp/statements.sql
           shell> mysql -u root -p -e "source /tmp/statements.sql"

       mysqlbinlog can produce output that reproduces a LOAD DATA operation
       without the original data file.  mysqlbinlog copies the data to a
       temporary file and writes a LOAD DATA LOCAL statement that refers to
       the file. The default location of the directory where these files are
       written is system-specific. To specify a directory explicitly, use the
       --local-load option.

       Because mysqlbinlog converts LOAD DATA statements to LOAD DATA LOCAL
       statements (that is, it adds LOCAL), both the client and the server
       that you use to process the statements must be configured with the
       LOCAL capability enabled. See Section 6.1.6, "Security Considerations
       for LOAD DATA LOCAL".

           Warning
           The temporary files created for LOAD DATA LOCAL statements are not
           automatically deleted because they are needed until you actually
           execute those statements. You should delete the temporary files
           yourself after you no longer need the statement log. The files can
           be found in the temporary file directory and have names like
           original_file_name-#-#.

MYSQLBINLOG HEX DUMP FORMAT
       The --hexdump option causes mysqlbinlog to produce a hex dump of the
       binary log contents:

           shell> mysqlbinlog --hexdump master-bin.000001

       The hex output consists of comment lines beginning with #, so the
       output might look like this for the preceding command:

           /*!40019 SET @@SESSION.max_insert_delayed_threads=0*/;
           /*!50003 SET @OLD_COMPLETION_TYPE=@@COMPLETION_TYPE,COMPLETION_TYPE=0*/;
           # at 4
           #051024 17:24:13 server id 1  end_log_pos 98
           # Position  Timestamp   Type   Master ID        Size      Master Pos    Flags
           # 00000004 9d fc 5c 43   0f   01 00 00 00   5e 00 00 00   62 00 00 00   00 00
           # 00000017 04 00 35 2e 30 2e 31 35  2d 64 65 62 75 67 2d 6c |..5.0.15.debug.l|
           # 00000027 6f 67 00 00 00 00 00 00  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 |og..............|
           # 00000037 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 |................|
           # 00000047 00 00 00 00 9d fc 5c 43  13 38 0d 00 08 00 12 00 |.......C.8......|
           # 00000057 04 04 04 04 12 00 00 4b  00 04 1a                |.......K...|
           #       Start: binlog v 4, server v 5.0.15-debug-log created 051024 17:24:13
           #       at startup
           ROLLBACK;

       Hex dump output currently contains the elements in the following list.
       This format is subject to change. For more information about binary log
       format, see MySQL Internals: The Binary Log[1].

       o   Position: The byte position within the log file.

       o   Timestamp: The event timestamp. In the example shown, '9d fc 5c 43'
           is the representation of '051024 17:24:13' in hexadecimal.

       o   Type: The event type code.

       o   Master ID: The server ID of the source that created the event.

       o   Size: The size in bytes of the event.

       o   Master Pos: The position of the next event in the original source
           log file.

       o   Flags: Event flag values.

MYSQLBINLOG ROW EVENT DISPLAY
       The following examples illustrate how mysqlbinlog displays row events
       that specify data modifications. These correspond to events with the
       WRITE_ROWS_EVENT, UPDATE_ROWS_EVENT, and DELETE_ROWS_EVENT type codes.
       The --base64-output=DECODE-ROWS and --verbose options may be used to
       affect row event output.

       Suppose that the server is using row-based binary logging and that you
       execute the following sequence of statements:

           CREATE TABLE t
           (
             id   INT NOT NULL,
             name VARCHAR(20) NOT NULL,
             date DATE NULL
           ) ENGINE = InnoDB;
           START TRANSACTION;
           INSERT INTO t VALUES(1, 'apple', NULL);
           UPDATE t SET name = 'pear', date = '2009-01-01' WHERE id = 1;
           DELETE FROM t WHERE id = 1;
           COMMIT;

       By default, mysqlbinlog displays row events encoded as base-64 strings
       using BINLOG statements. Omitting extraneous lines, the output for the
       row events produced by the preceding statement sequence looks like
       this:

           shell> mysqlbinlog log_file
           ...
           # at 218
           #080828 15:03:08 server id 1  end_log_pos 258   Write_rows: table id 17 flags: STMT_END_F
           BINLOG '
           fAS3SBMBAAAALAAAANoAAAAAABEAAAAAAAAABHRlc3QAAXQAAwMPCgIUAAQ=
           fAS3SBcBAAAAKAAAAAIBAAAQABEAAAAAAAEAA//8AQAAAAVhcHBsZQ==
           '/*!*/;
           ...
           # at 302
           #080828 15:03:08 server id 1  end_log_pos 356   Update_rows: table id 17 flags: STMT_END_F
           BINLOG '
           fAS3SBMBAAAALAAAAC4BAAAAABEAAAAAAAAABHRlc3QAAXQAAwMPCgIUAAQ=
           fAS3SBgBAAAANgAAAGQBAAAQABEAAAAAAAEAA////AEAAAAFYXBwbGX4AQAAAARwZWFyIbIP
           '/*!*/;
           ...
           # at 400
           #080828 15:03:08 server id 1  end_log_pos 442   Delete_rows: table id 17 flags: STMT_END_F
           BINLOG '
           fAS3SBMBAAAALAAAAJABAAAAABEAAAAAAAAABHRlc3QAAXQAAwMPCgIUAAQ=
           fAS3SBkBAAAAKgAAALoBAAAQABEAAAAAAAEAA//4AQAAAARwZWFyIbIP
           '/*!*/;

       To see the row events as comments in the form of "pseudo-SQL"
       statements, run mysqlbinlog with the --verbose or -v option. The output
       contains lines beginning with ###:

           shell> mysqlbinlog -v log_file
           ...
           # at 218
           #080828 15:03:08 server id 1  end_log_pos 258   Write_rows: table id 17 flags: STMT_END_F
           BINLOG '
           fAS3SBMBAAAALAAAANoAAAAAABEAAAAAAAAABHRlc3QAAXQAAwMPCgIUAAQ=
           fAS3SBcBAAAAKAAAAAIBAAAQABEAAAAAAAEAA//8AQAAAAVhcHBsZQ==
           '/*!*/;
           ### INSERT INTO test.t
           ### SET
           ###   @1=1
           ###   @2='apple'
           ###   @3=NULL
           ...
           # at 302
           #080828 15:03:08 server id 1  end_log_pos 356   Update_rows: table id 17 flags: STMT_END_F
           BINLOG '
           fAS3SBMBAAAALAAAAC4BAAAAABEAAAAAAAAABHRlc3QAAXQAAwMPCgIUAAQ=
           fAS3SBgBAAAANgAAAGQBAAAQABEAAAAAAAEAA////AEAAAAFYXBwbGX4AQAAAARwZWFyIbIP
           '/*!*/;
           ### UPDATE test.t
           ### WHERE
           ###   @1=1
           ###   @2='apple'
           ###   @3=NULL
           ### SET
           ###   @1=1
           ###   @2='pear'
           ###   @3='2009:01:01'
           ...
           # at 400
           #080828 15:03:08 server id 1  end_log_pos 442   Delete_rows: table id 17 flags: STMT_END_F
           BINLOG '
           fAS3SBMBAAAALAAAAJABAAAAABEAAAAAAAAABHRlc3QAAXQAAwMPCgIUAAQ=
           fAS3SBkBAAAAKgAAALoBAAAQABEAAAAAAAEAA//4AQAAAARwZWFyIbIP
           '/*!*/;
           ### DELETE FROM test.t
           ### WHERE
           ###   @1=1
           ###   @2='pear'
           ###   @3='2009:01:01'

       Specify --verbose or -v twice to also display data types and some
       metadata for each column. The output contains an additional comment
       following each column change:

           shell> mysqlbinlog -vv log_file
           ...
           # at 218
           #080828 15:03:08 server id 1  end_log_pos 258   Write_rows: table id 17 flags: STMT_END_F
           BINLOG '
           fAS3SBMBAAAALAAAANoAAAAAABEAAAAAAAAABHRlc3QAAXQAAwMPCgIUAAQ=
           fAS3SBcBAAAAKAAAAAIBAAAQABEAAAAAAAEAA//8AQAAAAVhcHBsZQ==
           '/*!*/;
           ### INSERT INTO test.t
           ### SET
           ###   @1=1 /* INT meta=0 nullable=0 is_null=0 */
           ###   @2='apple' /* VARSTRING(20) meta=20 nullable=0 is_null=0 */
           ###   @3=NULL /* VARSTRING(20) meta=0 nullable=1 is_null=1 */
           ...
           # at 302
           #080828 15:03:08 server id 1  end_log_pos 356   Update_rows: table id 17 flags: STMT_END_F
           BINLOG '
           fAS3SBMBAAAALAAAAC4BAAAAABEAAAAAAAAABHRlc3QAAXQAAwMPCgIUAAQ=
           fAS3SBgBAAAANgAAAGQBAAAQABEAAAAAAAEAA////AEAAAAFYXBwbGX4AQAAAARwZWFyIbIP
           '/*!*/;
           ### UPDATE test.t
           ### WHERE
           ###   @1=1 /* INT meta=0 nullable=0 is_null=0 */
           ###   @2='apple' /* VARSTRING(20) meta=20 nullable=0 is_null=0 */
           ###   @3=NULL /* VARSTRING(20) meta=0 nullable=1 is_null=1 */
           ### SET
           ###   @1=1 /* INT meta=0 nullable=0 is_null=0 */
           ###   @2='pear' /* VARSTRING(20) meta=20 nullable=0 is_null=0 */
           ###   @3='2009:01:01' /* DATE meta=0 nullable=1 is_null=0 */
           ...
           # at 400
           #080828 15:03:08 server id 1  end_log_pos 442   Delete_rows: table id 17 flags: STMT_END_F
           BINLOG '
           fAS3SBMBAAAALAAAAJABAAAAABEAAAAAAAAABHRlc3QAAXQAAwMPCgIUAAQ=
           fAS3SBkBAAAAKgAAALoBAAAQABEAAAAAAAEAA//4AQAAAARwZWFyIbIP
           '/*!*/;
           ### DELETE FROM test.t
           ### WHERE
           ###   @1=1 /* INT meta=0 nullable=0 is_null=0 */
           ###   @2='pear' /* VARSTRING(20) meta=20 nullable=0 is_null=0 */
           ###   @3='2009:01:01' /* DATE meta=0 nullable=1 is_null=0 */

       You can tell mysqlbinlog to suppress the BINLOG statements for row
       events by using the --base64-output=DECODE-ROWS option. This is similar
       to --base64-output=NEVER but does not exit with an error if a row event
       is found. The combination of --base64-output=DECODE-ROWS and --verbose
       provides a convenient way to see row events only as SQL statements:

           shell> mysqlbinlog -v --base64-output=DECODE-ROWS log_file
           ...
           # at 218
           #080828 15:03:08 server id 1  end_log_pos 258   Write_rows: table id 17 flags: STMT_END_F
           ### INSERT INTO test.t
           ### SET
           ###   @1=1
           ###   @2='apple'
           ###   @3=NULL
           ...
           # at 302
           #080828 15:03:08 server id 1  end_log_pos 356   Update_rows: table id 17 flags: STMT_END_F
           ### UPDATE test.t
           ### WHERE
           ###   @1=1
           ###   @2='apple'
           ###   @3=NULL
           ### SET
           ###   @1=1
           ###   @2='pear'
           ###   @3='2009:01:01'
           ...
           # at 400
           #080828 15:03:08 server id 1  end_log_pos 442   Delete_rows: table id 17 flags: STMT_END_F
           ### DELETE FROM test.t
           ### WHERE
           ###   @1=1
           ###   @2='pear'
           ###   @3='2009:01:01'

           Note
           You should not suppress BINLOG statements if you intend to
           re-execute mysqlbinlog output.

       The SQL statements produced by --verbose for row events are much more
       readable than the corresponding BINLOG statements. However, they do not
       correspond exactly to the original SQL statements that generated the
       events. The following limitations apply:

       o   The original column names are lost and replaced by @N, where N is a
           column number.

       o   Character set information is not available in the binary log, which
           affects string column display:

           o   There is no distinction made between corresponding binary and
               nonbinary string types (BINARY and CHAR, VARBINARY and VARCHAR,
               BLOB and TEXT). The output uses a data type of STRING for
               fixed-length strings and VARSTRING for variable-length strings.

           o   For multibyte character sets, the maximum number of bytes per
               character is not present in the binary log, so the length for
               string types is displayed in bytes rather than in characters.
               For example, STRING(4) is used as the data type for values from
               either of these column types:

                   CHAR(4) CHARACTER SET latin1
                   CHAR(2) CHARACTER SET ucs2

           o   Due to the storage format for events of type UPDATE_ROWS_EVENT,
               UPDATE statements are displayed with the WHERE clause preceding
               the SET clause.

       Proper interpretation of row events requires the information from the
       format description event at the beginning of the binary log. Because
       mysqlbinlog does not know in advance whether the rest of the log
       contains row events, by default it displays the format description
       event using a BINLOG statement in the initial part of the output.

       If the binary log is known not to contain any events requiring a BINLOG
       statement (that is, no row events), the --base64-output=NEVER option
       can be used to prevent this header from being written.

USING MYSQLBINLOG TO BACK UP BINARY LOG FILES
       By default, mysqlbinlog reads binary log files and displays their
       contents in text format. This enables you to examine events within the
       files more easily and to re-execute them (for example, by using the
       output as input to mysql).  mysqlbinlog can read log files directly
       from the local file system, or, with the --read-from-remote-server
       option, it can connect to a server and request binary log contents from
       that server.  mysqlbinlog writes text output to its standard output, or
       to the file named as the value of the --result-file=file_name option if
       that option is given.

       o   mysqlbinlog Backup Capabilities

       o   mysqlbinlog Backup Options

       o   Static and Live Backups

       o   Output File Naming

       o   Example: mysqldump + mysqlbinlog for Backup and Restore

       o   mysqlbinlog Backup Restrictions
       mysqlbinlog Backup Capabilities

       mysqlbinlog can read binary log files and write new files containing
       the same content--that is, in binary format rather than text format.
       This capability enables you to easily back up a binary log in its
       original format.  mysqlbinlog can make a static backup, backing up a
       set of log files and stopping when the end of the last file is reached.
       It can also make a continuous ("live") backup, staying connected to the
       server when it reaches the end of the last log file and continuing to
       copy new events as they are generated. In continuous-backup operation,
       mysqlbinlog runs until the connection ends (for example, when the
       server exits) or mysqlbinlog is forcibly terminated. When the
       connection ends, mysqlbinlog does not wait and retry the connection,
       unlike a replica server. To continue a live backup after the server has
       been restarted, you must also restart mysqlbinlog.  mysqlbinlog Backup
       Options

       Binary log backup requires that you invoke mysqlbinlog with two options
       at minimum:

       o   The --read-from-remote-server (or -R) option tells mysqlbinlog to
           connect to a server and request its binary log. (This is similar to
           a replica replication server connecting to its source server.)

       o   The --raw option tells mysqlbinlog to write raw (binary) output,
           not text output.

       Along with --read-from-remote-server, it is common to specify other
       options: --host indicates where the server is running, and you may also
       need to specify connection options such as --user and --password.

       Several other options are useful in conjunction with --raw:

       o   --stop-never: Stay connected to the server after reaching the end
           of the last log file and continue to read new events.

       o   --stop-never-slave-server-id=id: The server ID that mysqlbinlog
           reports to the server when --stop-never is used. The default is
           65535. This can be used to avoid a conflict with the ID of a
           replica server or another mysqlbinlog process. See the section
           called "SPECIFYING THE MYSQLBINLOG SERVER ID".

       o   --result-file: A prefix for output file names, as described later.
       Static and Live Backups

       To back up a server's binary log files with mysqlbinlog, you must
       specify file names that actually exist on the server. If you do not
       know the names, connect to the server and use the SHOW BINARY LOGS
       statement to see the current names. Suppose that the statement produces
       this output:

           mysql> SHOW BINARY LOGS;
           +---------------+-----------+
           | Log_name      | File_size |
           +---------------+-----------+
           | binlog.000130 |     27459 |
           | binlog.000131 |     13719 |
           | binlog.000132 |     43268 |
           +---------------+-----------+

       With that information, you can use mysqlbinlog to back up the binary
       log to the current directory as follows (enter each command on a single
       line):

       o   To make a static backup of binlog.000130 through binlog.000132, use
           either of these commands:

               mysqlbinlog --read-from-remote-server --host=host_name --raw
                 binlog.000130 binlog.000131 binlog.000132
               mysqlbinlog --read-from-remote-server --host=host_name --raw
                 --to-last-log binlog.000130

           The first command specifies every file name explicitly. The second
           names only the first file and uses --to-last-log to read through
           the last. A difference between these commands is that if the server
           happens to open binlog.000133 before mysqlbinlog reaches the end of
           binlog.000132, the first command does not read it, but the second
           command does.

       o   To make a live backup in which mysqlbinlog starts with
           binlog.000130 to copy existing log files, then stays connected to
           copy new events as the server generates them:

               mysqlbinlog --read-from-remote-server --host=host_name --raw
                 --stop-never binlog.000130

           With --stop-never, it is not necessary to specify --to-last-log to
           read to the last log file because that option is implied.
       Output File Naming

       Without --raw, mysqlbinlog produces text output and the --result-file
       option, if given, specifies the name of the single file to which all
       output is written. With --raw, mysqlbinlog writes one binary output
       file for each log file transferred from the server. By default,
       mysqlbinlog writes the files in the current directory with the same
       names as the original log files. To modify the output file names, use
       the --result-file option. In conjunction with --raw, the --result-file
       option value is treated as a prefix that modifies the output file
       names.

       Suppose that a server currently has binary log files named
       binlog.000999 and up. If you use mysqlbinlog --raw to back up the
       files, the --result-file option produces output file names as shown in
       the following table. You can write the files to a specific directory by
       beginning the --result-file value with the directory path. If the
       --result-file value consists only of a directory name, the value must
       end with the pathname separator character. Output files are overwritten
       if they exist.

       +---------------------+----------------------------+
       |--result-file Option | Output File Names          |
       +---------------------+----------------------------+
       |--result-file=x      | xbinlog.000999 and up      |
       +---------------------+----------------------------+
       |--result-file=/tmp/  | /tmp/binlog.000999 and up  |
       +---------------------+----------------------------+
       |--result-file=/tmp/x | /tmp/xbinlog.000999 and up |
       +---------------------+----------------------------+
       Example: mysqldump + mysqlbinlog for Backup and Restore

       The following example describes a simple scenario that shows how to use
       mysqldump and mysqlbinlog together to back up a server's data and
       binary log, and how to use the backup to restore the server if data
       loss occurs. The example assumes that the server is running on host
       host_name and its first binary log file is named binlog.000999. Enter
       each command on a single line.

       Use mysqlbinlog to make a continuous backup of the binary log:

           mysqlbinlog --read-from-remote-server --host=host_name --raw
             --stop-never binlog.000999

       Use mysqldump to create a dump file as a snapshot of the server's data.
       Use --all-databases, --events, and --routines to back up all data, and
       --master-data=2 to include the current binary log coordinates in the
       dump file.

           mysqldump --host=host_name --all-databases --events --routines --master-data=2> dump_file

       Execute the mysqldump command periodically to create newer snapshots as
       desired.

       If data loss occurs (for example, if the server unexpectedly exits),
       use the most recent dump file to restore the data:

           mysql --host=host_name -u root -p < dump_file

       Then use the binary log backup to re-execute events that were written
       after the coordinates listed in the dump file. Suppose that the
       coordinates in the file look like this:

           -- CHANGE MASTER TO MASTER_LOG_FILE='binlog.001002', MASTER_LOG_POS=27284;

       If the most recent backed-up log file is named binlog.001004,
       re-execute the log events like this:

           mysqlbinlog --start-position=27284 binlog.001002 binlog.001003 binlog.001004
             | mysql --host=host_name -u root -p

       You might find it easier to copy the backup files (dump file and binary
       log files) to the server host to make it easier to perform the restore
       operation, or if MySQL does not allow remote root access.  mysqlbinlog
       Backup Restrictions

       Binary log backups with mysqlbinlog are subject to these restrictions:

       o   mysqlbinlog does not automatically reconnect to the MySQL server if
           the connection is lost (for example, if a server restart occurs or
           there is a network outage).

       o   Prior to MySQL 5.7.19, mysqlbinlog does not get all events as they
           are committed, even if the server is configured with sync_binlog=1.
           This means that some of the most recent events may be missing. To
           ensure that mysqlbinlog sees the most recent events, flush the
           binary log on the server that you are backing up.

       o   The delay for a backup is similar to the delay for a replication
           replica.

SPECIFYING THE MYSQLBINLOG SERVER ID
       When invoked with the --read-from-remote-server option, mysqlbinlog
       connects to a MySQL server, specifies a server ID to identify itself,
       and requests binary log files from the server. You can use mysqlbinlog
       to request log files from a server in several ways:

       o   Specify an explicitly named set of files: For each file,
           mysqlbinlog connects and issues a Binlog dump command. The server
           sends the file and disconnects. There is one connection per file.

       o   Specify the beginning file and --to-last-log: mysqlbinlog connects
           and issues a Binlog dump command for all files. The server sends
           all files and disconnects.

       o   Specify the beginning file and --stop-never (which implies
           --to-last-log): mysqlbinlog connects and issues a Binlog dump
           command for all files. The server sends all files, but does not
           disconnect after sending the last one.

       With --read-from-remote-server only, mysqlbinlog connects using a
       server ID of 0, which tells the server to disconnect after sending the
       last requested log file.

       With --read-from-remote-server and --stop-never, mysqlbinlog connects
       using a nonzero server ID, so the server does not disconnect after
       sending the last log file. The server ID is 65535 by default, but this
       can be changed with --stop-never-slave-server-id.

       Thus, for the first two ways of requesting files, the server
       disconnects because mysqlbinlog specifies a server ID of 0. It does not
       disconnect if --stop-never is given because mysqlbinlog specifies a
       nonzero server ID.

COPYRIGHT
       Copyright (C) 1997, 2020, Oracle and/or its affiliates.

       This documentation is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
       modify it only under the terms of the GNU General Public License as
       published by the Free Software Foundation; version 2 of the License.

       This documentation is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
       but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
       MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU
       General Public License for more details.

       You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along
       with the program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc.,
       51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA or see
       http://www.gnu.org/licenses/.

NOTES
        1. MySQL Internals: The Binary Log
           https://dev.mysql.com/doc/internals/en/binary-log.html

SEE ALSO
       For more information, please refer to the MySQL Reference Manual, which
       may already be installed locally and which is also available online at
       http://dev.mysql.com/doc/.

AUTHOR
       Oracle Corporation (http://dev.mysql.com/).

MySQL 5.7                         12/10/2020                    MYSQLBINLOG(1)
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