mysql_upgrade


SYNOPSIS
       mysql_upgrade [options]

DESCRIPTION
       mysql_upgrade examines all tables in all databases for
       incompatibilities with the current version of MySQL Server.
       mysql_upgrade also upgrades the system tables so that you can take
       advantage of new privileges or capabilities that might have been added.

       If mysql_upgrade finds that a table has a possible incompatibility, it
       performs a table check and, if problems are found, attempts a table
       repair. If the table cannot be repaired, see Section 2.11.4,
       "Rebuilding or Repairing Tables or Indexes" for manual table repair
       strategies.

       You should execute mysql_upgrade each time you upgrade MySQL.

       If you install MySQL from RPM packages on Linux, you must install the
       server and client RPMs.  mysql_upgrade is included in the server RPM
       but requires the client RPM because the latter includes mysqlcheck.
       (See Section 2.5.1, "Installing MySQL on Linux Using RPM Packages".)

           Note
           On Windows Server 2008, Vista, and newer, you must run
           mysql_upgrade with administrator privileges. You can do this by
           running a Command Prompt as Administrator and running the command.
           Failure to do so may result in the upgrade failing to execute
           correctly.

           Caution
           You should always back up your current MySQL installation before
           performing an upgrade. See Section 7.2, "Database Backup Methods".

           Some upgrade incompatibilities may require special handling before
           you upgrade your MySQL installation and run mysql_upgrade. See
           Section 2.11.1, "Upgrading MySQL", for instructions on determining
           whether any such incompatibilities apply to your installation and
           how to handle them.

       To use mysql_upgrade, make sure that the server is running. Then invoke
       it like this:

           shell> mysql_upgrade [options]

       After running mysql_upgrade, stop the server and restart it so that any
       changes made to the system tables take effect.

       If you have multiple MySQL server instances running, invoke
       mysql_upgrade with connection parameters appropriate for connecting to
       the desired server. For example, with servers running on the local host
       on parts 3306 through 3308, upgrade each of them by connecting to the
       appropriate port:

           mysqlcheck --no-defaults --check-upgrade --all-databases
            --auto-repair
           mysql < fix_priv_tables

       Notes about the preceding commands:

       o   mysql_upgrade also adds --write-binlog or --skip-write-binlog to
           the mysqlcheck commands, depending on whether the --write-binlog
           option was specified on the mysql_upgrade command.

       o   Because mysql_upgrade invokes mysqlcheck with the --all-databases
           option, it processes all tables in all databases, which might take
           a long time to complete. Each table is locked and therefore
           unavailable to other sessions while it is being processed. Check
           and repair operations can be time-consuming, particularly for large
           tables.

       o   For details about what checks the --check-upgrade option entails,
           see the description of the FOR UPGRADE option of the CHECK TABLE
           statement (see Section 13.7.2.2, "CHECK TABLE Syntax").

       o   fix_priv_tables represents a script generated internally by
           mysql_upgrade that contains SQL statements to upgrade the tables in
           the mysql database.

       All checked and repaired tables are marked with the current MySQL
       version number. This ensures that next time you run mysql_upgrade with
       the same version of the server, it can tell whether there is any need
       to check or repair the table again.

       mysql_upgrade also saves the MySQL version number in a file named
       mysql_upgrade_info in the data directory. This is used to quickly check
       whether all tables have been checked for this release so that
       table-checking can be skipped. To ignore this file and perform the
       check regardless, use the --force option.

       mysql_upgrade does not upgrade the contents of the help tables. For
       upgrade instructions, see Section 5.1.10, "Server-Side Help".

       mysql_upgrade supports the following options, which can be specified on
       the command line or in the [mysql_upgrade] and [client] groups of an
       option file. Unrecognized options are passed to mysqlcheck. For
       information about option files, see Section 4.2.6, "Using Option
       Files".

       o   --help

           Display a short help message and exit.

       o   --basedir=dir_name

           The path to the MySQL installation directory. This option is
           accepted for backward compatibility but ignored. It is removed in
           MySQL 5.7.

           The path to the data directory. This option is accepted for
           backward compatibility but ignored. It is removed in MySQL 5.7.

       o   --debug[=debug_options], -# [debug_options]

           Write a debugging log. A typical debug_options string is
           d:t:o,file_name. The default is d:t:O,/tmp/mysql_upgrade.trace.

       o   --debug-check

           Print some debugging information when the program exits.

       o   --debug-info, -T

           Print debugging information and memory and CPU usage statistics
           when the program exits.

       o   --default-auth=plugin

           A hint about the client-side authentication plugin to use. See
           Section 6.3.6, "Pluggable Authentication".

           This option was added in MySQL 5.5.10.

       o   --default-character-set=charset_name

           Use charset_name as the default character set. See Section 10.5,
           "Character Set Configuration".

       o   --defaults-extra-file=file_name

           Read this option file after the global option file but (on Unix)
           before the user option file. If the file does not exist or is
           otherwise inaccessible, an error occurs. Before MySQL 5.5.8,
           file_name must be the full path name to the file. As of MySQL
           5.5.8, the name is interpreted relative to the current directory if
           given as a relative path name.

       o   --defaults-file=file_name

           Use only the given option file. If the file does not exist or is
           otherwise inaccessible, an error occurs. Before MySQL 5.5.8,
           file_name must be the full path name to the file. As of MySQL
           5.5.8, the name is interpreted relative to the current directory if
           given as a relative path name.

       o   --defaults-group-suffix=str

           Read not only the usual option groups, but also groups with the
           usual names and a suffix of str. For example, mysql_upgrade
           normally reads the [client] and [mysql_upgrade] groups. If the
           --defaults-group-suffix=_other option is given, mysql_upgrade also
           reads the [client_other] and [mysql_upgrade_other] groups.

           Do not read any option files. If program startup fails due to
           reading unknown options from an option file, --no-defaults can be
           used to prevent them from being read.

       o   --password[=password], -p[password]

           The password to use when connecting to the server. If you use the
           short option form (-p), you cannot have a space between the option
           and the password. If you omit the password value following the
           --password or -p option on the command line, mysql_upgrade prompts
           for one.

           Specifying a password on the command line should be considered
           insecure. See Section 6.1.2.1, "End-User Guidelines for Password
           Security". You can use an option file to avoid giving the password
           on the command line.

       o   --pipe, -W

           On Windows, connect to the server using a named pipe. This option
           applies only if the server supports named-pipe connections.

       o   --plugin-dir=dir_name

           The directory in which to look for plugins. Specify this option if
           the --default-auth option is used to specify an authentication
           plugin but mysql_upgrade does not find it. See Section 6.3.6,
           "Pluggable Authentication".

           This option was added in MySQL 5.5.10.

       o   --port=port_num, -P port_num

           The TCP/IP port number to use for the connection.

       o   --print-defaults

           Print the program name and all options that it gets from option
           files.

       o   --protocol={TCP|SOCKET|PIPE|MEMORY}

           The connection protocol to use for connecting to the server. It is
           useful when the other connection parameters normally would cause a
           protocol to be used other than the one you want. For details on the
           permissible values, see Section 4.2.2, "Connecting to the MySQL
           Server".

       o   --shared-memory-base-name=name

           On Windows, the shared-memory name to use, for connections made
           using shared memory to a local server. The default value is MYSQL.
           The shared-memory name is case sensitive.
           server using SSL and indicate where to find SSL keys and
           certificates. See Section 6.4.5, "Command Options for Secure
           Connections".

       o   --tmpdir=dir_name, -t dir_name

           The path name of the directory to use for creating temporary files.

       o   --upgrade-system-tables, -s

           Upgrade only the system tables, do not upgrade data.

       o   --user=user_name, -u user_name

           The MySQL user name to use when connecting to the server. The
           default user name is root.

       o   --verbose

           Verbose mode. Print more information about what the program does.

       o   --version-check, -k

           Check the version of the server to which mysql_upgrade is
           connecting to verify that it is the same as the version for which
           mysql_upgrade was built. If not, mysql_upgrade exits. This option
           is enabled by default; to disable the check, use
           --skip-version-check. This option was added in MySQL 5.5.32.

       o   --write-binlog

           Cause binary logging to be enabled while mysql_upgrade runs. This
           is the default behavior; to disable binary logging during the
           upgrade, use the inverse of this option (that is, start the program
           with --skip-write-binlog).

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