mysqlbinlog


SYNOPSIS
       mysqlbinlog [options] log_file ...

DESCRIPTION
       The server's binary log consists of files containing "events" that
       describe modifications to database contents. The server writes these
       files in binary format. To display their contents in text format, use
       the mysqlbinlog utility. You can also use mysqlbinlog to display the
       contents of relay log files written by a slave server in a replication
       setup because relay logs have the same format as binary logs. The
       binary log and relay log are discussed further in Section 5.4.4, "The
       Binary Log", and Section 17.2.2, "Replication Relay and Status Logs".

       Invoke mysqlbinlog like this:

           shell> mysqlbinlog [options] log_file ...

       For example, to display the contents of the binary log file named
       binlog.000003, use this command:

           shell> mysqlbinlog binlog.0000003

       The output includes events contained in binlog.000003. For
       statement-based logging, event information includes the SQL statement,
       the ID of the server on which it was executed, the timestamp when the
       statement was executed, how much time it took, and so forth. For
       row-based logging, the event indicates a row change rather than an SQL
       statement. See Section 17.1.2, "Replication Formats", for information
       about logging modes.

       Events are preceded by header comments that provide additional
       information. For example:

           # at 141
           #100309  9:28:36 server id 123  end_log_pos 245
             Query thread_id=3350  exec_time=11  error_code=0

       In the first line, the number following at indicates the file offset,
       or starting position, of the event in the binary log file.

       The second line starts with a date and time indicating when the
       statement started on the server where the event originated. For
       replication, this timestamp is propagated to slave servers.  server id
       is the server_id value of the server where the event originated.
       end_log_pos indicates where the next event starts (that is, it is the
       end position of the current event + 1).  thread_id indicates which
       thread executed the event.  exec_time is the time spent executing the
       event, on a master server. On a slave, it is the difference of the end
       execution time on the slave minus the beginning execution time on the
       master. The difference serves as an indicator of how much replication
       lags behind the master.  error_code indicates the result from executing
       the event. Zero means that no error occurred.

       apply them to the local MySQL server. It is also possible to read
       binary logs from a remote server by using the --read-from-remote-server
       option. To read remote binary logs, the connection parameter options
       can be given to indicate how to connect to the server. These options
       are --host, --password, --port, --protocol, --socket, and --user; they
       are ignored except when you also use the --read-from-remote-server
       option.

       When running mysqlbinlog against a large binary log, be careful that
       the filesystem has enough space for the resulting files. To configure
       the directory that mysqlbinlog uses for temporary files, use the TMPDIR
       environment variable.

       mysqlbinlog supports the following options, which can be specified on
       the command line or in the [mysqlbinlog] and [client] groups of an
       option file. For information about option files used by MySQL programs,
       see Section 4.2.6, "Using Option Files".

       o   --help, -?

           Display a help message and exit.

       o   --base64-output[=value]

           This option determines when events should be displayed encoded as
           base-64 strings using BINLOG statements. The option has these
           permissible values (not case sensitive):

           o   AUTO ("automatic") or UNSPEC ("unspecified") displays BINLOG
               statements automatically when necessary (that is, for format
               description events and row events). If no --base64-output
               option is given, the effect is the same as
               --base64-output=AUTO.

                   Note
                   Automatic BINLOG display is the only safe behavior if you
                   intend to use the output of mysqlbinlog to re-execute
                   binary log file contents. The other option values are
                   intended only for debugging or testing purposes because
                   they may produce output that does not include all events in
                   executable form.

           o   ALWAYS displays BINLOG statements whenever possible. If the
               --base64-output option is given without a value, the effect is
               the same as --base64-output=ALWAYS.

                   Note
                   Changes to replication in MySQL 5.6 make output generated
                   by this option unusable, so ALWAYS is deprecated as of
                   MySQL 5.5.8 and will be an invalid value in MySQL 5.6

           o   NEVER causes BINLOG statements not to be displayed.
               mysqlbinlog exits with an error if a row event is found that
               must be displayed using BINLOG.

           On a computer having multiple network interfaces, use this option
           to select which interface to use for connecting to the MySQL
           server.

           This option is supported beginning with MySQL 5.5.8.

       o   --character-sets-dir=dir_name

           The directory where character sets are installed. See Section 10.5,
           "Character Set Configuration".

       o   --database=db_name, -d db_name

           This option causes mysqlbinlog to output entries from the binary
           log (local log only) that occur while db_name is been selected as
           the default database by USE.

           The --database option for mysqlbinlog is similar to the
           --binlog-do-db option for mysqld, but can be used to specify only
           one database. If --database is given multiple times, only the last
           instance is used.

           The effects of this option depend on whether the statement-based or
           row-based logging format is in use, in the same way that the
           effects of --binlog-do-db depend on whether statement-based or
           row-based logging is in use.

           Statement-based logging. The --database option works as follows:

           o   While db_name is the default database, statements are output
               whether they modify tables in db_name or a different database.

           o   Unless db_name is selected as the default database, statements
               are not output, even if they modify tables in db_name.

           o   There is an exception for CREATE DATABASE, ALTER DATABASE, and
               DROP DATABASE. The database being created, altered, or dropped
               is considered to be the default database when determining
               whether to output the statement.

           Suppose that the binary log was created by executing these
           statements using statement-based-logging:

               INSERT INTO test.t1 (i) VALUES(100);
               INSERT INTO db2.t2 (j)  VALUES(200);
               USE test;
               INSERT INTO test.t1 (i) VALUES(101);
               INSERT INTO t1 (i)      VALUES(102);
               INSERT INTO db2.t2 (j)  VALUES(201);
               USE db2;
               INSERT INTO test.t1 (i) VALUES(103);
               INSERT INTO db2.t2 (j)  VALUES(202);
               INSERT INTO t2 (j)      VALUES(203);

           tables belonging to db_name. The default database has no effect on
           this. Suppose that the binary log just described was created using
           row-based logging rather than statement-based logging.  mysqlbinlog
           --database=test outputs only those entries that modify t1 in the
           test database, regardless of whether USE was issued or what the
           default database is.  If a server is running with binlog_format set
           to MIXED and you want it to be possible to use mysqlbinlog with the
           --database option, you must ensure that tables that are modified
           are in the database selected by USE. (In particular, no
           cross-database updates should be used.)

               Note
               Prior to MySQL Cluster NDB 7.2.2, this option did not work
               correctly with MySQL Cluster tables unless, unless the binary
               log was generated using --log-bin-use-v1-row-events=0. (Bug
               #13067813)

       o   --debug[=debug_options], -# [debug_options]

           Write a debugging log. A typical debug_options string is
           d:t:o,file_name. The default is d:t:o,/tmp/mysqlbinlog.trace.

       o   --debug-check

           Print some debugging information when the program exits.

       o   --debug-info

           Print debugging information and memory and CPU usage statistics
           when the program exits.

       o   --default-auth=plugin

           A hint about the client-side authentication plugin to use. See
           Section 6.3.6, "Pluggable Authentication".

           This option was added in MySQL 5.5.10.

       o   --defaults-extra-file=file_name

           Read this option file after the global option file but (on Unix)
           before the user option file. If the file does not exist or is
           otherwise inaccessible, an error occurs. Before MySQL 5.5.8,
           file_name must be the full path name to the file. As of MySQL
           5.5.8, the name is interpreted relative to the current directory if
           given as a relative path name.

       o   --defaults-file=file_name

           Use only the given option file. If the file does not exist or is
           otherwise inaccessible, an error occurs. Before MySQL 5.5.8,
           file_name must be the full path name to the file. As of MySQL
           5.5.8, the name is interpreted relative to the current directory if
           given as a relative path name.
           if you use the --to-last-log option and are sending the output to
           the same MySQL server. This option also is useful when restoring
           after a crash to avoid duplication of the statements you have
           logged.

           This option requires that you have the SUPER privilege. It causes
           mysqlbinlog to include a SET sql_log_bin = 0 statement in its
           output to disable binary logging of the remaining output. The SET
           statement is ineffective unless you have the SUPER privilege.

       o   --force-if-open, -F

           Read binary log files even if they are open or were not closed
           properly.

       o   --force-read, -f

           With this option, if mysqlbinlog reads a binary log event that it
           does not recognize, it prints a warning, ignores the event, and
           continues. Without this option, mysqlbinlog stops if it reads such
           an event.

       o   --hexdump, -H

           Display a hex dump of the log in comments, as described in the
           section called "MYSQLBINLOG HEX DUMP FORMAT". The hex output can be
           helpful for replication debugging.

       o   --host=host_name, -h host_name

           Get the binary log from the MySQL server on the given host.

       o   --local-load=dir_name, -l dir_name

           Prepare local temporary files for LOAD DATA INFILE in the specified
           directory.

               Important
               These temporary files are not automatically removed by
               mysqlbinlog or any other MySQL program.

       o   --no-defaults

           Do not read any option files. If program startup fails due to
           reading unknown options from an option file, --no-defaults can be
           used to prevent them from being read.

       o   --offset=N, -o N

           Skip the first N entries in the log.

       o   --password[=password], -p[password]

           The password to use when connecting to the server. If you use the
           The directory in which to look for plugins. Specify this option if
           the --default-auth option is used to specify an authentication
           plugin but mysqlbinlog does not find it. See Section 6.3.6,
           "Pluggable Authentication".

           This option was added in MySQL 5.5.10.

       o   --port=port_num, -P port_num

           The TCP/IP port number to use for connecting to a remote server.

       o   --position=N

           Deprecated. Use --start-position instead.  --position was removed
           in MySQL 5.5.3.

       o   --print-defaults

           Print the program name and all options that it gets from option
           files.

       o   --protocol={TCP|SOCKET|PIPE|MEMORY}

           The connection protocol to use for connecting to the server. It is
           useful when the other connection parameters normally would cause a
           protocol to be used other than the one you want. For details on the
           permissible values, see Section 4.2.2, "Connecting to the MySQL
           Server".

       o   --read-from-remote-server, -R

           Read the binary log from a MySQL server rather than reading a local
           log file. Any connection parameter options are ignored unless this
           option is given as well. These options are --host, --password,
           --port, --protocol, --socket, and --user.

           This option requires that the remote server be running. It works
           only for binary log files on the remote server, not relay log
           files.

       o   --result-file=name, -r name

           Direct output to the given file.

       o   --server-id=id

           Display only those events created by the server having the given
           server ID.

       o   --server-id-bits=N

           Use only the first N bits of the server_id to identify the server.
           If the binary log was written by a mysqld with server-id-bits set
           to less than 32 and user data stored in the most significant bit,

       o   --shared-memory-base-name=name

           On Windows, the shared-memory name to use, for connections made
           using shared memory to a local server. The default value is MYSQL.
           The shared-memory name is case sensitive.

           The server must be started with the --shared-memory option to
           enable shared-memory connections.

       o   --short-form, -s

           Display only the statements contained in the log, without any extra
           information or row-based events. This is for testing only, and
           should not be used in production systems.

       o   --socket=path, -S path

           For connections to localhost, the Unix socket file to use, or, on
           Windows, the name of the named pipe to use.

       o   --start-datetime=datetime

           Start reading the binary log at the first event having a timestamp
           equal to or later than the datetime argument. The datetime value is
           relative to the local time zone on the machine where you run
           mysqlbinlog. The value should be in a format accepted for the
           DATETIME or TIMESTAMP data types. For example:

               shell> mysqlbinlog --start-datetime="2005-12-25 11:25:56" binlog.000003

           This option is useful for point-in-time recovery. See Section 7.3,
           "Example Backup and Recovery Strategy".

       o   --start-position=N, -j N

           Start reading the binary log at the first event having a position
           equal to or greater than N. This option applies to the first log
           file named on the command line.

           This option is useful for point-in-time recovery. See Section 7.3,
           "Example Backup and Recovery Strategy".

       o   --stop-datetime=datetime

           Stop reading the binary log at the first event having a timestamp
           equal to or later than the datetime argument. This option is useful
           for point-in-time recovery. See the description of the
           --start-datetime option for information about the datetime value.

           This option is useful for point-in-time recovery. See Section 7.3,
           "Example Backup and Recovery Strategy".

       o   --stop-position=N

           may lead to an endless loop. This option requires
           --read-from-remote-server.

       o   --user=user_name, -u user_name

           The MySQL user name to use when connecting to a remote server.

       o   --verbose, -v

           Reconstruct row events and display them as commented SQL
           statements. If this option is given twice, the output includes
           comments to indicate column data types and some metadata.

           For examples that show the effect of --base64-output and --verbose
           on row event output, see the section called "MYSQLBINLOG ROW EVENT
           DISPLAY".

       o   --version, -V

           Display version information and exit.

           In MySQL 5.5, the version number shown for mysqlbinlog is always
           3.3.

       You can also set the following variable by using --var_name=value
       syntax:

       o   open_files_limit

           Specify the number of open file descriptors to reserve.

       You can pipe the output of mysqlbinlog into the mysql client to execute
       the events contained in the binary log. This technique is used to
       recover from a crash when you have an old backup (see Section 7.5,
       "Point-in-Time (Incremental) Recovery Using the Binary Log"). For
       example:

           shell> mysqlbinlog binlog.000001 | mysql -u root -p

       Or:

           shell> mysqlbinlog binlog.[0-9]* | mysql -u root -p

       You can also redirect the output of mysqlbinlog to a text file instead,
       if you need to modify the statement log first (for example, to remove
       statements that you do not want to execute for some reason). After
       editing the file, execute the statements that it contains by using it
       as input to the mysql program:

           shell> mysqlbinlog binlog.000001 > tmpfile
           shell> ... edit tmpfile ...
           shell> mysql -u root -p < tmpfile

       When mysqlbinlog is invoked with the --start-position option, it
           shell> mysqlbinlog binlog.000001 | mysql -u root -p # DANGER!!
           shell> mysqlbinlog binlog.000002 | mysql -u root -p # DANGER!!

       Processing binary logs this way using multiple connections to the
       server causes problems if the first log file contains a CREATE
       TEMPORARY TABLE statement and the second log contains a statement that
       uses the temporary table. When the first mysql process terminates, the
       server drops the temporary table. When the second mysql process
       attempts to use the table, the server reports "unknown table."

       To avoid problems like this, use a single mysql process to execute the
       contents of all binary logs that you want to process. Here is one way
       to do so:

           shell> mysqlbinlog binlog.000001 binlog.000002 | mysql -u root -p

       Another approach is to write all the logs to a single file and then
       process the file:

           shell> mysqlbinlog binlog.000001 >  /tmp/statements.sql
           shell> mysqlbinlog binlog.000002 >> /tmp/statements.sql
           shell> mysql -u root -p -e "source /tmp/statements.sql"

       mysqlbinlog can produce output that reproduces a LOAD DATA INFILE
       operation without the original data file.  mysqlbinlog copies the data
       to a temporary file and writes a LOAD DATA LOCAL INFILE statement that
       refers to the file. The default location of the directory where these
       files are written is system-specific. To specify a directory
       explicitly, use the --local-load option.

       Because mysqlbinlog converts LOAD DATA INFILE statements to LOAD DATA
       LOCAL INFILE statements (that is, it adds LOCAL), both the client and
       the server that you use to process the statements must be configured
       with the LOCAL capability enabled. See Section 6.1.6, "Security Issues
       with LOAD DATA LOCAL".

           Warning
           The temporary files created for LOAD DATA LOCAL statements are not
           automatically deleted because they are needed until you actually
           execute those statements. You should delete the temporary files
           yourself after you no longer need the statement log. The files can
           be found in the temporary file directory and have names like
           original_file_name-#-#.

MYSQLBINLOG HEX DUMP FORMAT
       The --hexdump option causes mysqlbinlog to produce a hex dump of the
       binary log contents:

           shell> mysqlbinlog --hexdump master-bin.000001

       The hex output consists of comment lines beginning with #, so the
       output might look like this for the preceding command:

           /*!40019 SET @@session.max_insert_delayed_threads=0*/;
           ROLLBACK;

       Hex dump output currently contains the elements in the following list.
       This format is subject to change. (For more information about binary
       log format, see MySQL Internals: The Binary Log[1].

       o   Position: The byte position within the log file.

       o   Timestamp: The event timestamp. In the example shown, '9d fc 5c 43'
           is the representation of '051024 17:24:13' in hexadecimal.

       o   Type: The event type code. In the example shown, '0f' indicates a
           FORMAT_DESCRIPTION_EVENT. The following table lists the possible
           type codes.

           +-----+--------------------------+--------------------------------------+
           |Type | Name                     | Meaning                              |
           +-----+--------------------------+--------------------------------------+
           |00   | UNKNOWN_EVENT            | This event should                    |
           |     |                          | never be present in                  |
           |     |                          | the log.                             |
           +-----+--------------------------+--------------------------------------+
           |01   | START_EVENT_V3           | This indicates the                   |
           |     |                          | start of a log file                  |
           |     |                          | written by MySQL 4                   |
           |     |                          | or earlier.                          |
           +-----+--------------------------+--------------------------------------+
           |02   | QUERY_EVENT              | The most common                      |
           |     |                          | type of events.                      |
           |     |                          | These contain                        |
           |     |                          | statements executed                  |
           |     |                          | on the                               |
           |     |                          |                     master.          |
           +-----+--------------------------+--------------------------------------+
           |03   | STOP_EVENT               | Indicates that master has            |
           |     |                          | stopped.                             |
           +-----+--------------------------+--------------------------------------+
           |04   | ROTATE_EVENT             | Written when the master              |
           |     |                          | switches to a new log file.          |
           +-----+--------------------------+--------------------------------------+
           |05   | INTVAR_EVENT             | Used for AUTO_INCREMENT              |
           |     |                          | values or when the                   |
           |     |                          |                     LAST_INSERT_ID() |
           |     |                          |                     function         |
           |     |                          | is used in the statement.            |
           +-----+--------------------------+--------------------------------------+
           |06   | LOAD_EVENT               | Used for LOAD DATA                   |
           |     |                          |                     INFILE in MySQL  |
           |     |                          | 3.23.                                |
           +-----+--------------------------+--------------------------------------+
           |07   | SLAVE_EVENT              | Reserved for future use.             |
           +-----+--------------------------+--------------------------------------+
           |08   | CREATE_FILE_EVENT        | Used for LOAD DATA                   |
           |     |                          |                     INFILE           |
           |     |                          | file on the slave.                   |
           +-----+--------------------------+--------------------------------------+
           |0a   | EXEC_LOAD_EVENT          | Used for LOAD DATA                   |
           |     |                          |                     INFILE           |
           |     |                          | statements. The contents of the      |
           |     |                          |                     temporary file   |
           |     |                          | is stored in the table on the slave. |
           |     |                          |                     Used in MySQL 4  |
           |     |                          | only.                                |
           +-----+--------------------------+--------------------------------------+
           |0b   | DELETE_FILE_EVENT        | Rollback of a LOAD DATA              |
           |     |                          |                     INFILE           |
           |     |                          | statement. The temporary file        |
           |     |                          |                     should be        |
           |     |                          | deleted on the slave.                |
           +-----+--------------------------+--------------------------------------+
           |0c   | NEW_LOAD_EVENT           | Used for LOAD DATA                   |
           |     |                          |                     INFILE in MySQL  |
           |     |                          | 4 and earlier.                       |
           +-----+--------------------------+--------------------------------------+
           |0d   | RAND_EVENT               | Used to send information about       |
           |     |                          | random values if the                 |
           |     |                          |                     RAND() function  |
           |     |                          | is                                   |
           |     |                          |                     used in the      |
           |     |                          | statement.                           |
           +-----+--------------------------+--------------------------------------+
           |0e   | USER_VAR_EVENT           | Used to replicate user variables.    |
           +-----+--------------------------+--------------------------------------+
           |0f   | FORMAT_DESCRIPTION_EVENT | This indicates the start of a log    |
           |     |                          | file written by MySQL 5 or later.    |
           +-----+--------------------------+--------------------------------------+
           |10   | XID_EVENT                | Event indicating commit of an XA     |
           |     |                          | transaction.                         |
           +-----+--------------------------+--------------------------------------+
           |11   | BEGIN_LOAD_QUERY_EVENT   | Used for LOAD DATA                   |
           |     |                          |                     INFILE           |
           |     |                          | statements in MySQL 5 and later.     |
           +-----+--------------------------+--------------------------------------+
           |12   | EXECUTE_LOAD_QUERY_EVENT | Used for LOAD DATA                   |
           |     |                          |                     INFILE           |
           |     |                          | statements in MySQL 5 and later.     |
           +-----+--------------------------+--------------------------------------+
           |13   | TABLE_MAP_EVENT          | Information about a table            |
           |     |                          | definition. Used in MySQL 5.1.5 and  |
           |     |                          | later.                               |
           +-----+--------------------------+--------------------------------------+
           |14   | PRE_GA_WRITE_ROWS_EVENT  | Row data for a single table that     |
           |     |                          | should be created. Used in MySQL     |
           |     |                          | 5.1.5                                |
           |     |                          |                     to 5.1.17.       |
           +-----+--------------------------+--------------------------------------+
           |15   | PRE_GA_UPDATE_ROWS_EVENT | Row data for a single table that     |
           |     |                          | needs to be updated. Used in MySQL   |
           |18   | UPDATE_ROWS_EVENT        | Row data for a single table that     |
           |     |                          | needs to be updated. Used in MySQL   |
           |     |                          |                     5.1.18 and       |
           |     |                          | later.                               |
           +-----+--------------------------+--------------------------------------+
           |19   | DELETE_ROWS_EVENT        | Row data for a single table that     |
           |     |                          | should be deleted. Used in MySQL     |
           |     |                          | 5.1.18                               |
           |     |                          |                     and later.       |
           +-----+--------------------------+--------------------------------------+
           |1a   | INCIDENT_EVENT           | Something out of the ordinary        |
           |     |                          | happened. Added in MySQL 5.1.18.     |
           +-----+--------------------------+--------------------------------------+

       o   Master ID: The server ID of the master that created the event.

       o   Size: The size in bytes of the event.

       o   Master Pos: The position of the next event in the original master
           log file.

       o   Flags: 16 flags. The following flags are used. The others are
           reserved for future use.

           +-----+-----------------------------+------------------------------------------------+
           |Flag | Name                        | Meaning                                        |
           +-----+-----------------------------+------------------------------------------------+
           |01   | LOG_EVENT_BINLOG_IN_USE_F   | Log file correctly                             |
           |     |                             | closed. (Used only                             |
           |     |                             | in                                             |
           |     |                             |                     FORMAT_DESCRIPTION_EVENT.) |
           |     |                             | If                                             |
           |     |                             |                     this                       |
           |     |                             | flag is set (if the                            |
           |     |                             | flags are, for                                 |
           |     |                             | example,                                       |
           |     |                             |                     '01                        |
           |     |                             | 00') in a                                      |
           |     |                             |                     FORMAT_DESCRIPTION_EVENT,  |
           |     |                             | the log                                        |
           |     |                             |                     file                       |
           |     |                             | has not been                                   |
           |     |                             | properly closed.                               |
           |     |                             | Most probably                                  |
           |     |                             |                     this                       |
           |     |                             | is because of a                                |
           |     |                             | master crash (for                              |
           |     |                             | example, due                                   |
           |     |                             |                     to                         |
           |     |                             | power failure).                                |
           +-----+-----------------------------+------------------------------------------------+
           |02   |                             | Reserved for future use.                       |
           +-----+-----------------------------+------------------------------------------------+
           |04   | LOG_EVENT_THREAD_SPECIFIC_F | Set if the event is dependent on the           |

       The following examples illustrate how mysqlbinlog displays row events
       that specify data modifications. These correspond to events with the
       WRITE_ROWS_EVENT, UPDATE_ROWS_EVENT, and DELETE_ROWS_EVENT type codes.
       The --base64-output=DECODE-ROWS and --verbose options may be used to
       affect row event output.

       Suppose that the server is using row-based binary logging and that you
       execute the following sequence of statements:

           CREATE TABLE t
           (
             id   INT NOT NULL,
             name VARCHAR(20) NOT NULL,
             date DATE NULL
           ) ENGINE = InnoDB;
           START TRANSACTION;
           INSERT INTO t VALUES(1, 'apple', NULL);
           UPDATE t SET name = 'pear', date = '2009-01-01' WHERE id = 1;
           DELETE FROM t WHERE id = 1;
           COMMIT;

       By default, mysqlbinlog displays row events encoded as base-64 strings
       using BINLOG statements. Omitting extraneous lines, the output for the
       row events produced by the preceding statement sequence looks like
       this:

           shell> mysqlbinlog log_file
           ...
           # at 218
           #080828 15:03:08 server id 1  end_log_pos 258   Write_rows: table id 17 flags: STMT_END_F
           BINLOG '
           fAS3SBMBAAAALAAAANoAAAAAABEAAAAAAAAABHRlc3QAAXQAAwMPCgIUAAQ=
           fAS3SBcBAAAAKAAAAAIBAAAQABEAAAAAAAEAA//8AQAAAAVhcHBsZQ==
           '/*!*/;
           ...
           # at 302
           #080828 15:03:08 server id 1  end_log_pos 356   Update_rows: table id 17 flags: STMT_END_F
           BINLOG '
           fAS3SBMBAAAALAAAAC4BAAAAABEAAAAAAAAABHRlc3QAAXQAAwMPCgIUAAQ=
           fAS3SBgBAAAANgAAAGQBAAAQABEAAAAAAAEAA////AEAAAAFYXBwbGX4AQAAAARwZWFyIbIP
           '/*!*/;
           ...
           # at 400
           #080828 15:03:08 server id 1  end_log_pos 442   Delete_rows: table id 17 flags: STMT_END_F
           BINLOG '
           fAS3SBMBAAAALAAAAJABAAAAABEAAAAAAAAABHRlc3QAAXQAAwMPCgIUAAQ=
           fAS3SBkBAAAAKgAAALoBAAAQABEAAAAAAAEAA//4AQAAAARwZWFyIbIP
           '/*!*/;

       To see the row events as comments in the form of "pseudo-SQL"
       statements, run mysqlbinlog with the --verbose or -v option. The output
       will contain lines beginning with ###:

           shell> mysqlbinlog -v log_file
           ...
           # at 302
           #080828 15:03:08 server id 1  end_log_pos 356   Update_rows: table id 17 flags: STMT_END_F
           BINLOG '
           fAS3SBMBAAAALAAAAC4BAAAAABEAAAAAAAAABHRlc3QAAXQAAwMPCgIUAAQ=
           fAS3SBgBAAAANgAAAGQBAAAQABEAAAAAAAEAA////AEAAAAFYXBwbGX4AQAAAARwZWFyIbIP
           '/*!*/;
           ### UPDATE test.t
           ### WHERE
           ###   @1=1
           ###   @2='apple'
           ###   @3=NULL
           ### SET
           ###   @1=1
           ###   @2='pear'
           ###   @3='2009:01:01'
           ...
           # at 400
           #080828 15:03:08 server id 1  end_log_pos 442   Delete_rows: table id 17 flags: STMT_END_F
           BINLOG '
           fAS3SBMBAAAALAAAAJABAAAAABEAAAAAAAAABHRlc3QAAXQAAwMPCgIUAAQ=
           fAS3SBkBAAAAKgAAALoBAAAQABEAAAAAAAEAA//4AQAAAARwZWFyIbIP
           '/*!*/;
           ### DELETE FROM test.t
           ### WHERE
           ###   @1=1
           ###   @2='pear'
           ###   @3='2009:01:01'

       Specify --verbose or -v twice to also display data types and some
       metadata for each column. The output will contain an additional comment
       following each column change:

           shell> mysqlbinlog -vv log_file
           ...
           # at 218
           #080828 15:03:08 server id 1  end_log_pos 258   Write_rows: table id 17 flags: STMT_END_F
           BINLOG '
           fAS3SBMBAAAALAAAANoAAAAAABEAAAAAAAAABHRlc3QAAXQAAwMPCgIUAAQ=
           fAS3SBcBAAAAKAAAAAIBAAAQABEAAAAAAAEAA//8AQAAAAVhcHBsZQ==
           '/*!*/;
           ### INSERT INTO test.t
           ### SET
           ###   @1=1 /* INT meta=0 nullable=0 is_null=0 */
           ###   @2='apple' /* VARSTRING(20) meta=20 nullable=0 is_null=0 */
           ###   @3=NULL /* VARSTRING(20) meta=0 nullable=1 is_null=1 */
           ...
           # at 302
           #080828 15:03:08 server id 1  end_log_pos 356   Update_rows: table id 17 flags: STMT_END_F
           BINLOG '
           fAS3SBMBAAAALAAAAC4BAAAAABEAAAAAAAAABHRlc3QAAXQAAwMPCgIUAAQ=
           fAS3SBgBAAAANgAAAGQBAAAQABEAAAAAAAEAA////AEAAAAFYXBwbGX4AQAAAARwZWFyIbIP
           '/*!*/;
           ### UPDATE test.t
           fAS3SBMBAAAALAAAAJABAAAAABEAAAAAAAAABHRlc3QAAXQAAwMPCgIUAAQ=
           fAS3SBkBAAAAKgAAALoBAAAQABEAAAAAAAEAA//4AQAAAARwZWFyIbIP
           '/*!*/;
           ### DELETE FROM test.t
           ### WHERE
           ###   @1=1 /* INT meta=0 nullable=0 is_null=0 */
           ###   @2='pear' /* VARSTRING(20) meta=20 nullable=0 is_null=0 */
           ###   @3='2009:01:01' /* DATE meta=0 nullable=1 is_null=0 */

       You can tell mysqlbinlog to suppress the BINLOG statements for row
       events by using the --base64-output=DECODE-ROWS option. This is similar
       to --base64-output=NEVER but does not exit with an error if a row event
       is found. The combination of --base64-output=DECODE-ROWS and --verbose
       provides a convenient way to see row events only as SQL statements:

           shell> mysqlbinlog -v --base64-output=DECODE-ROWS log_file
           ...
           # at 218
           #080828 15:03:08 server id 1  end_log_pos 258   Write_rows: table id 17 flags: STMT_END_F
           ### INSERT INTO test.t
           ### SET
           ###   @1=1
           ###   @2='apple'
           ###   @3=NULL
           ...
           # at 302
           #080828 15:03:08 server id 1  end_log_pos 356   Update_rows: table id 17 flags: STMT_END_F
           ### UPDATE test.t
           ### WHERE
           ###   @1=1
           ###   @2='apple'
           ###   @3=NULL
           ### SET
           ###   @1=1
           ###   @2='pear'
           ###   @3='2009:01:01'
           ...
           # at 400
           #080828 15:03:08 server id 1  end_log_pos 442   Delete_rows: table id 17 flags: STMT_END_F
           ### DELETE FROM test.t
           ### WHERE
           ###   @1=1
           ###   @2='pear'
           ###   @3='2009:01:01'


           Note
           You should not suppress BINLOG statements if you intend to
           re-execute mysqlbinlog output.

       The SQL statements produced by --verbose for row events are much more
       readable than the corresponding BINLOG statements. However, they do not
       correspond exactly to the original SQL statements that generated the
       events. The following limitations apply:
           o   For multibyte character sets, the maximum number of bytes per
               character is not present in the binary log, so the length for
               string types is displayed in bytes rather than in characters.
               For example, STRING(4) will be used as the data type for values
               from either of these column types:

                   CHAR(4) CHARACTER SET latin1
                   CHAR(2) CHARACTER SET ucs2

           o   Due to the storage format for events of type UPDATE_ROWS_EVENT,
               UPDATE statements are displayed with the WHERE clause preceding
               the SET clause.

       Proper interpretation of row events requires the information from the
       format description event at the beginning of the binary log. Because
       mysqlbinlog does not know in advance whether the rest of the log
       contains row events, by default it displays the format description
       event using a BINLOG statement in the initial part of the output.

       If the binary log is known not to contain any events requiring a BINLOG
       statement (that is, no row events), the --base64-output=NEVER option
       can be used to prevent this header from being written.

COPYRIGHT
       Copyright (C) 1997, 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights
       reserved.

       This documentation is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
       modify it only under the terms of the GNU General Public License as
       published by the Free Software Foundation; version 2 of the License.

       This documentation is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
       but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
       MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU
       General Public License for more details.

       You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along
       with the program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc.,
       51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA or see
       http://www.gnu.org/licenses/.


NOTES
        1. MySQL Internals: The Binary Log
           http://dev.mysql.com/doc/internals/en/binary-log.html

SEE ALSO
       For more information, please refer to the MySQL Reference Manual, which
       may already be installed locally and which is also available online at
       http://dev.mysql.com/doc/.

AUTHOR
       Oracle Corporation (http://dev.mysql.com/).
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