mysql


SYNOPSIS
       mysql [options] db_name

DESCRIPTION
       mysql is a simple SQL shell with input line editing capabilities. It
       supports interactive and noninteractive use. When used interactively,
       query results are presented in an ASCII-table format. When used
       noninteractively (for example, as a filter), the result is presented in
       tab-separated format. The output format can be changed using command
       options.

       If you have problems due to insufficient memory for large result sets,
       use the --quick option. This forces mysql to retrieve results from the
       server a row at a time rather than retrieving the entire result set and
       buffering it in memory before displaying it. This is done by returning
       the result set using the mysql_use_result() C API function in the
       client/server library rather than mysql_store_result().

       Using mysql is very easy. Invoke it from the prompt of your command
       interpreter as follows:

           shell> mysql db_name

       Or:

           shell> mysql --user=user_name --password=your_password db_name

       Then type an SQL statement, end it with ;, \g, or \G and press Enter.

       Typing Control+C causes mysql to attempt to kill the current statement.
       If this cannot be done, or Control+C is typed again before the
       statement is killed, mysql exits.

       You can execute SQL statements in a script file (batch file) like this:

           shell> mysql db_name < script.sql > output.tab

       On Unix, the mysql client logs statements executed interactively to a
       history file. See the section called "MYSQL LOGGING".

MYSQL OPTIONS
       mysql supports the following options, which can be specified on the
       command line or in the [mysql] and [client] groups of an option file.
       For information about option files used by MySQL programs, see
       Section 4.2.6, "Using Option Files".

       o   --help, -?

           Display a help message and exit.

       o   --auto-rehash

           Enable automatic rehashing. This option is on by default, which
               readline library. Typically, the readline library is not
               available on Windows.

       o   --auto-vertical-output

           Cause result sets to be displayed vertically if they are too wide
           for the current window, and using normal tabular format otherwise.
           (This applies to statements terminated by ; or \G.) This option was
           added in MySQL 5.5.3.

       o   --batch, -B

           Print results using tab as the column separator, with each row on a
           new line. With this option, mysql does not use the history file.

           Batch mode results in nontabular output format and escaping of
           special characters. Escaping may be disabled by using raw mode; see
           the description for the --raw option.

       o   --bind-address=ip_address

           On a computer having multiple network interfaces, use this option
           to select which interface to use for connecting to the MySQL
           server.

           This option is supported only in the version of the mysql client
           that is supplied with MySQL Cluster. It is not available in
           standard MySQL Server 5.5 releases.

       o   --character-sets-dir=dir_name

           The directory where character sets are installed. See Section 10.5,
           "Character Set Configuration".

       o   --column-names

           Write column names in results.

       o   --column-type-info

           Display result set metadata.

       o   --comments, -c

           Whether to preserve comments in statements sent to the server. The
           default is --skip-comments (discard comments), enable with
           --comments (preserve comments).

       o   --compress, -C

           Compress all information sent between the client and the server if
           both support compression.

       o   --database=db_name, -D db_name
       o   --debug-check

           Print some debugging information when the program exits.

       o   --debug-info, -T

           Print debugging information and memory and CPU usage statistics
           when the program exits.

       o   --default-auth=plugin

           A hint about the client-side authentication plugin to use. See
           Section 6.3.6, "Pluggable Authentication".

           This option was added in MySQL 5.5.7.

       o   --default-character-set=charset_name

           Use charset_name as the default character set for the client and
           connection.

           This option can be useful if the operating system uses one
           character set and the mysql client by default uses another. In this
           case, output may be formatted incorrectly. You can usually fix such
           issues by using this option to force the client to use the system
           character set instead.

           For more information, see Section 10.1.4, "Connection Character
           Sets and Collations", and Section 10.5, "Character Set
           Configuration".

       o   --defaults-extra-file=file_name

           Read this option file after the global option file but (on Unix)
           before the user option file. If the file does not exist or is
           otherwise inaccessible, an error occurs. Before MySQL 5.5.8,
           file_name must be the full path name to the file. As of MySQL
           5.5.8, the name is interpreted relative to the current directory if
           given as a relative path name.

       o   --defaults-file=file_name

           Use only the given option file. If the file does not exist or is
           otherwise inaccessible, an error occurs. Before MySQL 5.5.8,
           file_name must be the full path name to the file. As of MySQL
           5.5.8, the name is interpreted relative to the current directory if
           given as a relative path name.

       o   --defaults-group-suffix=str

           Read not only the usual option groups, but also groups with the
           usual names and a suffix of str. For example, mysql normally reads
           the [client] and [mysql] groups. If the
           --defaults-group-suffix=_other option is given, mysql also reads
           option, long-format commands still work from the first line. See
           the section called "MYSQL COMMANDS".

       o   --enable-cleartext-plugin

           Enable the mysql_clear_password cleartext authentication plugin.
           (See Section 6.5.1.5, "The Cleartext Client-Side Authentication
           Plugin".) This option was added in MySQL 5.5.27.

       o   --execute=statement, -e statement

           Execute the statement and quit. The default output format is like
           that produced with --batch. See Section 4.2.4, "Using Options on
           the Command Line", for some examples. With this option, mysql does
           not use the history file.

       o   --force, -f

           Continue even if an SQL error occurs.

       o   --host=host_name, -h host_name

           Connect to the MySQL server on the given host.

       o   --html, -H

           Produce HTML output.

       o   --ignore-spaces, -i

           Ignore spaces after function names. The effect of this is described
           in the discussion for the IGNORE_SPACE SQL mode (see Section 5.1.8,
           "Server SQL Modes").

       o   --init-command=str

           SQL statement to execute after connecting to the server. If
           auto-reconnect is enabled, the statement is executed again after
           reconnection occurs.

       o   --line-numbers

           Write line numbers for errors. Disable this with
           --skip-line-numbers.

       o   --local-infile[={0|1}]

           Enable or disable LOCAL capability for LOAD DATA INFILE. With no
           value, the option enables LOCAL. The option may be given as
           --local-infile=0 or --local-infile=1 to explicitly disable or
           enable LOCAL. Enabling LOCAL has no effect if the server does not
           also support it.

       o   --named-commands, -G

           Do not beep when errors occur.

       o   --no-defaults

           Do not read any option files. If program startup fails due to
           reading unknown options from an option file, --no-defaults can be
           used to prevent them from being read.

       o   --no-named-commands, -g

           Deprecated, use --disable-named-commands instead.
           --no-named-commands was removed in MySQL 5.5.3.

       o   --no-pager

           Deprecated form of --skip-pager. See the --pager option.
           --no-pager was removed in MySQL 5.5.3.

       o   --no-tee

           Deprecated form of --skip-tee. See the --tee option.  --no-tee is
           removed in MySQL 5.5.3.

       o   --one-database, -o

           Ignore statements except those that occur while the default
           database is the one named on the command line. This option is
           rudimentary and should be used with care. Statement filtering is
           based only on USE statements.

           Initially, mysql executes statements in the input because
           specifying a database db_name on the command line is equivalent to
           inserting USE db_name at the beginning of the input. Then, for each
           USE statement encountered, mysql accepts or rejects following
           statements depending on whether the database named is the one on
           the command line. The content of the statements is immaterial.

           Suppose that mysql is invoked to process this set of statements:

               DELETE FROM db2.t2;
               USE db2;
               DROP TABLE db1.t1;
               CREATE TABLE db1.t1 (i INT);
               USE db1;
               INSERT INTO t1 (i) VALUES(1);
               CREATE TABLE db2.t1 (j INT);

           If the command line is mysql --force --one-database db1, mysql
           handles the input as follows:

           o   The DELETE statement is executed because the default database
               is db1, even though the statement names a table in a different
               database.

           omitted, the default pager is the value of your PAGER environment
           variable. Valid pagers are less, more, cat [> filename], and so
           forth. This option works only on Unix and only in interactive mode.
           To disable paging, use --skip-pager.  the section called "MYSQL
           COMMANDS", discusses output paging further.

       o   --password[=password], -p[password]

           The password to use when connecting to the server. If you use the
           short option form (-p), you cannot have a space between the option
           and the password. If you omit the password value following the
           --password or -p option on the command line, mysql prompts for one.

           Specifying a password on the command line should be considered
           insecure. See Section 6.1.2.1, "End-User Guidelines for Password
           Security". You can use an option file to avoid giving the password
           on the command line.

       o   --pipe, -W

           On Windows, connect to the server using a named pipe. This option
           applies only if the server supports named-pipe connections.

       o   --plugin-dir=dir_name

           The directory in which to look for plugins. Specify this option if
           the --default-auth option is used to specify an authentication
           plugin but mysql does not find it. See Section 6.3.6, "Pluggable
           Authentication".

           This option was added in MySQL 5.5.7.

       o   --port=port_num, -P port_num

           The TCP/IP port number to use for the connection.

       o   --print-defaults

           Print the program name and all options that it gets from option
           files.

       o   --prompt=format_str

           Set the prompt to the specified format. The default is mysql>. The
           special sequences that the prompt can contain are described in the
           section called "MYSQL COMMANDS".

       o   --protocol={TCP|SOCKET|PIPE|MEMORY}

           The connection protocol to use for connecting to the server. It is
           useful when the other connection parameters normally would cause a
           protocol to be used other than the one you want. For details on the
           permissible values, see Section 4.2.2, "Connecting to the MySQL
           Server".
           is given), special characters are escaped in the output so they can
           be identified easily. Newline, tab, NUL, and backslash are written
           as \n, \t, \0, and \\. The --raw option disables this character
           escaping.

           The following example demonstrates tabular versus nontabular output
           and the use of raw mode to disable escaping:

               % mysql
               mysql> SELECT CHAR(92);
               +----------+
               | CHAR(92) |
               +----------+
               | \        |
               +----------+
               % mysql -s
               mysql> SELECT CHAR(92);
               CHAR(92)
               \\
               % mysql -s -r
               mysql> SELECT CHAR(92);
               CHAR(92)
               \

       o   --reconnect

           If the connection to the server is lost, automatically try to
           reconnect. A single reconnect attempt is made each time the
           connection is lost. To suppress reconnection behavior, use
           --skip-reconnect.

       o   --safe-updates, --i-am-a-dummy, -U

           Permit only those UPDATE and DELETE statements that specify which
           rows to modify by using key values. If you have set this option in
           an option file, you can override it by using --safe-updates on the
           command line. See the section called "MYSQL TIPS", for more
           information about this option.

       o   --secure-auth

           Do not send passwords to the server in old (pre-4.1) format. This
           prevents connections except for servers that use the newer password
           format.

               Note
               Passwords that use the pre-4.1 hashing method are less secure
               than passwords that use the native password hashing method and
               should be avoided.

       o   --shared-memory-base-name=name

           On Windows, the shared-memory name to use, for connections made
           using shared memory to a local server. The default value is MYSQL.
           Ignore SIGINT signals (typically the result of typing Control+C).

       o   --silent, -s

           Silent mode. Produce less output. This option can be given multiple
           times to produce less and less output.

           This option results in nontabular output format and escaping of
           special characters. Escaping may be disabled by using raw mode; see
           the description for the --raw option.

       o   --skip-column-names, -N

           Do not write column names in results.

       o   --skip-line-numbers, -L

           Do not write line numbers for errors. Useful when you want to
           compare result files that include error messages.

       o   --socket=path, -S path

           For connections to localhost, the Unix socket file to use, or, on
           Windows, the name of the named pipe to use.

       o   --ssl*

           Options that begin with --ssl specify whether to connect to the
           server using SSL and indicate where to find SSL keys and
           certificates. See Section 6.4.5, "Command Options for Secure
           Connections".

       o   --table, -t

           Display output in table format. This is the default for interactive
           use, but can be used to produce table output in batch mode.

       o   --tee=file_name

           Append a copy of output to the given file. This option works only
           in interactive mode.  the section called "MYSQL COMMANDS",
           discusses tee files further.

       o   --unbuffered, -n

           Flush the buffer after each query.

       o   --user=user_name, -u user_name

           The MySQL user name to use when connecting to the server.

       o   --verbose, -v

           Verbose mode. Produce more output about what the program does. This
           statements by terminating them with \G.

       o   --wait, -w

           If the connection cannot be established, wait and retry instead of
           aborting.

       o   --xml, -X

           Produce XML output.

               <field name="column_name">NULL</field>

           The output when --xml is used with mysql matches that of mysqldump
           --xml. See mysqldump(1) for details.

           The XML output also uses an XML namespace, as shown here:

               shell> mysql --xml -uroot -e "SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'version%'"
               <?xml version="1.0"?>
               <resultset statement="SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'version%'" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance">
               <row>
               <field name="Variable_name">version</field>
               <field name="Value">5.0.40-debug</field>
               </row>
               <row>
               <field name="Variable_name">version_comment</field>
               <field name="Value">Source distribution</field>
               </row>
               <row>
               <field name="Variable_name">version_compile_machine</field>
               <field name="Value">i686</field>
               </row>
               <row>
               <field name="Variable_name">version_compile_os</field>
               <field name="Value">suse-linux-gnu</field>
               </row>
               </resultset>

           (See Bug #25946.)

       You can also set the following variables by using --var_name=value. The
       --set-variable format is deprecated and was removed in MySQL 5.5.3.

       o   connect_timeout

           The number of seconds before connection timeout. (Default value is
           0.)

       o   max_allowed_packet

           The maximum size of the buffer for client/server communication. The
           default is 16MB, the maximum is 1GB.

           The automatic limit for SELECT statements when using
           --safe-updates. (Default value is 1,000.)

MYSQL COMMANDS
       mysql sends each SQL statement that you issue to the server to be
       executed. There is also a set of commands that mysql itself interprets.
       For a list of these commands, type help or \h at the mysql> prompt:

           mysql> help
           List of all MySQL commands:
           Note that all text commands must be first on line and end with ';'
           ?         (\?) Synonym for `help'.
           clear     (\c) Clear command.
           connect   (\r) Reconnect to the server. Optional arguments are db and host.
           delimiter (\d) Set statement delimiter.
           edit      (\e) Edit command with $EDITOR.
           ego       (\G) Send command to mysql server, display result vertically.
           exit      (\q) Exit mysql. Same as quit.
           go        (\g) Send command to mysql server.
           help      (\h) Display this help.
           nopager   (\n) Disable pager, print to stdout.
           notee     (\t) Don't write into outfile.
           pager     (\P) Set PAGER [to_pager]. Print the query results via PAGER.
           print     (\p) Print current command.
           prompt    (\R) Change your mysql prompt.
           quit      (\q) Quit mysql.
           rehash    (\#) Rebuild completion hash.
           source    (\.) Execute an SQL script file. Takes a file name as an argument.
           status    (\s) Get status information from the server.
           system    (\!) Execute a system shell command.
           tee       (\T) Set outfile [to_outfile]. Append everything into given
                          outfile.
           use       (\u) Use another database. Takes database name as argument.
           charset   (\C) Switch to another charset. Might be needed for processing
                          binlog with multi-byte charsets.
           warnings  (\W) Show warnings after every statement.
           nowarning (\w) Don't show warnings after every statement.
           For server side help, type 'help contents'

       Each command has both a long and short form. The long form is not case
       sensitive; the short form is. The long form can be followed by an
       optional semicolon terminator, but the short form should not.

       The use of short-form commands within multiple-line /* ... */ comments
       is not supported.

       o   help [arg], \h [arg], \? [arg], ? [arg]

           Display a help message listing the available mysql commands.

           If you provide an argument to the help command, mysql uses it as a
           search string to access server-side help from the contents of the
           MySQL Reference Manual. For more information, see the section
           called "MYSQL SERVER-SIDE HELP".
           executing the statement that you are entering.

       o   connect [db_name host_name]], \r [db_name host_name]]

           Reconnect to the server. The optional database name and host name
           arguments may be given to specify the default database or the host
           where the server is running. If omitted, the current values are
           used.

       o   delimiter str, \d str

           Change the string that mysql interprets as the separator between
           SQL statements. The default is the semicolon character (;).

           The delimiter string can be specified as an unquoted or quoted
           argument on the delimiter command line. Quoting can be done with
           either single quote ('), double quote ("), or backtick (`)
           characters. To include a quote within a quoted string, either quote
           the string with a different quote character or escape the quote
           with a backslash (\) character. Backslash should be avoided outside
           of quoted strings because it is the escape character for MySQL. For
           an unquoted argument, the delimiter is read up to the first space
           or end of line. For a quoted argument, the delimiter is read up to
           the matching quote on the line.

           mysql interprets instances of the delimiter string as a statement
           delimiter anywhere it occurs, except within quoted strings. Be
           careful about defining a delimiter that might occur within other
           words. For example, if you define the delimiter as X, you will be
           unable to use the word INDEX in statements.  mysql interprets this
           as INDE followed by the delimiter X.

           When the delimiter recognized by mysql is set to something other
           than the default of ;, instances of that character are sent to the
           server without interpretation. However, the server itself still
           interprets ; as a statement delimiter and processes statements
           accordingly. This behavior on the server side comes into play for
           multiple-statement execution (see Section 23.8.17, "C API Support
           for Multiple Statement Execution"), and for parsing the body of
           stored procedures and functions, triggers, and events (see
           Section 20.1, "Defining Stored Programs").

       o   edit, \e

           Edit the current input statement.  mysql checks the values of the
           EDITOR and VISUAL environment variables to determine which editor
           to use. The default editor is vi if neither variable is set.

           The edit command works only in Unix.

       o   ego, \G

           Send the current statement to the server to be executed and display
           the result using vertical format.

           The nopager command works only in Unix.

       o   notee, \t

           Disable output copying to the tee file. See the description for
           tee.

       o   nowarning, \w

           Disable display of warnings after each statement.

       o   pager [command], \P [command]

           Enable output paging. By using the --pager option when you invoke
           mysql, it is possible to browse or search query results in
           interactive mode with Unix programs such as less, more, or any
           other similar program. If you specify no value for the option,
           mysql checks the value of the PAGER environment variable and sets
           the pager to that. Pager functionality works only in interactive
           mode.

           Output paging can be enabled interactively with the pager command
           and disabled with nopager. The command takes an optional argument;
           if given, the paging program is set to that. With no argument, the
           pager is set to the pager that was set on the command line, or
           stdout if no pager was specified.

           Output paging works only in Unix because it uses the popen()
           function, which does not exist on Windows. For Windows, the tee
           option can be used instead to save query output, although it is not
           as convenient as pager for browsing output in some situations.

       o   print, \p

           Print the current input statement without executing it.

       o   prompt [str], \R [str]

           Reconfigure the mysql prompt to the given string. The special
           character sequences that can be used in the prompt are described
           later in this section.

           If you specify the prompt command with no argument, mysql resets
           the prompt to the default of mysql>.

       o   quit, \q

           Exit mysql.

       o   rehash, \#

           Rebuild the completion hash that enables database, table, and
           column name completion while you are entering statements. (See the

       o   system command, \! command

           Execute the given command using your default command interpreter.

           The system command works only in Unix.

       o   tee [file_name], \T [file_name]

           By using the --tee option when you invoke mysql, you can log
           statements and their output. All the data displayed on the screen
           is appended into a given file. This can be very useful for
           debugging purposes also.  mysql flushes results to the file after
           each statement, just before it prints its next prompt. Tee
           functionality works only in interactive mode.

           You can enable this feature interactively with the tee command.
           Without a parameter, the previous file is used. The tee file can be
           disabled with the notee command. Executing tee again re-enables
           logging.

       o   use db_name, \u db_name

           Use db_name as the default database.

       o   warnings, \W

           Enable display of warnings after each statement (if there are any).

       Here are a few tips about the pager command:

       o   You can use it to write to a file and the results go only to the
           file:

               mysql> pager cat > /tmp/log.txt

           You can also pass any options for the program that you want to use
           as your pager:

               mysql> pager less -n -i -S

       o   In the preceding example, note the -S option. You may find it very
           useful for browsing wide query results. Sometimes a very wide
           result set is difficult to read on the screen. The -S option to
           less can make the result set much more readable because you can
           scroll it horizontally using the left-arrow and right-arrow keys.
           You can also use -S interactively within less to switch the
           horizontal-browse mode on and off. For more information, read the
           less manual page:

               shell> man less

       o   The -F and -X options may be used with less to cause it to exit if
           output fits on one screen, which is convenient when no scrolling is
           on /dr1 and /dr2, yet still display the results onscreen using
           less.

       You can also combine the tee and pager functions. Have a tee file
       enabled and pager set to less, and you are able to browse the results
       using the less program and still have everything appended into a file
       the same time. The difference between the Unix tee used with the pager
       command and the mysql built-in tee command is that the built-in tee
       works even if you do not have the Unix tee available. The built-in tee
       also logs everything that is printed on the screen, whereas the Unix
       tee used with pager does not log quite that much. Additionally, tee
       file logging can be turned on and off interactively from within mysql.
       This is useful when you want to log some queries to a file, but not
       others.

       The prompt command reconfigures the default mysql> prompt. The string
       for defining the prompt can contain the following special sequences.

       +-------+----------------------------+
       |Option | Description                |
       +-------+----------------------------+
       |\c     | A counter that increments  |
       |       | for each statement you     |
       |       | issue                      |
       +-------+----------------------------+
       |\D     | The full current date      |
       +-------+----------------------------+
       |\d     | The default database       |
       +-------+----------------------------+
       |\h     | The server host            |
       +-------+----------------------------+
       |\l     | The current delimiter      |
       +-------+----------------------------+
       |\m     | Minutes of the current     |
       |       | time                       |
       +-------+----------------------------+
       |\n     | A newline character        |
       +-------+----------------------------+
       |\O     | The current month in       |
       |       | three-letter format (Jan,  |
       |       | Feb, ...)                  |
       +-------+----------------------------+
       |\o     | The current month in       |
       |       | numeric format             |
       +-------+----------------------------+
       |\P     | am/pm                      |
       +-------+----------------------------+
       |\p     | The current TCP/IP port or |
       |       | socket file                |
       +-------+----------------------------+
       |\R     | The current time, in       |
       |       | 24-hour military time      |
       |       | (0-23)                     |
       +-------+----------------------------+
       |       |        user_name@host_name |
       |       |        account name        |
       +-------+----------------------------+
       |\u     | Your user name             |
       +-------+----------------------------+
       |\v     | The server version         |
       +-------+----------------------------+
       |\w     | The current day of the     |
       |       | week in three-letter       |
       |       | format (Mon, Tue, ...)     |
       +-------+----------------------------+
       |\Y     | The current year, four     |
       |       | digits                     |
       +-------+----------------------------+
       |\y     | The current year, two      |
       |       | digits                     |
       +-------+----------------------------+
       |\_     | A space                    |
       +-------+----------------------------+
       |\      | A space (a space follows   |
       |       | the backslash)             |
       +-------+----------------------------+
       |\'     | Single quote               |
       +-------+----------------------------+
       |\"     | Double quote               |
       +-------+----------------------------+
       |\\     | A literal \ backslash      |
       |       | character                  |
       +-------+----------------------------+
       |\x     |                            |
       |       |        x, for any "x" not  |
       |       |        listed above        |
       +-------+----------------------------+

       You can set the prompt in several ways:

       o   Use an environment variable.  You can set the MYSQL_PS1 environment
           variable to a prompt string. For example:

               shell> export MYSQL_PS1="(\u@\h) [\d]> "

       o   Use a command-line option.  You can set the --prompt option on the
           command line to mysql. For example:

               shell> mysql --prompt="(\u@\h) [\d]> "
               (user@host) [database]>

       o   Use an option file.  You can set the prompt option in the [mysql]
           group of any MySQL option file, such as /etc/my.cnf or the .my.cnf
           file in your home directory. For example:

               [mysql]
               prompt=(\\u@\\h) [\\d]>\\_

               [mysql]
               prompt="\\r:\\m:\\s> "

       o   Set the prompt interactively.  You can change your prompt
           interactively by using the prompt (or \R) command. For example:

               mysql> prompt (\u@\h) [\d]>\_
               PROMPT set to '(\u@\h) [\d]>\_'
               (user@host) [database]>
               (user@host) [database]> prompt
               Returning to default PROMPT of mysql>
               mysql>

MYSQL LOGGING
       On Unix, the mysql client logs statements executed interactively to a
       history file. By default, this file is named .mysql_history in your
       home directory. To specify a different file, set the value of the
       MYSQL_HISTFILE environment variable.  How Logging Occurs.PP Statement
       logging occurs as follows:

       o   Statements are logged only when executed interactively. Statements
           are noninteractive, for example, when read from a file or a pipe.
           It is also possible to suppress statement logging by using the
           --batch or --execute option.

       o   mysql logs each nonempty statement line individually.

       o   If a statement spans multiple lines (not including the terminating
           delimiter), mysql concatenates the lines to form the complete
           statement, maps newlines to spaces, and logs the result, plus a
           delimiter.

       Consequently, an input statement that spans multiple lines can be
       logged twice. Consider this input:

           mysql> SELECT
               -> 'Today is'
               -> ,
               -> CURDATE()
               -> ;

       In this case, mysql logs the "SELECT", "'Today is'", ",", "CURDATE()",
       and ";" lines as it reads them. It also logs the complete statement,
       after mapping SELECT\n'Today is'\n,\nCURDATE() to SELECT 'Today is' ,
       CURDATE(), plus a delimiter. Thus, these lines appear in logged output:

           SELECT
           'Today is'
           ,
           CURDATE()
           ;
           SELECT 'Today is' , CURDATE();

       Controlling the History File.PP The .mysql_history file should be

       o   Create .mysql_history as a symbolic link to /dev/null; this need be
           done only once:

               shell> ln -s /dev/null $HOME/.mysql_history

MYSQL SERVER-SIDE HELP
           mysql> help search_string

       If you provide an argument to the help command, mysql uses it as a
       search string to access server-side help from the contents of the MySQL
       Reference Manual. The proper operation of this command requires that
       the help tables in the mysql database be initialized with help topic
       information (see Section 5.1.10, "Server-Side Help").

       If there is no match for the search string, the search fails:

           mysql> help me
           Nothing found
           Please try to run 'help contents' for a list of all accessible topics

       Use help contents to see a list of the help categories:

           mysql> help contents
           You asked for help about help category: "Contents"
           For more information, type 'help <item>', where <item> is one of the
           following categories:
              Account Management
              Administration
              Data Definition
              Data Manipulation
              Data Types
              Functions
              Functions and Modifiers for Use with GROUP BY
              Geographic Features
              Language Structure
              Plugins
              Storage Engines
              Stored Routines
              Table Maintenance
              Transactions
              Triggers

       If the search string matches multiple items, mysql shows a list of
       matching topics:

           mysql> help logs
           Many help items for your request exist.
           To make a more specific request, please type 'help <item>',
           where <item> is one of the following topics:
              SHOW
              SHOW BINARY LOGS
              SHOW ENGINE
              SHOW LOGS

           mysql> SHOW BINARY LOGS;
           +---------------+-----------+
           | Log_name      | File_size |
           +---------------+-----------+
           | binlog.000015 |    724935 |
           | binlog.000016 |    733481 |
           +---------------+-----------+

       The search string can contain the wildcard characters % and _. These
       have the same meaning as for pattern-matching operations performed with
       the LIKE operator. For example, HELP rep% returns a list of topics that
       begin with rep:

           mysql> HELP rep%
           Many help items for your request exist.
           To make a more specific request, please type 'help <item>',
           where <item> is one of the following
           topics:
              REPAIR TABLE
              REPEAT FUNCTION
              REPEAT LOOP
              REPLACE
              REPLACE FUNCTION

EXECUTING SQL STATEMENTS FROM A TEXT FILE
       The mysql client typically is used interactively, like this:

           shell> mysql db_name

       However, it is also possible to put your SQL statements in a file and
       then tell mysql to read its input from that file. To do so, create a
       text file text_file that contains the statements you wish to execute.
       Then invoke mysql as shown here:

           shell> mysql db_name < text_file

       If you place a USE db_name statement as the first statement in the
       file, it is unnecessary to specify the database name on the command
       line:

           shell> mysql < text_file

       If you are already running mysql, you can execute an SQL script file
       using the source command or \.  command:

           mysql> source file_name
           mysql> \. file_name

       Sometimes you may want your script to display progress information to
       the user. For this you can insert statements like this:

           SELECT '<info_to_display>' AS ' ';

       The statement shown outputs <info_to_display>.

MYSQL TIPS
       This section describes some techniques that can help you use mysql more
       effectively.

   Input-Line Editing
       mysql supports input-line editing, which enables you to modify the
       current input line in place or recall previous input lines. For
       example, the left-arrow and right-arrow keys move horizontally within
       the current input line, and the up-arrow and down-arrow keys move up
       and down through the set of previously entered lines.  Backspace
       deletes the character before the cursor and typing new characters
       enters them at the cursor position. To enter the line, press Enter.

       On Windows, the editing key sequences are the same as supported for
       command editing in console windows. On Unix, the key sequences depend
       on the input library used to build mysql (for example, the libedit or
       readline library).

       Documentation for the libedit and readline libraries is available
       online. To change the set of key sequences permitted by a given input
       library, define key bindings in the library startup file. This is a
       file in your home directory: .editrc for libedit and .inputrc for
       readline.

       For example, in libedit, Control+W deletes everything before the
       current cursor position and Control+U deletes the entire line. In
       readline, Control+W deletes the word before the cursor and Control+U
       deletes everything before the current cursor position. If mysql was
       built using libedit, a user who prefers the readline behavior for these
       two keys can put the following lines in the .editrc file (creating the
       file if necessary):

           bind "^W" ed-delete-prev-word
           bind "^U" vi-kill-line-prev

       To see the current set of key bindings, temporarily put a line that
       says only bind at the end of .editrc.  mysql will show the bindings
       when it starts.

   Displaying Query Results Vertically
       Some query results are much more readable when displayed vertically,
       instead of in the usual horizontal table format. Queries can be
       displayed vertically by terminating the query with \G instead of a
       semicolon. For example, longer text values that include newlines often
       are much easier to read with vertical output:

           mysql> SELECT * FROM mails WHERE LENGTH(txt) < 300 LIMIT 300,1\G
           *************************** 1. row ***************************
             msg_nro: 3068
                date: 2000-03-01 23:29:50
           time_zone: +0200
           mail_from: Monty
               reply: monty@no.spam.com

   Using the --safe-updates Option
       For beginners, a useful startup option is --safe-updates (or
       --i-am-a-dummy, which has the same effect). It is helpful for cases
       when you might have issued a DELETE FROM tbl_name statement but
       forgotten the WHERE clause. Normally, such a statement deletes all rows
       from the table. With --safe-updates, you can delete rows only by
       specifying the key values that identify them. This helps prevent
       accidents.

       When you use the --safe-updates option, mysql issues the following
       statement when it connects to the MySQL server:

           SET sql_safe_updates=1, sql_select_limit=1000, sql_max_join_size=1000000;

       See Section 5.1.5, "Server System Variables".

       The SET statement has the following effects:

       o   You are not permitted to execute an UPDATE or DELETE statement
           unless you specify a key constraint in the WHERE clause or provide
           a LIMIT clause (or both). For example:

               UPDATE tbl_name SET not_key_column=val WHERE key_column=val;
               UPDATE tbl_name SET not_key_column=val LIMIT 1;

       o   The server limits all large SELECT results to 1,000 rows unless the
           statement includes a LIMIT clause.

       o   The server aborts multiple-table SELECT statements that probably
           need to examine more than 1,000,000 row combinations.

       To specify limits different from 1,000 and 1,000,000, you can override
       the defaults by using the --select_limit and --max_join_size options:

           shell> mysql --safe-updates --select_limit=500 --max_join_size=10000

   Disabling mysql Auto-Reconnect
       If the mysql client loses its connection to the server while sending a
       statement, it immediately and automatically tries to reconnect once to
       the server and send the statement again. However, even if mysql
       succeeds in reconnecting, your first connection has ended and all your
       previous session objects and settings are lost: temporary tables, the
       autocommit mode, and user-defined and session variables. Also, any
       current transaction rolls back. This behavior may be dangerous for you,
       as in the following example where the server was shut down and
       restarted between the first and second statements without you knowing
       it:

           mysql> SET @a=1;
           Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.05 sec)
           mysql> INSERT INTO t VALUES(@a);
           ERROR 2006: MySQL server has gone away
           No connection. Trying to reconnect...

       reconnection it is undefined. If it is important to have mysql
       terminate with an error if the connection has been lost, you can start
       the mysql client with the --skip-reconnect option.

       For more information about auto-reconnect and its effect on state
       information when a reconnection occurs, see Section 23.8.16,
       "Controlling Automatic Reconnection Behavior".

COPYRIGHT
       Copyright (C) 1997, 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights
       reserved.

       This documentation is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
       modify it only under the terms of the GNU General Public License as
       published by the Free Software Foundation; version 2 of the License.

       This documentation is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
       but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
       MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU
       General Public License for more details.

       You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along
       with the program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc.,
       51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA or see
       http://www.gnu.org/licenses/.


SEE ALSO
       For more information, please refer to the MySQL Reference Manual, which
       may already be installed locally and which is also available online at
       http://dev.mysql.com/doc/.

AUTHOR
       Oracle Corporation (http://dev.mysql.com/).



MySQL 5.5                         11/26/2016                          MYSQL(1)
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