mysql [options] db_name

       mysql is a simple SQL shell with input line editing capabilities. It
       supports interactive and noninteractive use. When used interactively,
       query results are presented in an ASCII-table format. When used
       noninteractively (for example, as a filter), the result is presented in
       tab-separated format. The output format can be changed using command

       If you have problems due to insufficient memory for large result sets,
       use the --quick option. This forces mysql to retrieve results from the
       server a row at a time rather than retrieving the entire result set and
       buffering it in memory before displaying it. This is done by returning
       the result set using the mysql_use_result() C API function in the
       client/server library rather than mysql_store_result().

           Alternatively, MySQL Shell offers access to the X DevAPI. For
           details, see MySQL Shell 8.0 (part of MySQL 8.0)[1].

       Using mysql is very easy. Invoke it from the prompt of your command
       interpreter as follows:

           shell> mysql db_name


           shell> mysql --user=user_name --password db_name
           Enter password: your_password

       Then type an SQL statement, end it with ;, \g, or \G and press Enter.

       Typing Control+C interrupts the current statement if there is one, or
       cancels any partial input line otherwise.

       You can execute SQL statements in a script file (batch file) like this:

           shell> mysql db_name < script.sql >

       On Unix, the mysql client logs statements executed interactively to a
       history file. See the section called "MYSQL CLIENT LOGGING".

       mysql supports the following options, which can be specified on the
       command line or in the [mysql] and [client] groups of an option file.
       For information about option files used by MySQL programs, see
       Section, "Using Option Files".

       o   --help, -?

           Display a help message and exit.

       o   --auto-rehash
               This feature requires a MySQL client that is compiled with the
               readline library. Typically, the readline library is not
               available on Windows.

       o   --auto-vertical-output

           Cause result sets to be displayed vertically if they are too wide
           for the current window, and using normal tabular format otherwise.
           (This applies to statements terminated by ; or \G.)

       o   --batch, -B

           Print results using tab as the column separator, with each row on a
           new line. With this option, mysql does not use the history file.

           Batch mode results in nontabular output format and escaping of
           special characters. Escaping may be disabled by using raw mode; see
           the description for the --raw option.

       o   --binary-as-hex

           When this option is given, mysql displays binary data using
           hexadecimal notation (0xvalue). This occurs whether the overall
           output dislay format is tabular, vertical, HTML, or XML.

           This option was added in MySQL 5.7.19.

       o   --binary-mode

           This option helps when processing mysqlbinlog output that may
           contain BLOB values. By default, mysql translates \r\n in statement
           strings to \n and interprets \0 as the statement terminator.
           --binary-mode disables both features. It also disables all mysql
           commands except charset and delimiter in noninteractive mode (for
           input piped to mysql or loaded using the source command).

       o   --bind-address=ip_address

           On a computer having multiple network interfaces, use this option
           to select which interface to use for connecting to the MySQL

       o   --character-sets-dir=dir_name

           The directory where character sets are installed. See
           Section 10.15, "Character Set Configuration".

       o   --column-names

           Write column names in results.

       o   --column-type-info

               an older version of the mysql client with a version of the
               server that understands optimizer hints, invoke mysql with the
               --comments option.

               Comment stripping is deprecated as of MySQL 5.7.20. This
               feature and the options to control it will be removed in a
               future MySQL release.

       o   --compress, -C

           Compress all information sent between the client and the server if
           possible. See Section 4.2.5, "Connection Compression Control".

       o   --connect-expired-password

           Indicate to the server that the client can handle sandbox mode if
           the account used to connect has an expired password. This can be
           useful for noninteractive invocations of mysql because normally the
           server disconnects noninteractive clients that attempt to connect
           using an account with an expired password. (See Section 6.2.12,
           "Server Handling of Expired Passwords".)

       o   --connect-timeout=value The number of seconds before connection
           timeout. (Default value is 0.)

       o   --database=db_name, -D db_name

           The database to use. This is useful primarily in an option file.

       o   --debug[=debug_options], -# [debug_options]

           Write a debugging log. A typical debug_options string is
           d:t:o,file_name. The default is d:t:o,/tmp/mysql.trace.

           This option is available only if MySQL was built using WITH_DEBUG.
           MySQL release binaries provided by Oracle are not built using this

       o   --debug-check

           Print some debugging information when the program exits.

       o   --debug-info, -T

           Print debugging information and memory and CPU usage statistics
           when the program exits.

       o   --default-auth=plugin

           A hint about which client-side authentication plugin to use. See
           Section 6.2.13, "Pluggable Authentication".

       o   --default-character-set=charset_name

       o   --defaults-extra-file=file_name

           Read this option file after the global option file but (on Unix)
           before the user option file. If the file does not exist or is
           otherwise inaccessible, an error occurs.  file_name is interpreted
           relative to the current directory if given as a relative path name
           rather than a full path name.

           For additional information about this and other option-file
           options, see Section, "Command-Line Options that Affect
           Option-File Handling".

       o   --defaults-file=file_name

           Use only the given option file. If the file does not exist or is
           otherwise inaccessible, an error occurs.  file_name is interpreted
           relative to the current directory if given as a relative path name
           rather than a full path name.

           Exception: Even with --defaults-file, client programs read

           For additional information about this and other option-file
           options, see Section, "Command-Line Options that Affect
           Option-File Handling".

       o   --defaults-group-suffix=str

           Read not only the usual option groups, but also groups with the
           usual names and a suffix of str. For example, mysql normally reads
           the [client] and [mysql] groups. If the
           --defaults-group-suffix=_other option is given, mysql also reads
           the [client_other] and [mysql_other] groups.

           For additional information about this and other option-file
           options, see Section, "Command-Line Options that Affect
           Option-File Handling".

       o   --delimiter=str

           Set the statement delimiter. The default is the semicolon character

       o   --disable-named-commands

           Disable named commands. Use the \* form only, or use named commands
           only at the beginning of a line ending with a semicolon (;).  mysql
           starts with this option enabled by default. However, even with this
           option, long-format commands still work from the first line. See
           the section called "MYSQL CLIENT COMMANDS".

       o   --enable-cleartext-plugin

           Enable the mysql_clear_password cleartext authentication plugin.
           Continue even if an SQL error occurs.

       o   --get-server-public-key

           Request from the server the public key required for RSA key
           pair-based password exchange. This option applies to clients that
           authenticate with the caching_sha2_password authentication plugin.
           For that plugin, the server does not send the public key unless
           requested. This option is ignored for accounts that do not
           authenticate with that plugin. It is also ignored if RSA-based
           password exchange is not used, as is the case when the client
           connects to the server using a secure connection.

           If --server-public-key-path=file_name is given and specifies a
           valid public key file, it takes precedence over

           For information about the caching_sha2_password plugin, see
           Section, "Caching SHA-2 Pluggable Authentication".

           The --get-server-public-key option was added in MySQL 5.7.23.

       o   --histignore

           A list of one or more colon-separated patterns specifying
           statements to ignore for logging purposes. These patterns are added
           to the default pattern list ("*IDENTIFIED*:*PASSWORD*"). The value
           specified for this option affects logging of statements written to
           the history file, and to syslog if the --syslog option is given.
           For more information, see the section called "MYSQL CLIENT

       o   --host=host_name, -h host_name

           Connect to the MySQL server on the given host.

       o   --html, -H

           Produce HTML output.

       o   --ignore-spaces, -i

           Ignore spaces after function names. The effect of this is described
           in the discussion for the IGNORE_SPACE SQL mode (see
           Section 5.1.10, "Server SQL Modes").

       o   --init-command=str

           SQL statement to execute after connecting to the server. If
           auto-reconnect is enabled, the statement is executed again after
           reconnection occurs.

       o   --line-numbers

       o   --login-path=name

           Read options from the named login path in the .mylogin.cnf login
           path file. A "login path" is an option group containing options
           that specify which MySQL server to connect to and which account to
           authenticate as. To create or modify a login path file, use the
           mysql_config_editor utility. See mysql_config_editor(1).

           For additional information about this and other option-file
           options, see Section, "Command-Line Options that Affect
           Option-File Handling".

       o   --max-allowed-packet=value The maximum size of the buffer for
           client/server communication. The default is 16MB, the maximum is

       o   --max-join-size=value The automatic limit for rows in a join when
           using --safe-updates. (Default value is 1,000,000.)

       o   --named-commands, -G

           Enable named mysql commands. Long-format commands are permitted,
           not just short-format commands. For example, quit and \q both are
           recognized. Use --skip-named-commands to disable named commands.
           See the section called "MYSQL CLIENT COMMANDS".

       o   --net-buffer-length=value The buffer size for TCP/IP and socket
           communication. (Default value is 16KB.)

       o   --no-auto-rehash, -A

           This has the same effect as --skip-auto-rehash. See the description
           for --auto-rehash.

       o   --no-beep, -b

           Do not beep when errors occur.

       o   --no-defaults

           Do not read any option files. If program startup fails due to
           reading unknown options from an option file, --no-defaults can be
           used to prevent them from being read.

           The exception is that the .mylogin.cnf file, if it exists, is read
           in all cases. This permits passwords to be specified in a safer way
           than on the command line even when --no-defaults is used.
           (.mylogin.cnf is created by the mysql_config_editor utility. See

           For additional information about this and other option-file
           options, see Section, "Command-Line Options that Affect
           Option-File Handling".

           the command line. The content of the statements is immaterial.

           Suppose that mysql is invoked to process this set of statements:

               DELETE FROM db2.t2;
               USE db2;
               DROP TABLE db1.t1;
               CREATE TABLE db1.t1 (i INT);
               USE db1;
               INSERT INTO t1 (i) VALUES(1);
               CREATE TABLE db2.t1 (j INT);

           If the command line is mysql --force --one-database db1, mysql
           handles the input as follows:

           o   The DELETE statement is executed because the default database
               is db1, even though the statement names a table in a different

           o   The DROP TABLE and CREATE TABLE statements are not executed
               because the default database is not db1, even though the
               statements name a table in db1.

           o   The INSERT and CREATE TABLE statements are executed because the
               default database is db1, even though the CREATE TABLE statement
               names a table in a different database.

       o   --pager[=command]

           Use the given command for paging query output. If the command is
           omitted, the default pager is the value of your PAGER environment
           variable. Valid pagers are less, more, cat [> filename], and so
           forth. This option works only on Unix and only in interactive mode.
           To disable paging, use --skip-pager.  the section called "MYSQL
           CLIENT COMMANDS", discusses output paging further.

       o   --password[=password], -p[password]

           The password of the MySQL account used for connecting to the
           server. The password value is optional. If not given, mysql prompts
           for one. If given, there must be no space between --password= or -p
           and the password following it. If no password option is specified,
           the default is to send no password.

           Specifying a password on the command line should be considered
           insecure. To avoid giving the password on the command line, use an
           option file. See Section, "End-User Guidelines for Password

           To explicitly specify that there is no password and that mysql
           should not prompt for one, use the --skip-password option.

       o   --pipe, -W


       o   --port=port_num, -P port_num

           For TCP/IP connections, the port number to use.

       o   --print-defaults

           Print the program name and all options that it gets from option

           For additional information about this and other option-file
           options, see Section, "Command-Line Options that Affect
           Option-File Handling".

       o   --prompt=format_str

           Set the prompt to the specified format. The default is mysql>. The
           special sequences that the prompt can contain are described in the
           section called "MYSQL CLIENT COMMANDS".

       o   --protocol={TCP|SOCKET|PIPE|MEMORY}

           The connection protocol to use for connecting to the server. It is
           useful when the other connection parameters normally result in use
           of a protocol other than the one you want. For details on the
           permissible values, see Section 4.2.4, "Connecting to the MySQL
           Server Using Command Options".

       o   --quick, -q

           Do not cache each query result, print each row as it is received.
           This may slow down the server if the output is suspended. With this
           option, mysql does not use the history file.

       o   --raw, -r

           For tabular output, the "boxing" around columns enables one column
           value to be distinguished from another. For nontabular output (such
           as is produced in batch mode or when the --batch or --silent option
           is given), special characters are escaped in the output so they can
           be identified easily. Newline, tab, NUL, and backslash are written
           as \n, \t, \0, and \\. The --raw option disables this character

           The following example demonstrates tabular versus nontabular output
           and the use of raw mode to disable escaping:

               % mysql
               mysql> SELECT CHAR(92);
               | CHAR(92) |
               | \        |

           If the connection to the server is lost, automatically try to
           reconnect. A single reconnect attempt is made each time the
           connection is lost. To suppress reconnection behavior, use

       o   --safe-updates, --i-am-a-dummy, -U

           If this option is enabled, UPDATE and DELETE statements that do not
           use a key in the WHERE clause or a LIMIT clause produce an error.
           In addition, restrictions are placed on SELECT statements that
           produce (or are estimated to produce) very large result sets. If
           you have set this option in an option file, you can use
           --skip-safe-updates on the command line to override it. For more
           information about this option, see Using Safe-Updates Mode (--safe-

       o   --secure-auth

           Do not send passwords to the server in old (pre-4.1) format. This
           prevents connections except for servers that use the newer password

           As of MySQL 5.7.5, this option is deprecated and will be removed in
           a future MySQL release. It is always enabled and attempting to
           disable it (--skip-secure-auth, --secure-auth=0) produces an error.
           Before MySQL 5.7.5, this option is enabled by default but can be

               Passwords that use the pre-4.1 hashing method are less secure
               than passwords that use the native password hashing method and
               should be avoided. Pre-4.1 passwords are deprecated and support
               for them was removed in MySQL 5.7.5. For account upgrade
               instructions, see Section, "Migrating Away from Pre-4.1
               Password Hashing and the mysql_old_password Plugin".

       o   --select-limit=value The automatic limit for SELECT statements when
           using --safe-updates. (Default value is 1,000.)

       o   --server-public-key-path=file_name

           The path name to a file containing a client-side copy of the public
           key required by the server for RSA key pair-based password
           exchange. The file must be in PEM format. This option applies to
           clients that authenticate with the sha256_password or
           caching_sha2_password authentication plugin. This option is ignored
           for accounts that do not authenticate with one of those plugins. It
           is also ignored if RSA-based password exchange is not used, as is
           the case when the client connects to the server using a secure

           This option is available only if MySQL was built using OpenSSL.

           For information about the sha256_password and caching_sha2_password

       o   --show-warnings

           Cause warnings to be shown after each statement if there are any.
           This option applies to interactive and batch mode.

       o   --sigint-ignore

           Ignore SIGINT signals (typically the result of typing Control+C).

       o   --silent, -s

           Silent mode. Produce less output. This option can be given multiple
           times to produce less and less output.

           This option results in nontabular output format and escaping of
           special characters. Escaping may be disabled by using raw mode; see
           the description for the --raw option.

       o   --skip-column-names, -N

           Do not write column names in results.

       o   --skip-line-numbers, -L

           Do not write line numbers for errors. Useful when you want to
           compare result files that include error messages.

       o   --socket=path, -S path

           For connections to localhost, the Unix socket file to use, or, on
           Windows, the name of the named pipe to use.

           On Windows, this option applies only if the server was started with
           the named_pipe system variable enabled to support named-pipe
           connections. In addition, the user making the connection must be a
           member of the Windows group specified by the
           named_pipe_full_access_group system variable.

       o   --ssl*

           Options that begin with --ssl specify whether to connect to the
           server using SSL and indicate where to find SSL keys and
           certificates. See the section called "Command Options for Encrypted

       o   --syslog, -j

           This option causes mysql to send interactive statements to the
           system logging facility. On Unix, this is syslog; on Windows, it is
           the Windows Event Log. The destination where logged messages appear
           is system dependent. On Linux, the destination is often the
           /var/log/messages file.


       o   --table, -t

           Display output in table format. This is the default for interactive
           use, but can be used to produce table output in batch mode.

       o   --tee=file_name

           Append a copy of output to the given file. This option works only
           in interactive mode.  the section called "MYSQL CLIENT COMMANDS",
           discusses tee files further.

       o   --tls-version=protocol_list

           The permissible TLS protocols for encrypted connections. The value
           is a list of one or more comma-separated protocol names. The
           protocols that can be named for this option depend on the SSL
           library used to compile MySQL. For details, see Section 6.3.2,
           "Encrypted Connection TLS Protocols and Ciphers".

           This option was added in MySQL 5.7.10.

       o   --unbuffered, -n

           Flush the buffer after each query.

       o   --user=user_name, -u user_name

           The user name of the MySQL account to use for connecting to the

       o   --verbose, -v

           Verbose mode. Produce more output about what the program does. This
           option can be given multiple times to produce more and more output.
           (For example, -v -v -v produces table output format even in batch

       o   --version, -V

           Display version information and exit.

       o   --vertical, -E

           Print query output rows vertically (one line per column value).
           Without this option, you can specify vertical output for individual
           statements by terminating them with \G.

       o   --wait, -w

           If the connection cannot be established, wait and retry instead of

               <?xml version="1.0"?>
               <resultset statement="SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'version%'" xmlns:xsi="">
               <field name="Variable_name">version</field>
               <field name="Value">5.0.40-debug</field>
               <field name="Variable_name">version_comment</field>
               <field name="Value">Source distribution</field>
               <field name="Variable_name">version_compile_machine</field>
               <field name="Value">i686</field>
               <field name="Variable_name">version_compile_os</field>
               <field name="Value">suse-linux-gnu</field>

       mysql sends each SQL statement that you issue to the server to be
       executed. There is also a set of commands that mysql itself interprets.
       For a list of these commands, type help or \h at the mysql> prompt:

           mysql> help
           List of all MySQL commands:
           Note that all text commands must be first on line and end with ';'
           ?         (\?) Synonym for `help'.
           clear     (\c) Clear the current input statement.
           connect   (\r) Reconnect to the server. Optional arguments are db and host.
           delimiter (\d) Set statement delimiter.
           edit      (\e) Edit command with $EDITOR.
           ego       (\G) Send command to mysql server, display result vertically.
           exit      (\q) Exit mysql. Same as quit.
           go        (\g) Send command to mysql server.
           help      (\h) Display this help.
           nopager   (\n) Disable pager, print to stdout.
           notee     (\t) Don't write into outfile.
           pager     (\P) Set PAGER [to_pager]. Print the query results via PAGER.
           print     (\p) Print current command.
           prompt    (\R) Change your mysql prompt.
           quit      (\q) Quit mysql.
           rehash    (\#) Rebuild completion hash.
           source    (\.) Execute an SQL script file. Takes a file name as an argument.
           status    (\s) Get status information from the server.
           system    (\!) Execute a system shell command.
           tee       (\T) Set outfile [to_outfile]. Append everything into given
           use       (\u) Use another database. Takes database name as argument.
           charset   (\C) Switch to another charset. Might be needed for processing
                          binlog with multi-byte charsets.
           warnings  (\W) Show warnings after every statement.
           nowarning (\w) Don't show warnings after every statement.

       is not supported. Short-form commands do work within single-line /*!
       ... */ version comments, as do /*+ ... */ optimizer-hint comments,
       which are stored in object definitions. If there is a concern that
       optimizer-hint comments may be stored in object definitions so that
       dump files when reloaded with mysql would result in execution of such
       commands, either invoke mysql with the --binary-mode option or use a
       reload client other than mysql.

       o   help [arg], \h [arg], \? [arg], ? [arg]

           Display a help message listing the available mysql commands.

           If you provide an argument to the help command, mysql uses it as a
           search string to access server-side help from the contents of the
           MySQL Reference Manual. For more information, see the section
           called "MYSQL CLIENT SERVER-SIDE HELP".

       o   charset charset_name, \C charset_name

           Change the default character set and issue a SET NAMES statement.
           This enables the character set to remain synchronized on the client
           and server if mysql is run with auto-reconnect enabled (which is
           not recommended), because the specified character set is used for

       o   clear, \c

           Clear the current input. Use this if you change your mind about
           executing the statement that you are entering.

       o   connect [db_name host_name]], \r [db_name host_name]]

           Reconnect to the server. The optional database name and host name
           arguments may be given to specify the default database or the host
           where the server is running. If omitted, the current values are

       o   delimiter str, \d str

           Change the string that mysql interprets as the separator between
           SQL statements. The default is the semicolon character (;).

           The delimiter string can be specified as an unquoted or quoted
           argument on the delimiter command line. Quoting can be done with
           either single quote ('), double quote ("), or backtick (`)
           characters. To include a quote within a quoted string, either quote
           the string with a different quote character or escape the quote
           with a backslash (\) character. Backslash should be avoided outside
           of quoted strings because it is the escape character for MySQL. For
           an unquoted argument, the delimiter is read up to the first space
           or end of line. For a quoted argument, the delimiter is read up to
           the matching quote on the line.

           mysql interprets instances of the delimiter string as a statement
           Statement Execution Support"), and for parsing the body of stored
           procedures and functions, triggers, and events (see Section 23.1,
           "Defining Stored Programs").

       o   edit, \e

           Edit the current input statement.  mysql checks the values of the
           EDITOR and VISUAL environment variables to determine which editor
           to use. The default editor is vi if neither variable is set.

           The edit command works only in Unix.

       o   ego, \G

           Send the current statement to the server to be executed and display
           the result using vertical format.

       o   exit, \q

           Exit mysql.

       o   go, \g

           Send the current statement to the server to be executed.

       o   nopager, \n

           Disable output paging. See the description for pager.

           The nopager command works only in Unix.

       o   notee, \t

           Disable output copying to the tee file. See the description for

       o   nowarning, \w

           Disable display of warnings after each statement.

       o   pager [command], \P [command]

           Enable output paging. By using the --pager option when you invoke
           mysql, it is possible to browse or search query results in
           interactive mode with Unix programs such as less, more, or any
           other similar program. If you specify no value for the option,
           mysql checks the value of the PAGER environment variable and sets
           the pager to that. Pager functionality works only in interactive

           Output paging can be enabled interactively with the pager command
           and disabled with nopager. The command takes an optional argument;
           if given, the paging program is set to that. With no argument, the
           pager is set to the pager that was set on the command line, or

           Reconfigure the mysql prompt to the given string. The special
           character sequences that can be used in the prompt are described
           later in this section.

           If you specify the prompt command with no argument, mysql resets
           the prompt to the default of mysql>.

       o   quit, \q

           Exit mysql.

       o   rehash, \#

           Rebuild the completion hash that enables database, table, and
           column name completion while you are entering statements. (See the
           description for the --auto-rehash option.)

       o   resetconnection, \x

           Reset the connection to clear the session state.

           Resetting a connection has effects similar to mysql_change_user()
           or an auto-reconnect except that the connection is not closed and
           reopened, and re-authentication is not done. See Section,
           "mysql_change_user()", and Section 27.8.20, "C API Automatic
           Reconnection Control".

           This example shows how resetconnection clears a value maintained in
           the session state:

               mysql> SELECT LAST_INSERT_ID(3);
               | LAST_INSERT_ID(3) |
               |                 3 |
               mysql> SELECT LAST_INSERT_ID();
               | LAST_INSERT_ID() |
               |                3 |
               mysql> resetconnection;
               mysql> SELECT LAST_INSERT_ID();
               | LAST_INSERT_ID() |
               |                0 |

       o   source file_name, \. file_name

           Read the named file and executes the statements contained therein.

       o   system command, \! command

           Execute the given command using your default command interpreter.

           The system command works only in Unix.

       o   tee [file_name], \T [file_name]

           By using the --tee option when you invoke mysql, you can log
           statements and their output. All the data displayed on the screen
           is appended into a given file. This can be very useful for
           debugging purposes also.  mysql flushes results to the file after
           each statement, just before it prints its next prompt. Tee
           functionality works only in interactive mode.

           You can enable this feature interactively with the tee command.
           Without a parameter, the previous file is used. The tee file can be
           disabled with the notee command. Executing tee again re-enables

       o   use db_name, \u db_name

           Use db_name as the default database.

       o   warnings, \W

           Enable display of warnings after each statement (if there are any).

       Here are a few tips about the pager command:

       o   You can use it to write to a file and the results go only to the

               mysql> pager cat > /tmp/log.txt

           You can also pass any options for the program that you want to use
           as your pager:

               mysql> pager less -n -i -S

       o   In the preceding example, note the -S option. You may find it very
           useful for browsing wide query results. Sometimes a very wide
           result set is difficult to read on the screen. The -S option to
           less can make the result set much more readable because you can
           scroll it horizontally using the left-arrow and right-arrow keys.
           You can also use -S interactively within less to switch the
           horizontal-browse mode on and off. For more information, read the
           less manual page:

               shell> man less

       o   The -F and -X options may be used with less to cause it to exit if
           output fits on one screen, which is convenient when no scrolling is

       You can also combine the tee and pager functions. Have a tee file
       enabled and pager set to less, and you are able to browse the results
       using the less program and still have everything appended into a file
       the same time. The difference between the Unix tee used with the pager
       command and the mysql built-in tee command is that the built-in tee
       works even if you do not have the Unix tee available. The built-in tee
       also logs everything that is printed on the screen, whereas the Unix
       tee used with pager does not log quite that much. Additionally, tee
       file logging can be turned on and off interactively from within mysql.
       This is useful when you want to log some queries to a file, but not

       The prompt command reconfigures the default mysql> prompt. The string
       for defining the prompt can contain the following special sequences.

       |Option                     | Description                |
       |                           | The current connection     |
       |                           | identifier                 |
       |                           | A counter that increments  |
       |                           | for each statement you     |
       |                           | issue                      |
       |                           | The full current date      |
       |                           | The default database       |
       |                           | The server host            |
       |                           | The current delimiter      |
       |                           | Minutes of the current     |
       |                           | time                       |
       |                           | A newline character        |
       |                           | The current month in       |
       |                           | three-letter format (Jan,  |
       |                           | Feb, ...)                  |
       |                           | The current month in       |
       |                           | numeric format             |
       |P                          | am/pm                      |
       |                           | The current TCP/IP port or |
       |                           | time                       |
       |                           | A tab character            |
       |U                          |                            |
       |                           |        Your full           |
       |                           |        user_name@host_name |
       |                           |        account name        |
       |                           | Your user name             |
       |                           | The server version         |
       |                           | The current day of the     |
       |                           | week in three-letter       |
       |                           | format (Mon, Tue, ...)     |
       |                           | The current year, four     |
       |                           | digits                     |
       |y                          | The current year, two      |
       |                           | digits                     |
       |_                          | A space                    |
       |\                          | A space (a space follows   |
       |                           | the backslash)             |
       |'                          | Single quote               |
       |                           | Double quote               |
       |T}:T{ A literal  backslash |                            |
       |character                  |                            |
       |\fIx                       |                            |
       |                           |        x, for any "x" not  |
       |                           |        listed above        |

       You can set the prompt in several ways:

       o   Use an environment variable.  You can set the MYSQL_PS1 environment
           variable to a prompt string. For example:

               shell> export MYSQL_PS1="(\u@\h) [\d]> "

       o   Use a command-line option.  You can set the --prompt option on the
           command line to mysql. For example:

               shell> mysql --prompt="(\u@\h) [\d]> "
               (user@host) [database]>

       o   Use an option file.  You can set the prompt option in the [mysql]
           are listed in Section, "Using Option Files".) The overlap
           may cause you problems if you use single backslashes. For example,
           \s is interpreted as a space rather than as the current seconds
           value. The following example shows how to define a prompt within an
           option file to include the current time in hh:mm:ss> format:

               prompt="\\r:\\m:\\s> "

       o   Set the prompt interactively.  You can change your prompt
           interactively by using the prompt (or \R) command. For example:

               mysql> prompt (\u@\h) [\d]>\_
               PROMPT set to '(\u@\h) [\d]>\_'
               (user@host) [database]>
               (user@host) [database]> prompt
               Returning to default PROMPT of mysql>

       The mysql client can do these types of logging for statements executed

       o   On Unix, mysql writes the statements to a history file. By default,
           this file is named .mysql_history in your home directory. To
           specify a different file, set the value of the MYSQL_HISTFILE
           environment variable.

       o   On all platforms, if the --syslog option is given, mysql writes the
           statements to the system logging facility. On Unix, this is syslog;
           on Windows, it is the Windows Event Log. The destination where
           logged messages appear is system dependent. On Linux, the
           destination is often the /var/log/messages file.

       The following discussion describes characteristics that apply to all
       logging types and provides information specific to each logging type.

       o   How Logging Occurs

       o   Controlling the History File

       o   syslog Logging Characteristics
       How Logging Occurs.PP For each enabled logging destination, statement
       logging occurs as follows:

       o   Statements are logged only when executed interactively. Statements
           are noninteractive, for example, when read from a file or a pipe.
           It is also possible to suppress statement logging by using the
           --batch or --execute option.

       o   Statements are ignored and not logged if they match any pattern in
           the "ignore" list. This list is described later.

       o   mysql logs each nonignored, nonempty statement line individually.
               -> CURDATE()
               -> ;

       In this case, mysql logs the "SELECT", "'Today is'", ",", "CURDATE()",
       and ";" lines as it reads them. It also logs the complete statement,
       after mapping SELECT\n'Today is'\n,\nCURDATE() to SELECT 'Today is' ,
       CURDATE(), plus a delimiter. Thus, these lines appear in logged output:

           'Today is'
           SELECT 'Today is' , CURDATE();

       mysql ignores for logging purposes statements that match any pattern in
       the "ignore" list. By default, the pattern list is
       "*IDENTIFIED*:*PASSWORD*", to ignore statements that refer to
       passwords. Pattern matching is not case-sensitive. Within patterns, two
       characters are special:

       o   ?  matches any single character.

       o   * matches any sequence of zero or more characters.

       To specify additional patterns, use the --histignore option or set the
       MYSQL_HISTIGNORE environment variable. (If both are specified, the
       option value takes precedence.) The value should be a list of one or
       more colon-separated patterns, which are appended to the default
       pattern list.

       Patterns specified on the command line might need to be quoted or
       escaped to prevent your command interpreter from treating them
       specially. For example, to suppress logging for UPDATE and DELETE
       statements in addition to statements that refer to passwords, invoke
       mysql like this:

           shell> mysql --histignore="*UPDATE*:*DELETE*"

       Controlling the History File.PP The .mysql_history file should be
       protected with a restrictive access mode because sensitive information
       might be written to it, such as the text of SQL statements that contain
       passwords. See Section, "End-User Guidelines for Password
       Security". Statements in the file are accessible from the mysql client
       when the up-arrow key is used to recall the history. See Disabling
       Interactive History.

       If you do not want to maintain a history file, first remove
       .mysql_history if it exists. Then use either of the following
       techniques to prevent it from being created again:

       o   Set the MYSQL_HISTFILE environment variable to /dev/null. To cause
           this setting to take effect each time you log in, put it in one of
           your shell's startup files.

       system documentation for configuration of your logging capability.

       Message size is limited to 1024 bytes.

       Messages consist of the identifier MysqlClient followed by these

       o   SYSTEM_USER

           The operating system user name (login name) or -- if the user is

       o   MYSQL_USER

           The MySQL user name (specified with the --user option) or -- if the
           user is unknown.

       o   CONNECTION_ID:

           The client connection identifier. This is the same as the
           CONNECTION_ID() function value within the session.

       o   DB_SERVER

           The server host or -- if the host is unknown.

       o   DB

           The default database or -- if no database has been selected.

       o   QUERY

           The text of the logged statement.

       Here is a sample of output generated on Linux by using --syslog. This
       output is formatted for readability; each logged message actually takes
       a single line.

           Mar  7 12:39:25 myhost MysqlClient[20824]:
             SYSTEM_USER:'oscar', MYSQL_USER:'my_oscar', CONNECTION_ID:23,
             DB_SERVER:'', DB:'--', QUERY:'USE test;'
           Mar  7 12:39:28 myhost MysqlClient[20824]:
             SYSTEM_USER:'oscar', MYSQL_USER:'my_oscar', CONNECTION_ID:23,
             DB_SERVER:'', DB:'test', QUERY:'SHOW TABLES;'

           mysql> help search_string

       If you provide an argument to the help command, mysql uses it as a
       search string to access server-side help from the contents of the MySQL
       Reference Manual. The proper operation of this command requires that
       the help tables in the mysql database be initialized with help topic
       information (see Section 5.1.13, "Server-Side Help Support").

              Account Management
              Data Definition
              Data Manipulation
              Data Types
              Functions and Modifiers for Use with GROUP BY
              Geographic Features
              Language Structure
              Storage Engines
              Stored Routines
              Table Maintenance

       If the search string matches multiple items, mysql shows a list of
       matching topics:

           mysql> help logs
           Many help items for your request exist.
           To make a more specific request, please type 'help <item>',
           where <item> is one of the following topics:
              SHOW BINARY LOGS
              SHOW ENGINE
              SHOW LOGS

       Use a topic as the search string to see the help entry for that topic:

           mysql> help show binary logs
           Name: 'SHOW BINARY LOGS'
           Lists the binary log files on the server. This statement is used as
           part of the procedure described in [purge-binary-logs], that shows how
           to determine which logs can be purged.
           mysql> SHOW BINARY LOGS;
           | Log_name      | File_size |
           | binlog.000015 |    724935 |
           | binlog.000016 |    733481 |

       The search string can contain the wildcard characters % and _. These
       have the same meaning as for pattern-matching operations performed with
       the LIKE operator. For example, HELP rep% returns a list of topics that
       begin with rep:

           mysql> HELP rep%
           Many help items for your request exist.
           shell> mysql db_name

       However, it is also possible to put your SQL statements in a file and
       then tell mysql to read its input from that file. To do so, create a
       text file text_file that contains the statements you wish to execute.
       Then invoke mysql as shown here:

           shell> mysql db_name < text_file

       If you place a USE db_name statement as the first statement in the
       file, it is unnecessary to specify the database name on the command

           shell> mysql < text_file

       If you are already running mysql, you can execute an SQL script file
       using the source command or \.  command:

           mysql> source file_name
           mysql> \. file_name

       Sometimes you may want your script to display progress information to
       the user. For this you can insert statements like this:

           SELECT '<info_to_display>' AS ' ';

       The statement shown outputs <info_to_display>.

       You can also invoke mysql with the --verbose option, which causes each
       statement to be displayed before the result that it produces.

       mysql ignores Unicode byte order mark (BOM) characters at the beginning
       of input files. Previously, it read them and sent them to the server,
       resulting in a syntax error. Presence of a BOM does not cause mysql to
       change its default character set. To do that, invoke mysql with an
       option such as --default-character-set=utf8.

       For more information about batch mode, see Section 3.5, "Using mysql in
       Batch Mode".

       This section provides information about techniques for more effective
       use of mysql and about mysql operational behavior.

       o   Input-Line Editing

       o   Disabling Interactive History

       o   Unicode Support on Windows

       o   Displaying Query Results Vertically

       o   Using Safe-Updates Mode (--safe-updates)

       On Windows, the editing key sequences are the same as supported for
       command editing in console windows. On Unix, the key sequences depend
       on the input library used to build mysql (for example, the libedit or
       readline library).

       Documentation for the libedit and readline libraries is available
       online. To change the set of key sequences permitted by a given input
       library, define key bindings in the library startup file. This is a
       file in your home directory: .editrc for libedit and .inputrc for

       For example, in libedit, Control+W deletes everything before the
       current cursor position and Control+U deletes the entire line. In
       readline, Control+W deletes the word before the cursor and Control+U
       deletes everything before the current cursor position. If mysql was
       built using libedit, a user who prefers the readline behavior for these
       two keys can put the following lines in the .editrc file (creating the
       file if necessary):

           bind "^W" ed-delete-prev-word
           bind "^U" vi-kill-line-prev

       To see the current set of key bindings, temporarily put a line that
       says only bind at the end of .editrc.  mysql will show the bindings
       when it starts.  Disabling Interactive History.PP The up-arrow key
       enables you to recall input lines from current and previous sessions.
       In cases where a console is shared, this behavior may be unsuitable.
       mysql supports disabling the interactive history partially or fully,
       depending on the host platform.

       On Windows, the history is stored in memory.  Alt+F7 deletes all input
       lines stored in memory for the current history buffer. It also deletes
       the list of sequential numbers in front of the input lines displayed
       with F7 and recalled (by number) with F9. New input lines entered after
       you press Alt+F7 repopulate the current history buffer. Clearing the
       buffer does not prevent logging to the Windows Event Viewer, if the
       --syslog option was used to start mysql. Closing the console window
       also clears the current history buffer.

       To disable interactive history on Unix, first delete the .mysql_history
       file, if it exists (previous entries are recalled otherwise). Then
       start mysql with the --histignore="*" option to ignore all new input
       lines. To re-enable the recall (and logging) behavior, restart mysql
       without the option.

       If you prevent the .mysql_history file from being created (see
       Controlling the History File) and use --histignore="*" to start the
       mysql client, the interactive history recall facility is disabled
       fully. Alternatively, if you omit the --histignore option, you can
       recall the input lines entered during the current session.  Unicode
       Support on Windows.PP Windows provides APIs based on UTF-16LE for
       reading from and writing to the console; the mysql client for Windows
       is able to use these APIs. The Windows installer creates an item in the
       MySQL menu named MySQL command line client - Unicode. This item invokes
           is necessary because console windows start by default using a DOS
           raster font that is inadequate for Unicode.

        3. Execute mysql.exe with the --default-character-set=utf8 (or
           utf8mb4) option. This option is necessary because utf16le is one of
           the character sets that cannot be used as the client character set.
           See the section called "Impermissible Client Character Sets".

       With those changes, mysql will use the Windows APIs to communicate with
       the console using UTF-16LE, and communicate with the server using
       UTF-8. (The menu item mentioned previously sets the font and character
       set as just described.)

       To avoid those steps each time you run mysql, you can create a shortcut
       that invokes mysql.exe. The shortcut should set the console font to
       Lucida Console or some other compatible Unicode font, and pass the
       --default-character-set=utf8 (or utf8mb4) option to mysql.exe.

       Alternatively, create a shortcut that only sets the console font, and
       set the character set in the [mysql] group of your my.ini file:


       Displaying Query Results Vertically.PP Some query results are much more
       readable when displayed vertically, instead of in the usual horizontal
       table format. Queries can be displayed vertically by terminating the
       query with \G instead of a semicolon. For example, longer text values
       that include newlines often are much easier to read with vertical

           mysql> SELECT * FROM mails WHERE LENGTH(txt) < 300 LIMIT 300,1\G
           *************************** 1. row ***************************
             msg_nro: 3068
                date: 2000-03-01 23:29:50
           time_zone: +0200
           mail_from: Jones
             mail_to: "John Smith" <>
                 sbj: UTF-8
                 txt: >>>>> "John" == John Smith writes:
           John> Hi.  I think this is a good idea.  Is anyone familiar
           John> with UTF-8 or Unicode? Otherwise, I'll put this on my
           John> TODO list and see what happens.
           Yes, please do that.
                file: inbox-jani-1
                hash: 190402944
           1 row in set (0.09 sec)

       Using Safe-Updates Mode (--safe-updates).PP For beginners, a useful
       startup option is --safe-updates (or --i-am-a-dummy, which has the same
       effect). Safe-updates mode is helpful for cases when you might have

           SET sql_safe_updates=1, sql_select_limit=1000, max_join_size=1000000;

       The SET statement affects statement processing as follows:

       o   Enabling sql_safe_updates causes UPDATE and DELETE statements to
           produce an error if they do not specify a key constraint in the
           WHERE clause, or provide a LIMIT clause, or both. For example:

               UPDATE tbl_name SET not_key_column=val WHERE key_column=val;
               UPDATE tbl_name SET not_key_column=val LIMIT 1;

       o   Setting sql_select_limit to 1,000 causes the server to limit all
           SELECT result sets to 1,000 rows unless the statement includes a
           LIMIT clause.

       o   Setting max_join_size to 1,000,000 causes multiple-table SELECT
           statements to produce an error if the server estimates it must
           examine more than 1,000,000 row combinations.

       To specify result set limits different from 1,000 and 1,000,000, you
       can override the defaults by using the --select-limit and
       --max-join-size options when you invoke mysql:

           mysql --safe-updates --select-limit=500 --max-join-size=10000

       It is possible for UPDATE and DELETE statements to produce an error in
       safe-updates mode even with a key specified in the WHERE clause, if the
       optimizer decides not to use the index on the key column:

       o   Range access on the index cannot be used if memory usage exceeds
           that permitted by the range_optimizer_max_mem_size system variable.
           The optimizer then falls back to a table scan. See the section
           called "Limiting Memory Use for Range Optimization".

       o   If key comparisons require type conversion, the index may not be
           used (see Section 8.3.1, "How MySQL Uses Indexes"). Suppose that an
           indexed string column c1 is compared to a numeric value using WHERE
           c1 = 2222. For such comparisons, the string value is converted to a
           number and the operands are compared numerically (see Section 12.2,
           "Type Conversion in Expression Evaluation"), preventing use of the
           index. If safe-updates mode is enabled, an error occurs.

       As of MySQL 5.7.25, safe-updates mode also includes these behaviors:

       o   EXPLAIN with UPDATE and DELETE statements does not produce
           safe-updates errors. This enables use of EXPLAIN plus SHOW WARNINGS
           to see why an index is not used, which can be helpful in cases such
           as when a range_optimizer_max_mem_size violation or type conversion
           occurs and the optimizer does not use an index even though a key
           column was specified in the WHERE clause.

       o   When a safe-updates error occurs, the error message includes the
           first diagnostic that was produced, to provide information about

       user-defined and session variables. Also, any current transaction rolls
       back. This behavior may be dangerous for you, as in the following
       example where the server was shut down and restarted between the first
       and second statements without you knowing it:

           mysql> SET @a=1;
           Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.05 sec)
           mysql> INSERT INTO t VALUES(@a);
           ERROR 2006: MySQL server has gone away
           No connection. Trying to reconnect...
           Connection id:    1
           Current database: test
           Query OK, 1 row affected (1.30 sec)
           mysql> SELECT * FROM t;
           | a    |
           | NULL |
           1 row in set (0.05 sec)

       The @a user variable has been lost with the connection, and after the
       reconnection it is undefined. If it is important to have mysql
       terminate with an error if the connection has been lost, you can start
       the mysql client with the --skip-reconnect option.

       For more information about auto-reconnect and its effect on state
       information when a reconnection occurs, see Section 27.8.20, "C API
       Automatic Reconnection Control".  mysql Client Parser Versus Server
       Parser.PP The mysql client uses a parser on the client side that is not
       a duplicate of the complete parser used by the mysqld server on the
       server side. This can lead to differences in treatment of certain
       constructs. Examples:

       o   The server parser treats strings delimited by " characters as
           identifiers rather than as plain strings if the ANSI_QUOTES SQL
           mode is enabled.

           The mysql client parser does not take the ANSI_QUOTES SQL mode into
           account. It treats strings delimited by ", ', and ` characters the
           same, regardless of whether ANSI_QUOTES is enabled.

       o   Within /*! ... */ comments, the mysql client parser interprets
           short-form mysql commands. The server parser does not interpret
           them because these commands have no meaning on the server side.

           If it is desirable for mysql not to interpret short-form commands
           within comments, a partial workaround is to use the --binary-mode
           option, which causes all mysql commands to be disabled except \C
           and \d in noninteractive mode (for input piped to mysql or loaded
           using the source command).

       Copyright (C) 1997, 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights
       with the program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc.,
       51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA or see

        1. MySQL Shell 8.0 (part of MySQL 8.0)

       For more information, please refer to the MySQL Reference Manual, which
       may already be installed locally and which is also available online at

       Oracle Corporation (

MySQL 5.7                         09/27/2019                          MYSQL(1)
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