mysql_upgrade

MYSQL_UPGRADE(1)             MySQL Database System            MYSQL_UPGRADE(1)

NAME
       mysql_upgrade - check and upgrade MySQL tables

SYNOPSIS
       mysql_upgrade [options]

DESCRIPTION
       Each time you upgrade MySQL, you should execute mysql_upgrade, which
       looks for incompatibilities with the upgraded MySQL server:

       o   It upgrades the system tables in the mysql schema so that you can
           take advantage of new privileges or capabilities that might have
           been added.

       o   It upgrades the Performance Schema and sys schema.

       o   It examines user schemas.

       If mysql_upgrade finds that a table has a possible incompatibility, it
       performs a table check and, if problems are found, attempts a table
       repair. If the table cannot be repaired, see Section 2.11.12,
       "Rebuilding or Repairing Tables or Indexes" for manual table repair
       strategies.

       mysql_upgrade communicates directly with the MySQL server, sending it
       the SQL statements required to perform an upgrade.

           Important
           As of MySQL 5.7.12, the default --early-plugin-load value is empty.
           To load the keyring_file plugin, you must use an explicit
           --early-plugin-load option with a nonempty value.

           In MySQL 5.7.11, the default --early-plugin-load value was the name
           of the keyring_file plugin library file, so that plugin was loaded
           by default.  InnoDB tablespace encryption requires the keyring_file
           plugin to be loaded prior to InnoDB initialization, so this change
           of default value introduces an incompatibility for upgrades from
           5.7.11 to 5.7.12 or higher. Administrators who have encrypted
           InnoDB tablespaces must take explicit action to ensure continued
           loading of the keyring_file plugin: Start the server with an
           --early-plugin-load option that names the plugin library file. For
           additional information, see Section 6.4.4, "The MySQL Keyring".

           Important
           If you upgrade to MySQL 5.7.2 or later from a version older than
           5.7.2, a change to the mysql.user table requires a special sequence
           of steps to perform an upgrade using mysql_upgrade. For details,
           see Section 2.11.3, "Changes in MySQL 5.7".

           Note
           On Windows, you must run mysql_upgrade with administrator
           privileges. You can do this by running a Command Prompt as
           Administrator and running the command. Failure to do so may result
           in the upgrade failing to execute correctly.

           Caution
           You should always back up your current MySQL installation before
           performing an upgrade. See Section 7.2, "Database Backup Methods".

           Some upgrade incompatibilities may require special handling before
           upgrading your MySQL installation and running mysql_upgrade. See
           Section 2.11, "Upgrading MySQL", for instructions on determining
           whether any such incompatibilities apply to your installation and
           how to handle them.

       Use mysql_upgrade like this:

        1. Ensure that the server is running.

        2. Invoke mysql_upgrade to upgrade the system tables in the mysql
           schema and check and repair tables in other schemas:

               shell> mysql_upgrade [options]

        3. Stop the server and restart it so that any system table changes
           take effect.

       If you have multiple MySQL server instances to upgrade, invoke
       mysql_upgrade with connection parameters appropriate for connecting to
       each of the desired servers. For example, with servers running on the
       local host on parts 3306 through 3308, upgrade each of them by
       connecting to the appropriate port:

           shell> mysql_upgrade --protocol=tcp -P 3306 [other_options]
           shell> mysql_upgrade --protocol=tcp -P 3307 [other_options]
           shell> mysql_upgrade --protocol=tcp -P 3308 [other_options]

       For local host connections on Unix, the --protocol=tcp option forces a
       connection using TCP/IP rather than the Unix socket file.

       By default, mysql_upgrade runs as the MySQL root user. If the root
       password is expired when you run mysql_upgrade, it displays a message
       telling you that your password is expired and that mysql_upgrade failed
       as a result. To correct this, reset the root password to unexpire it
       and run mysql_upgrade again. First, connect to the server as root:

           shell> mysql -u root -p
           Enter password: ****  <- enter root password here

       Reset the password using ALTER USER:

           mysql> ALTER USER USER() IDENTIFIED BY 'root-password';

       Then exit mysql and run mysql_upgrade again:

           shell> mysql_upgrade [options]

           Note
           If you run the server with the disabled_storage_engines system
           variable set to disable certain storage engines (for example,
           MyISAM), mysql_upgrade might fail with an error like this:

               mysql_upgrade: [ERROR] 3161: Storage engine MyISAM is disabled
               (Table creation is disallowed).

           To handle this, restart the server with disabled_storage_engines
           disabled. Then you should be able to run mysql_upgrade
           successfully. After that, restart the server with
           disabled_storage_engines set to its original value.

       Unless invoked with the --upgrade-system-tables option, mysql_upgrade
       processes all tables in all user schemas as necessary. Table checking
       might take a long time to complete. Each table is locked and therefore
       unavailable to other sessions while it is being processed. Check and
       repair operations can be time-consuming, particularly for large tables.
       Table checking uses the FOR UPGRADE option of the CHECK TABLE
       statement. For details about what this option entails, see
       Section 13.7.2.2, "CHECK TABLE Statement".

       mysql_upgrade marks all checked and repaired tables with the current
       MySQL version number. This ensures that the next time you run
       mysql_upgrade with the same version of the server, it can be determined
       whether there is any need to check or repair a given table again.

       mysql_upgrade saves the MySQL version number in a file named
       mysql_upgrade_info in the data directory. This is used to quickly check
       whether all tables have been checked for this release so that
       table-checking can be skipped. To ignore this file and perform the
       check regardless, use the --force option.

       mysql_upgrade checks mysql.user system table rows and, for any row with
       an empty plugin column, sets that column to 'mysql_native_password' or
       'mysql_old_password' depending on the hash format of the Password
       column value.

       Support for pre-4.1 password hashing and mysql_old_password has been
       removed, so mysql_upgrade sets empty plugin values to
       'mysql_native_password' if the credentials use a hash format compatible
       with that plugin. Rows with a pre-4.1 password hash must be upgraded
       manually. For account upgrade instructions, see Section 6.4.1.3,
       "Migrating Away from Pre-4.1 Password Hashing and the
       mysql_old_password Plugin".

       mysql_upgrade does not upgrade the contents of the time zone tables or
       help tables. For upgrade instructions, see Section 5.1.13, "MySQL
       Server Time Zone Support", and Section 5.1.14, "Server-Side Help
       Support".

       Unless invoked with the --skip-sys-schema option, mysql_upgrade
       installs the sys schema if it is not installed, and upgrades it to the
       current version otherwise. An error occurs if a sys schema exists but
       has no version view, on the assumption that its absence indicates a
       user-created schema:

           A sys schema exists with no sys.version view. If
           you have a user created sys schema, this must be renamed for the
           upgrade to succeed.

       To upgrade in this case, remove or rename the existing sys schema
       first.

       mysql_upgrade checks for partitioned InnoDB tables that were created
       using the generic partitioning handler and attempts to upgrade them to
       InnoDB native partitioning. (Bug #76734, Bug #20727344) You can upgrade
       such tables individually in the mysql client using the ALTER TABLE ...
       UPGRADE PARTITIONING SQL statement.

       mysql_upgrade supports the following options, which can be specified on
       the command line or in the [mysql_upgrade] and [client] groups of an
       option file. For information about option files used by MySQL programs,
       see Section 4.2.2.2, "Using Option Files".

       o   --help Display a short help message and exit.

       o   --bind-address=ip_address On a computer having multiple network
           interfaces, use this option to select which interface to use for
           connecting to the MySQL server.

       o   --character-sets-dir=dir_name The directory where character sets
           are installed. See Section 10.15, "Character Set Configuration".

       o   --compress, -C Compress all information sent between the client and
           the server if possible. See Section 4.2.6, "Connection Compression
           Control".

       o   --debug[=debug_options], -# [debug_options] Write a debugging log.
           A typical debug_options string is d:t:o,file_name. The default is
           d:t:O,/tmp/mysql_upgrade.trace.

       o   --debug-check Print some debugging information when the program
           exits.

       o   --debug-info, -T Print debugging information and memory and CPU
           usage statistics when the program exits.

       o   --default-auth=plugin A hint about which client-side authentication
           plugin to use. See Section 6.2.13, "Pluggable Authentication".

       o   --default-character-set=charset_name Use charset_name as the
           default character set. See Section 10.15, "Character Set
           Configuration".

       o   --defaults-extra-file=file_name Read this option file after the
           global option file but (on Unix) before the user option file. If
           the file does not exist or is otherwise inaccessible, an error
           occurs.  file_name is interpreted relative to the current directory
           if given as a relative path name rather than a full path name.

           For additional information about this and other option-file
           options, see Section 4.2.2.3, "Command-Line Options that Affect
           Option-File Handling".

       o   --defaults-file=file_name Use only the given option file. If the
           file does not exist or is otherwise inaccessible, an error occurs.
           file_name is interpreted relative to the current directory if given
           as a relative path name rather than a full path name.

           For additional information about this and other option-file
           options, see Section 4.2.2.3, "Command-Line Options that Affect
           Option-File Handling".

       o   --defaults-group-suffix=str Read not only the usual option groups,
           but also groups with the usual names and a suffix of str. For
           example, mysql_upgrade normally reads the [client] and
           [mysql_upgrade] groups. If the --defaults-group-suffix=_other
           option is given, mysql_upgrade also reads the [client_other] and
           [mysql_upgrade_other] groups.

           For additional information about this and other option-file
           options, see Section 4.2.2.3, "Command-Line Options that Affect
           Option-File Handling".

       o   --force Ignore the mysql_upgrade_info file and force execution even
           if mysql_upgrade has already been executed for the current version
           of MySQL.

       o   --host=host_name, -h host_name Connect to the MySQL server on the
           given host.

       o   --login-path=name Read options from the named login path in the
           .mylogin.cnf login path file. A "login path" is an option group
           containing options that specify which MySQL server to connect to
           and which account to authenticate as. To create or modify a login
           path file, use the mysql_config_editor utility. See
           mysql_config_editor(1).

           For additional information about this and other option-file
           options, see Section 4.2.2.3, "Command-Line Options that Affect
           Option-File Handling".

       o   --max-allowed-packet=value The maximum size of the buffer for
           client/server communication. The default value is 24MB. The minimum
           and maximum values are 4KB and 2GB.

       o   --net-buffer-length=value The initial size of the buffer for
           client/server communication. The default value is 1MB - 1KB. The
           minimum and maximum values are 4KB and 16MB.

       o   --no-defaults Do not read any option files. If program startup
           fails due to reading unknown options from an option file,
           --no-defaults can be used to prevent them from being read.

           The exception is that the .mylogin.cnf file, if it exists, is read
           in all cases. This permits passwords to be specified in a safer way
           than on the command line even when --no-defaults is used.
           (.mylogin.cnf is created by the mysql_config_editor utility. See
           mysql_config_editor(1).)

           For additional information about this and other option-file
           options, see Section 4.2.2.3, "Command-Line Options that Affect
           Option-File Handling".

       o   --password[=password], -p[password] The password of the MySQL
           account used for connecting to the server. The password value is
           optional. If not given, mysql_upgrade prompts for one. If given,
           there must be no space between --password= or -p and the password
           following it. If no password option is specified, the default is to
           send no password.

           Specifying a password on the command line should be considered
           insecure. To avoid giving the password on the command line, use an
           option file. See Section 6.1.2.1, "End-User Guidelines for Password
           Security".

           To explicitly specify that there is no password and that
           mysql_upgrade should not prompt for one, use the --skip-password
           option.

       o   --pipe, -W On Windows, connect to the server using a named pipe.
           This option applies only if the server was started with the
           named_pipe system variable enabled to support named-pipe
           connections. In addition, the user making the connection must be a
           member of the Windows group specified by the
           named_pipe_full_access_group system variable.

       o   --plugin-dir=dir_name The directory in which to look for plugins.
           Specify this option if the --default-auth option is used to specify
           an authentication plugin but mysql_upgrade does not find it. See
           Section 6.2.13, "Pluggable Authentication".

       o   --port=port_num, -P port_num For TCP/IP connections, the port
           number to use.

       o   --print-defaults Print the program name and all options that it
           gets from option files.

       o   --protocol={TCP|SOCKET|PIPE|MEMORY} The transport protocol to use
           for connecting to the server. It is useful when the other
           connection parameters normally result in use of a protocol other
           than the one you want. For details on the permissible values, see
           Section 4.2.5, "Connection Transport Protocols".

       o   --shared-memory-base-name=name On Windows, the shared-memory name
           to use for connections made using shared memory to a local server.
           The default value is MYSQL. The shared-memory name is
           case-sensitive.

           This option applies only if the server was started with the
           shared_memory system variable enabled to support shared-memory
           connections.

       o   --skip-sys-schema By default, mysql_upgrade installs the sys schema
           if it is not installed, and upgrades it to the current version
           otherwise. The --skip-sys-schema option suppresses this behavior.

       o   --socket=path, -S path For connections to localhost, the Unix
           socket file to use, or, on Windows, the name of the named pipe to
           use.

           On Windows, this option applies only if the server was started with
           the named_pipe system variable enabled to support named-pipe
           connections. In addition, the user making the connection must be a
           member of the Windows group specified by the
           named_pipe_full_access_group system variable.

       o   --ssl* Options that begin with --ssl specify whether to connect to
           the server using SSL and indicate where to find SSL keys and
           certificates. See the section called "Command Options for Encrypted
           Connections".

       o   --tls-version=protocol_list The permissible TLS protocols for
           encrypted connections. The value is a list of one or more
           comma-separated protocol names. The protocols that can be named for
           this option depend on the SSL library used to compile MySQL. For
           details, see Section 6.3.2, "Encrypted Connection TLS Protocols and
           Ciphers".

           This option was added in MySQL 5.7.10.

       o   --upgrade-system-tables, -s Upgrade only the system tables in the
           mysql schema, do not upgrade user schemas.

       o   --user=user_name, -u user_name The user name of the MySQL account
           to use for connecting to the server. The default user name is root.

       o   --verbose Verbose mode. Print more information about what the
           program does.

       o   --version-check, -k Check the version of the server to which
           mysql_upgrade is connecting to verify that it is the same as the
           version for which mysql_upgrade was built. If not, mysql_upgrade
           exits. This option is enabled by default; to disable the check, use
           --skip-version-check.

       o   --write-binlog By default, binary logging by mysql_upgrade is
           disabled. Invoke the program with --write-binlog if you want its
           actions to be written to the binary log.

           When the server is running with global transaction identifiers
           (GTIDs) enabled (gtid_mode=ON), do not enable binary logging by
           mysql_upgrade.

COPYRIGHT
       Copyright (C) 1997, 2020, Oracle and/or its affiliates.

       This documentation is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
       modify it only under the terms of the GNU General Public License as
       published by the Free Software Foundation; version 2 of the License.

       This documentation is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
       but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
       MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU
       General Public License for more details.

       You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along
       with the program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc.,
       51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA or see
       http://www.gnu.org/licenses/.

SEE ALSO
       For more information, please refer to the MySQL Reference Manual, which
       may already be installed locally and which is also available online at
       http://dev.mysql.com/doc/.

AUTHOR
       Oracle Corporation (http://dev.mysql.com/).

MySQL 5.7                         12/10/2020                  MYSQL_UPGRADE(1)
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