mysql

MYSQL(1)                     MySQL Database System                    MYSQL(1)

NAME
       mysql - the MySQL command-line client

SYNOPSIS
       mysql [options] db_name

DESCRIPTION
       mysql is a simple SQL shell with input line editing capabilities. It
       supports interactive and noninteractive use. When used interactively,
       query results are presented in an ASCII-table format. When used
       noninteractively (for example, as a filter), the result is presented in
       tab-separated format. The output format can be changed using command
       options.

       If you have problems due to insufficient memory for large result sets,
       use the --quick option. This forces mysql to retrieve results from the
       server a row at a time rather than retrieving the entire result set and
       buffering it in memory before displaying it. This is done by returning
       the result set using the mysql_use_result() C API function in the
       client/server library rather than mysql_store_result().

           Note
           Alternatively, MySQL Shell offers access to the X DevAPI. For
           details, see MySQL Shell 8.0[1].

       Using mysql is very easy. Invoke it from the prompt of your command
       interpreter as follows:

           mysql db_name

       Or:

           mysql --user=user_name --password db_name

       In this case, you'll need to enter your password in response to the
       prompt that mysql displays:

           Enter password: your_password

       Then type an SQL statement, end it with ;, \g, or \G and press Enter.

       Typing Control+C interrupts the current statement if there is one, or
       cancels any partial input line otherwise.

       You can execute SQL statements in a script file (batch file) like this:

           mysql db_name < script.sql > output.tab

       On Unix, the mysql client logs statements executed interactively to a
       history file. See the section called "MYSQL CLIENT LOGGING".

MYSQL CLIENT OPTIONS
       mysql supports the following options, which can be specified on the
       command line or in the [mysql] and [client] groups of an option file.
       For information about option files used by MySQL programs, see
       Section 4.2.2.2, "Using Option Files".

       o   --help, -?  Display a help message and exit.

       o   --auto-rehash Enable automatic rehashing. This option is on by
           default, which enables database, table, and column name completion.
           Use --disable-auto-rehash to disable rehashing. That causes mysql
           to start faster, but you must issue the rehash command or its \#
           shortcut if you want to use name completion.

           To complete a name, enter the first part and press Tab. If the name
           is unambiguous, mysql completes it. Otherwise, you can press Tab
           again to see the possible names that begin with what you have typed
           so far. Completion does not occur if there is no default database.

               Note
               This feature requires a MySQL client that is compiled with the
               readline library. Typically, the readline library is not
               available on Windows.

       o   --auto-vertical-output Cause result sets to be displayed vertically
           if they are too wide for the current window, and using normal
           tabular format otherwise. (This applies to statements terminated by
           ; or \G.)

       o   --batch, -B Print results using tab as the column separator, with
           each row on a new line. With this option, mysql does not use the
           history file.

           Batch mode results in nontabular output format and escaping of
           special characters. Escaping may be disabled by using raw mode; see
           the description for the --raw option.

       o   --binary-as-hex When this option is given, mysql displays binary
           data using hexadecimal notation (0xvalue). This occurs whether the
           overall output display format is tabular, vertical, HTML, or XML.

           --binary-as-hex when enabled affects display of all binary strings,
           including those returned by functions such as CHAR() and UNHEX().
           The following example demonistrates this using the ASCII code for A
           (65 decimal, 41 hexadecimal):

           o   --binary-as-hex disabled:

                   mysql> SELECT CHAR(0x41), UNHEX('41');
                   +------------+-------------+
                   | CHAR(0x41) | UNHEX('41') |
                   +------------+-------------+
                   | A          | A           |
                   +------------+-------------+

           o   --binary-as-hex enabled:

                   mysql> SELECT CHAR(0x41), UNHEX('41');
                   +------------------------+--------------------------+
                   | CHAR(0x41)             | UNHEX('41')              |
                   +------------------------+--------------------------+
                   | 0x41                   | 0x41                     |
                   +------------------------+--------------------------+

           To write a binary string expression so that it displays as a
           character string regardless of whether --binary-as-hex is enabled,
           use these techniques:

           o   The CHAR() function has a USING charset clause:

                   mysql> SELECT CHAR(0x41 USING utf8mb4);
                   +--------------------------+
                   | CHAR(0x41 USING utf8mb4) |
                   +--------------------------+
                   | A                        |
                   +--------------------------+

           o   More generally, use CONVERT() to convert an expression to a
               given character set:

                   mysql> SELECT CONVERT(UNHEX('41') USING utf8mb4);
                   +------------------------------------+
                   | CONVERT(UNHEX('41') USING utf8mb4) |
                   +------------------------------------+
                   | A                                  |
                   +------------------------------------+

           This option was added in MySQL 5.7.19.

       o   --binary-mode This option helps when processing mysqlbinlog output
           that may contain BLOB values. By default, mysql translates \r\n in
           statement strings to \n and interprets \0 as the statement
           terminator.  --binary-mode disables both features. It also disables
           all mysql commands except charset and delimiter in noninteractive
           mode (for input piped to mysql or loaded using the source command).

       o   --bind-address=ip_address On a computer having multiple network
           interfaces, use this option to select which interface to use for
           connecting to the MySQL server.

       o   --character-sets-dir=dir_name The directory where character sets
           are installed. See Section 10.15, "Character Set Configuration".

       o   --column-names Write column names in results.

       o   --column-type-info Display result set metadata. This information
           corresponds to the contents of C API MYSQL_FIELD data structures.
           See C API Basic Data Structures[2].

       o   --comments, -c Whether to strip or preserve comments in statements
           sent to the server. The default is --skip-comments (strip
           comments), enable with --comments (preserve comments).

               Note
               In MySQL 5.7, the mysql client always passes optimizer hints to
               the server, regardless of whether this option is given. To
               ensure that optimizer hints are not stripped if you are using
               an older version of the mysql client with a version of the
               server that understands optimizer hints, invoke mysql with the
               --comments option.

               Comment stripping is deprecated as of MySQL 5.7.20. You should
               expect this feature and the options to control it to be removed
               in a future MySQL release.

       o   --compress, -C Compress all information sent between the client and
           the server if possible. See Section 4.2.6, "Connection Compression
           Control".

       o   --connect-expired-password Indicate to the server that the client
           can handle sandbox mode if the account used to connect has an
           expired password. This can be useful for noninteractive invocations
           of mysql because normally the server disconnects noninteractive
           clients that attempt to connect using an account with an expired
           password. (See Section 6.2.12, "Server Handling of Expired
           Passwords".)

       o   --connect-timeout=value The number of seconds before connection
           timeout. (Default value is 0.)

       o   --database=db_name, -D db_name The database to use. This is useful
           primarily in an option file.

       o   --debug[=debug_options], -# [debug_options] Write a debugging log.
           A typical debug_options string is d:t:o,file_name. The default is
           d:t:o,/tmp/mysql.trace.

           This option is available only if MySQL was built using WITH_DEBUG.
           MySQL release binaries provided by Oracle are not built using this
           option.

       o   --debug-check Print some debugging information when the program
           exits.

           This option is available only if MySQL was built using WITH_DEBUG.
           MySQL release binaries provided by Oracle are not built using this
           option.

       o   --debug-info, -T Print debugging information and memory and CPU
           usage statistics when the program exits.

           This option is available only if MySQL was built using WITH_DEBUG.
           MySQL release binaries provided by Oracle are not built using this
           option.

       o   --default-auth=plugin A hint about which client-side authentication
           plugin to use. See Section 6.2.13, "Pluggable Authentication".

       o   --default-character-set=charset_name Use charset_name as the
           default character set for the client and connection.

           This option can be useful if the operating system uses one
           character set and the mysql client by default uses another. In this
           case, output may be formatted incorrectly. You can usually fix such
           issues by using this option to force the client to use the system
           character set instead.

           For more information, see Section 10.4, "Connection Character Sets
           and Collations", and Section 10.15, "Character Set Configuration".

       o   --defaults-extra-file=file_name Read this option file after the
           global option file but (on Unix) before the user option file. If
           the file does not exist or is otherwise inaccessible, an error
           occurs. If file_name is not an absolute path name, it is
           interpreted relative to the current directory.

           For additional information about this and other option-file
           options, see Section 4.2.2.3, "Command-Line Options that Affect
           Option-File Handling".

       o   --defaults-file=file_name Use only the given option file. If the
           file does not exist or is otherwise inaccessible, an error occurs.
           If file_name is not an absolute path name, it is interpreted
           relative to the current directory.

           Exception: Even with --defaults-file, client programs read
           .mylogin.cnf.

           For additional information about this and other option-file
           options, see Section 4.2.2.3, "Command-Line Options that Affect
           Option-File Handling".

       o   --defaults-group-suffix=str Read not only the usual option groups,
           but also groups with the usual names and a suffix of str. For
           example, mysql normally reads the [client] and [mysql] groups. If
           this option is given as --defaults-group-suffix=_other, mysql also
           reads the [client_other] and [mysql_other] groups.

           For additional information about this and other option-file
           options, see Section 4.2.2.3, "Command-Line Options that Affect
           Option-File Handling".

       o   --delimiter=str Set the statement delimiter. The default is the
           semicolon character (;).

       o   --disable-named-commands Disable named commands. Use the \* form
           only, or use named commands only at the beginning of a line ending
           with a semicolon (;).  mysql starts with this option enabled by
           default. However, even with this option, long-format commands still
           work from the first line. See the section called "MYSQL CLIENT
           COMMANDS".

       o   --enable-cleartext-plugin Enable the mysql_clear_password cleartext
           authentication plugin. (See Section 6.4.1.6, "Client-Side Cleartext
           Pluggable Authentication".)

       o   --execute=statement, -e statement Execute the statement and quit.
           The default output format is like that produced with --batch. See
           Section 4.2.2.1, "Using Options on the Command Line", for some
           examples. With this option, mysql does not use the history file.

       o   --force, -f Continue even if an SQL error occurs.

       o   --get-server-public-key Request from the server the public key
           required for RSA key pair-based password exchange. This option
           applies to clients that authenticate with the caching_sha2_password
           authentication plugin. For that plugin, the server does not send
           the public key unless requested. This option is ignored for
           accounts that do not authenticate with that plugin. It is also
           ignored if RSA-based password exchange is not used, as is the case
           when the client connects to the server using a secure connection.

           If --server-public-key-path=file_name is given and specifies a
           valid public key file, it takes precedence over
           --get-server-public-key.

           For information about the caching_sha2_password plugin, see
           Section 6.4.1.4, "Caching SHA-2 Pluggable Authentication".

           The --get-server-public-key option was added in MySQL 5.7.23.

       o   --histignore A list of one or more colon-separated patterns
           specifying statements to ignore for logging purposes. These
           patterns are added to the default pattern list
           ("*IDENTIFIED*:*PASSWORD*"). The value specified for this option
           affects logging of statements written to the history file, and to
           syslog if the --syslog option is given. For more information, see
           the section called "MYSQL CLIENT LOGGING".

       o   --host=host_name, -h host_name Connect to the MySQL server on the
           given host.

       o   --html, -H Produce HTML output.

       o   --ignore-spaces, -i Ignore spaces after function names. The effect
           of this is described in the discussion for the IGNORE_SPACE SQL
           mode (see Section 5.1.10, "Server SQL Modes").

       o   --init-command=str SQL statement to execute after connecting to the
           server. If auto-reconnect is enabled, the statement is executed
           again after reconnection occurs.

       o   --line-numbers Write line numbers for errors. Disable this with
           --skip-line-numbers.

       o   --local-infile[={0|1}] By default, LOCAL capability for LOAD DATA
           is determined by the default compiled into the MySQL client
           library. To enable or disable LOCAL data loading explicitly, use
           the --local-infile option. When given with no value, the option
           enables LOCAL data loading. When given as --local-infile=0 or
           --local-infile=1, the option disables or enables LOCAL data
           loading.

           Successful use of LOCAL load operations within mysql also requires
           that the server permits local loading; see Section 6.1.6, "Security
           Considerations for LOAD DATA LOCAL"

       o   --login-path=name Read options from the named login path in the
           .mylogin.cnf login path file. A "login path" is an option group
           containing options that specify which MySQL server to connect to
           and which account to authenticate as. To create or modify a login
           path file, use the mysql_config_editor utility. See
           mysql_config_editor(1).

           For additional information about this and other option-file
           options, see Section 4.2.2.3, "Command-Line Options that Affect
           Option-File Handling".

       o   --max-allowed-packet=value The maximum size of the buffer for
           client/server communication. The default is 16MB, the maximum is
           1GB.

       o   --max-join-size=value The automatic limit for rows in a join when
           using --safe-updates. (Default value is 1,000,000.)

       o   --named-commands, -G Enable named mysql commands. Long-format
           commands are permitted, not just short-format commands. For
           example, quit and \q both are recognized. Use --skip-named-commands
           to disable named commands. See the section called "MYSQL CLIENT
           COMMANDS".

       o   --net-buffer-length=value The buffer size for TCP/IP and socket
           communication. (Default value is 16KB.)

       o   --no-auto-rehash, -A This has the same effect as
           --skip-auto-rehash. See the description for --auto-rehash.

       o   --no-beep, -b Do not beep when errors occur.

       o   --no-defaults Do not read any option files. If program startup
           fails due to reading unknown options from an option file,
           --no-defaults can be used to prevent them from being read.

           The exception is that the .mylogin.cnf file is read in all cases,
           if it exists. This permits passwords to be specified in a safer way
           than on the command line even when --no-defaults is used. To create
           .mylogin.cnf, use the mysql_config_editor utility. See
           mysql_config_editor(1).

           For additional information about this and other option-file
           options, see Section 4.2.2.3, "Command-Line Options that Affect
           Option-File Handling".

       o   --one-database, -o Ignore statements except those that occur while
           the default database is the one named on the command line. This
           option is rudimentary and should be used with care. Statement
           filtering is based only on USE statements.

           Initially, mysql executes statements in the input because
           specifying a database db_name on the command line is equivalent to
           inserting USE db_name at the beginning of the input. Then, for each
           USE statement encountered, mysql accepts or rejects following
           statements depending on whether the database named is the one on
           the command line. The content of the statements is immaterial.

           Suppose that mysql is invoked to process this set of statements:

               DELETE FROM db2.t2;
               USE db2;
               DROP TABLE db1.t1;
               CREATE TABLE db1.t1 (i INT);
               USE db1;
               INSERT INTO t1 (i) VALUES(1);
               CREATE TABLE db2.t1 (j INT);

           If the command line is mysql --force --one-database db1, mysql
           handles the input as follows:

           o   The DELETE statement is executed because the default database
               is db1, even though the statement names a table in a different
               database.

           o   The DROP TABLE and CREATE TABLE statements are not executed
               because the default database is not db1, even though the
               statements name a table in db1.

           o   The INSERT and CREATE TABLE statements are executed because the
               default database is db1, even though the CREATE TABLE statement
               names a table in a different database.

       o   --pager[=command] Use the given command for paging query output. If
           the command is omitted, the default pager is the value of your
           PAGER environment variable. Valid pagers are less, more, cat [>
           filename], and so forth. This option works only on Unix and only in
           interactive mode. To disable paging, use --skip-pager.  the section
           called "MYSQL CLIENT COMMANDS", discusses output paging further.

       o   --password[=password], -p[password] The password of the MySQL
           account used for connecting to the server. The password value is
           optional. If not given, mysql prompts for one. If given, there must
           be no space between --password= or -p and the password following
           it. If no password option is specified, the default is to send no
           password.

           Specifying a password on the command line should be considered
           insecure. To avoid giving the password on the command line, use an
           option file. See Section 6.1.2.1, "End-User Guidelines for Password
           Security".

           To explicitly specify that there is no password and that mysql
           should not prompt for one, use the --skip-password option.

       o   --pipe, -W On Windows, connect to the server using a named pipe.
           This option applies only if the server was started with the
           named_pipe system variable enabled to support named-pipe
           connections. In addition, the user making the connection must be a
           member of the Windows group specified by the
           named_pipe_full_access_group system variable.

       o   --plugin-dir=dir_name The directory in which to look for plugins.
           Specify this option if the --default-auth option is used to specify
           an authentication plugin but mysql does not find it. See
           Section 6.2.13, "Pluggable Authentication".

       o   --port=port_num, -P port_num For TCP/IP connections, the port
           number to use.

       o   --print-defaults Print the program name and all options that it
           gets from option files.

           For additional information about this and other option-file
           options, see Section 4.2.2.3, "Command-Line Options that Affect
           Option-File Handling".

       o   --prompt=format_str Set the prompt to the specified format. The
           default is mysql>. The special sequences that the prompt can
           contain are described in the section called "MYSQL CLIENT
           COMMANDS".

       o   --protocol={TCP|SOCKET|PIPE|MEMORY} The transport protocol to use
           for connecting to the server. It is useful when the other
           connection parameters normally result in use of a protocol other
           than the one you want. For details on the permissible values, see
           Section 4.2.5, "Connection Transport Protocols".

       o   --quick, -q Do not cache each query result, print each row as it is
           received. This may slow down the server if the output is suspended.
           With this option, mysql does not use the history file.

       o   --raw, -r For tabular output, the "boxing" around columns enables
           one column value to be distinguished from another. For nontabular
           output (such as is produced in batch mode or when the --batch or
           --silent option is given), special characters are escaped in the
           output so they can be identified easily. Newline, tab, NUL, and
           backslash are written as \n, \t, \0, and \\. The --raw option
           disables this character escaping.

           The following example demonstrates tabular versus nontabular output
           and the use of raw mode to disable escaping:

               % mysql
               mysql> SELECT CHAR(92);
               +----------+
               | CHAR(92) |
               +----------+
               | \        |
               +----------+
               % mysql -s
               mysql> SELECT CHAR(92);
               CHAR(92)
               \\
               % mysql -s -r
               mysql> SELECT CHAR(92);
               CHAR(92)
               \

       o   --reconnect If the connection to the server is lost, automatically
           try to reconnect. A single reconnect attempt is made each time the
           connection is lost. To suppress reconnection behavior, use
           --skip-reconnect.

       o   --safe-updates, --i-am-a-dummy, -U If this option is enabled,
           UPDATE and DELETE statements that do not use a key in the WHERE
           clause or a LIMIT clause produce an error. In addition,
           restrictions are placed on SELECT statements that produce (or are
           estimated to produce) very large result sets. If you have set this
           option in an option file, you can use --skip-safe-updates on the
           command line to override it. For more information about this
           option, see Using Safe-Updates Mode (--safe-updates).

       o   --secure-auth Do not send passwords to the server in old (pre-4.1)
           format. This prevents connections except for servers that use the
           newer password format.

           As of MySQL 5.7.5, this option is deprecated; expect it to be
           removed in a future MySQL release. It is always enabled and
           attempting to disable it (--skip-secure-auth, --secure-auth=0)
           produces an error. Before MySQL 5.7.5, this option is enabled by
           default but can be disabled.

               Note
               Passwords that use the pre-4.1 hashing method are less secure
               than passwords that use the native password hashing method and
               should be avoided. Pre-4.1 passwords are deprecated and support
               for them was removed in MySQL 5.7.5. For account upgrade
               instructions, see Section 6.4.1.3, "Migrating Away from Pre-4.1
               Password Hashing and the mysql_old_password Plugin".

       o   --select-limit=value The automatic limit for SELECT statements when
           using --safe-updates. (Default value is 1,000.)

       o   --server-public-key-path=file_name The path name to a file in PEM
           format containing a client-side copy of the public key required by
           the server for RSA key pair-based password exchange. This option
           applies to clients that authenticate with the sha256_password or
           caching_sha2_password authentication plugin. This option is ignored
           for accounts that do not authenticate with one of those plugins. It
           is also ignored if RSA-based password exchange is not used, as is
           the case when the client connects to the server using a secure
           connection.

           If --server-public-key-path=file_name is given and specifies a
           valid public key file, it takes precedence over
           --get-server-public-key.

           For sha256_password, this option applies only if MySQL was built
           using OpenSSL.

           For information about the sha256_password and caching_sha2_password
           plugins, see Section 6.4.1.5, "SHA-256 Pluggable Authentication",
           and Section 6.4.1.4, "Caching SHA-2 Pluggable Authentication".

       o   --shared-memory-base-name=name On Windows, the shared-memory name
           to use for connections made using shared memory to a local server.
           The default value is MYSQL. The shared-memory name is
           case-sensitive.

           This option applies only if the server was started with the
           shared_memory system variable enabled to support shared-memory
           connections.

       o   --show-warnings Cause warnings to be shown after each statement if
           there are any. This option applies to interactive and batch mode.

       o   --sigint-ignore Ignore SIGINT signals (typically the result of
           typing Control+C).

           Without this option, typing Control+C interrupts the current
           statement if there is one, or cancels any partial input line
           otherwise.

       o   --silent, -s Silent mode. Produce less output. This option can be
           given multiple times to produce less and less output.

           This option results in nontabular output format and escaping of
           special characters. Escaping may be disabled by using raw mode; see
           the description for the --raw option.

       o   --skip-column-names, -N Do not write column names in results.

       o   --skip-line-numbers, -L Do not write line numbers for errors.
           Useful when you want to compare result files that include error
           messages.

       o   --socket=path, -S path For connections to localhost, the Unix
           socket file to use, or, on Windows, the name of the named pipe to
           use.

           On Windows, this option applies only if the server was started with
           the named_pipe system variable enabled to support named-pipe
           connections. In addition, the user making the connection must be a
           member of the Windows group specified by the
           named_pipe_full_access_group system variable.

       o   --ssl* Options that begin with --ssl specify whether to connect to
           the server using encryption and indicate where to find SSL keys and
           certificates. See the section called "Command Options for Encrypted
           Connections".

       o   --syslog, -j This option causes mysql to send interactive
           statements to the system logging facility. On Unix, this is syslog;
           on Windows, it is the Windows Event Log. The destination where
           logged messages appear is system dependent. On Linux, the
           destination is often the /var/log/messages file.

           Here is a sample of output generated on Linux by using --syslog.
           This output is formatted for readability; each logged message
           actually takes a single line.

               Mar  7 12:39:25 myhost MysqlClient[20824]:
                 SYSTEM_USER:'oscar', MYSQL_USER:'my_oscar', CONNECTION_ID:23,
                 DB_SERVER:'127.0.0.1', DB:'--', QUERY:'USE test;'
               Mar  7 12:39:28 myhost MysqlClient[20824]:
                 SYSTEM_USER:'oscar', MYSQL_USER:'my_oscar', CONNECTION_ID:23,
                 DB_SERVER:'127.0.0.1', DB:'test', QUERY:'SHOW TABLES;'

           For more information, see the section called "MYSQL CLIENT
           LOGGING".

       o   --table, -t Display output in table format. This is the default for
           interactive use, but can be used to produce table output in batch
           mode.

       o   --tee=file_name Append a copy of output to the given file. This
           option works only in interactive mode.  the section called "MYSQL
           CLIENT COMMANDS", discusses tee files further.

       o   --tls-version=protocol_list The permissible TLS protocols for
           encrypted connections. The value is a list of one or more
           comma-separated protocol names. The protocols that can be named for
           this option depend on the SSL library used to compile MySQL. For
           details, see Section 6.3.2, "Encrypted Connection TLS Protocols and
           Ciphers".

           This option was added in MySQL 5.7.10.

       o   --unbuffered, -n Flush the buffer after each query.

       o   --user=user_name, -u user_name The user name of the MySQL account
           to use for connecting to the server.

       o   --verbose, -v Verbose mode. Produce more output about what the
           program does. This option can be given multiple times to produce
           more and more output. (For example, -v -v -v produces table output
           format even in batch mode.)

       o   --version, -V Display version information and exit.

       o   --vertical, -E Print query output rows vertically (one line per
           column value). Without this option, you can specify vertical output
           for individual statements by terminating them with \G.

       o   --wait, -w If the connection cannot be established, wait and retry
           instead of aborting.

       o   --xml, -X Produce XML output.

               <field name="column_name">NULL</field>

           The output when --xml is used with mysql matches that of mysqldump
           --xml. See mysqldump(1), for details.

           The XML output also uses an XML namespace, as shown here:

               $> mysql --xml -uroot -e "SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'version%'"
               <?xml version="1.0"?>
               <resultset statement="SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'version%'" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance">
               <row>
               <field name="Variable_name">version</field>
               <field name="Value">5.0.40-debug</field>
               </row>
               <row>
               <field name="Variable_name">version_comment</field>
               <field name="Value">Source distribution</field>
               </row>
               <row>
               <field name="Variable_name">version_compile_machine</field>
               <field name="Value">i686</field>
               </row>
               <row>
               <field name="Variable_name">version_compile_os</field>
               <field name="Value">suse-linux-gnu</field>
               </row>
               </resultset>

MYSQL CLIENT COMMANDS
       mysql sends each SQL statement that you issue to the server to be
       executed. There is also a set of commands that mysql itself interprets.
       For a list of these commands, type help or \h at the mysql> prompt:

           mysql> help
           List of all MySQL commands:
           Note that all text commands must be first on line and end with ';'
           ?         (\?) Synonym for `help'.
           clear     (\c) Clear the current input statement.
           connect   (\r) Reconnect to the server. Optional arguments are db and host.
           delimiter (\d) Set statement delimiter.
           edit      (\e) Edit command with $EDITOR.
           ego       (\G) Send command to mysql server, display result vertically.
           exit      (\q) Exit mysql. Same as quit.
           go        (\g) Send command to mysql server.
           help      (\h) Display this help.
           nopager   (\n) Disable pager, print to stdout.
           notee     (\t) Don't write into outfile.
           pager     (\P) Set PAGER [to_pager]. Print the query results via PAGER.
           print     (\p) Print current command.
           prompt    (\R) Change your mysql prompt.
           quit      (\q) Quit mysql.
           rehash    (\#) Rebuild completion hash.
           source    (\.) Execute an SQL script file. Takes a file name as an argument.
           status    (\s) Get status information from the server.
           system    (\!) Execute a system shell command.
           tee       (\T) Set outfile [to_outfile]. Append everything into given
                          outfile.
           use       (\u) Use another database. Takes database name as argument.
           charset   (\C) Switch to another charset. Might be needed for processing
                          binlog with multi-byte charsets.
           warnings  (\W) Show warnings after every statement.
           nowarning (\w) Don't show warnings after every statement.
           resetconnection(\x) Clean session context.
           For server side help, type 'help contents'

       If mysql is invoked with the --binary-mode option, all mysql commands
       are disabled except charset and delimiter in noninteractive mode (for
       input piped to mysql or loaded using the source command).

       Each command has both a long and short form. The long form is not
       case-sensitive; the short form is. The long form can be followed by an
       optional semicolon terminator, but the short form should not.

       The use of short-form commands within multiple-line /* ... */ comments
       is not supported. Short-form commands do work within single-line /*!
       ... */ version comments, as do /*+ ... */ optimizer-hint comments,
       which are stored in object definitions. If there is a concern that
       optimizer-hint comments may be stored in object definitions so that
       dump files when reloaded with mysql would result in execution of such
       commands, either invoke mysql with the --binary-mode option or use a
       reload client other than mysql.

       o   help [arg], \h [arg], \? [arg], ? [arg]

           Display a help message listing the available mysql commands.

           If you provide an argument to the help command, mysql uses it as a
           search string to access server-side help from the contents of the
           MySQL Reference Manual. For more information, see the section
           called "MYSQL CLIENT SERVER-SIDE HELP".

       o   charset charset_name, \C charset_name

           Change the default character set and issue a SET NAMES statement.
           This enables the character set to remain synchronized on the client
           and server if mysql is run with auto-reconnect enabled (which is
           not recommended), because the specified character set is used for
           reconnects.

       o   clear, \c

           Clear the current input. Use this if you change your mind about
           executing the statement that you are entering.

       o   connect [db_name [host_name]], \r [db_name [host_name]]

           Reconnect to the server. The optional database name and host name
           arguments may be given to specify the default database or the host
           where the server is running. If omitted, the current values are
           used.

       o   delimiter str, \d str

           Change the string that mysql interprets as the separator between
           SQL statements. The default is the semicolon character (;).

           The delimiter string can be specified as an unquoted or quoted
           argument on the delimiter command line. Quoting can be done with
           either single quote ('), double quote ("), or backtick (`)
           characters. To include a quote within a quoted string, either quote
           the string with a different quote character or escape the quote
           with a backslash (\) character. Backslash should be avoided outside
           of quoted strings because it is the escape character for MySQL. For
           an unquoted argument, the delimiter is read up to the first space
           or end of line. For a quoted argument, the delimiter is read up to
           the matching quote on the line.

           mysql interprets instances of the delimiter string as a statement
           delimiter anywhere it occurs, except within quoted strings. Be
           careful about defining a delimiter that might occur within other
           words. For example, if you define the delimiter as X, it is not
           possible to use the word INDEX in statements.  mysql interprets
           this as INDE followed by the delimiter X.

           When the delimiter recognized by mysql is set to something other
           than the default of ;, instances of that character are sent to the
           server without interpretation. However, the server itself still
           interprets ; as a statement delimiter and processes statements
           accordingly. This behavior on the server side comes into play for
           multiple-statement execution (see Multiple Statement Execution
           Support[3]), and for parsing the body of stored procedures and
           functions, triggers, and events (see Section 23.1, "Defining Stored
           Programs").

       o   edit, \e

           Edit the current input statement.  mysql checks the values of the
           EDITOR and VISUAL environment variables to determine which editor
           to use. The default editor is vi if neither variable is set.

           The edit command works only in Unix.

       o   ego, \G

           Send the current statement to the server to be executed and display
           the result using vertical format.

       o   exit, \q

           Exit mysql.

       o   go, \g

           Send the current statement to the server to be executed.

       o   nopager, \n

           Disable output paging. See the description for pager.

           The nopager command works only in Unix.

       o   notee, \t

           Disable output copying to the tee file. See the description for
           tee.

       o   nowarning, \w

           Disable display of warnings after each statement.

       o   pager [command], \P [command]

           Enable output paging. By using the --pager option when you invoke
           mysql, it is possible to browse or search query results in
           interactive mode with Unix programs such as less, more, or any
           other similar program. If you specify no value for the option,
           mysql checks the value of the PAGER environment variable and sets
           the pager to that. Pager functionality works only in interactive
           mode.

           Output paging can be enabled interactively with the pager command
           and disabled with nopager. The command takes an optional argument;
           if given, the paging program is set to that. With no argument, the
           pager is set to the pager that was set on the command line, or
           stdout if no pager was specified.

           Output paging works only in Unix because it uses the popen()
           function, which does not exist on Windows. For Windows, the tee
           option can be used instead to save query output, although it is not
           as convenient as pager for browsing output in some situations.

       o   print, \p

           Print the current input statement without executing it.

       o   prompt [str], \R [str]

           Reconfigure the mysql prompt to the given string. The special
           character sequences that can be used in the prompt are described
           later in this section.

           If you specify the prompt command with no argument, mysql resets
           the prompt to the default of mysql>.

       o   quit, \q

           Exit mysql.

       o   rehash, \#

           Rebuild the completion hash that enables database, table, and
           column name completion while you are entering statements. (See the
           description for the --auto-rehash option.)

       o   resetconnection, \x

           Reset the connection to clear the session state.

           Resetting a connection has effects similar to mysql_change_user()
           or an auto-reconnect except that the connection is not closed and
           reopened, and re-authentication is not done. See
           mysql_change_user()[4], and Automatic Reconnection Control[5].

           This example shows how resetconnection clears a value maintained in
           the session state:

               mysql> SELECT LAST_INSERT_ID(3);
               +-------------------+
               | LAST_INSERT_ID(3) |
               +-------------------+
               |                 3 |
               +-------------------+
               mysql> SELECT LAST_INSERT_ID();
               +------------------+
               | LAST_INSERT_ID() |
               +------------------+
               |                3 |
               +------------------+
               mysql> resetconnection;
               mysql> SELECT LAST_INSERT_ID();
               +------------------+
               | LAST_INSERT_ID() |
               +------------------+
               |                0 |
               +------------------+

       o   source file_name, \. file_name

           Read the named file and executes the statements contained therein.
           On Windows, specify path name separators as / or \\.

           Quote characters are taken as part of the file name itself. For
           best results, the name should not include space characters.

       o   status, \s

           Provide status information about the connection and the server you
           are using. If you are running with --safe-updates enabled, status
           also prints the values for the mysql variables that affect your
           queries.

       o   system command, \! command

           Execute the given command using your default command interpreter.

           The system command works only in Unix.

       o   tee [file_name], \T [file_name]

           By using the --tee option when you invoke mysql, you can log
           statements and their output. All the data displayed on the screen
           is appended into a given file. This can be very useful for
           debugging purposes also.  mysql flushes results to the file after
           each statement, just before it prints its next prompt. Tee
           functionality works only in interactive mode.

           You can enable this feature interactively with the tee command.
           Without a parameter, the previous file is used. The tee file can be
           disabled with the notee command. Executing tee again re-enables
           logging.

       o   use db_name, \u db_name

           Use db_name as the default database.

       o   warnings, \W

           Enable display of warnings after each statement (if there are any).

       Here are a few tips about the pager command:

       o   You can use it to write to a file and the results go only to the
           file:

               mysql> pager cat > /tmp/log.txt

           You can also pass any options for the program that you want to use
           as your pager:

               mysql> pager less -n -i -S

       o   In the preceding example, note the -S option. You may find it very
           useful for browsing wide query results. Sometimes a very wide
           result set is difficult to read on the screen. The -S option to
           less can make the result set much more readable because you can
           scroll it horizontally using the left-arrow and right-arrow keys.
           You can also use -S interactively within less to switch the
           horizontal-browse mode on and off. For more information, read the
           less manual page:

               man less

       o   The -F and -X options may be used with less to cause it to exit if
           output fits on one screen, which is convenient when no scrolling is
           necessary:

               mysql> pager less -n -i -S -F -X

       o   You can specify very complex pager commands for handling query
           output:

               mysql> pager cat | tee /dr1/tmp/res.txt \
                         | tee /dr2/tmp/res2.txt | less -n -i -S

           In this example, the command would send query results to two files
           in two different directories on two different file systems mounted
           on /dr1 and /dr2, yet still display the results onscreen using
           less.

       You can also combine the tee and pager functions. Have a tee file
       enabled and pager set to less, and you are able to browse the results
       using the less program and still have everything appended into a file
       the same time. The difference between the Unix tee used with the pager
       command and the mysql built-in tee command is that the built-in tee
       works even if you do not have the Unix tee available. The built-in tee
       also logs everything that is printed on the screen, whereas the Unix
       tee used with pager does not log quite that much. Additionally, tee
       file logging can be turned on and off interactively from within mysql.
       This is useful when you want to log some queries to a file, but not
       others.

       The prompt command reconfigures the default mysql> prompt. The string
       for defining the prompt can contain the following special sequences.

r
.br
.br
72
       +---------------------------+----------------------------+
       |Option                     | Description                |
       +---------------------------+----------------------------+
       |                           | The current connection     |
       |                           | identifier                 |
       +---------------------------+----------------------------+
       |                           | A counter that increments  |
       |                           | for each statement you     |
       |                           | issue                      |
       +---------------------------+----------------------------+
       |                           | The full current date      |
       +---------------------------+----------------------------+
       |                           | The default database       |
       +---------------------------+----------------------------+
       |                           | The server host            |
       +---------------------------+----------------------------+
       |                           | The current delimiter      |
       +---------------------------+----------------------------+
       |                           | Minutes of the current     |
       |                           | time                       |
       +---------------------------+----------------------------+
       |                           | A newline character        |
       +---------------------------+----------------------------+
       |                           | The current month in       |
       |                           | three-letter format (Jan,  |
       |                           | Feb, ...)                  |
       +---------------------------+----------------------------+
       |                           | The current month in       |
       |                           | numeric format             |
       +---------------------------+----------------------------+
       |P                          | am/pm                      |
       +---------------------------+----------------------------+
       |                           | The current TCP/IP port or |
       |                           | socket file                |
       +---------------------------+----------------------------+
       |                           | The current time, in       |
       |                           | 24-hour military time      |
       |                           | (0-23)                     |
       +---------------------------+----------------------------+
       |                           | The current time, standard |
       |                           | 12-hour time (1-12)        |
       +---------------------------+----------------------------+
       |                           | Semicolon                  |
       +---------------------------+----------------------------+
       |                           | Seconds of the current     |
       |                           | time                       |
       +---------------------------+----------------------------+
       |                           | A tab character            |
       +---------------------------+----------------------------+
       |U                          |                            |
       |                           |        Your full           |
       |                           |        user_name@host_name |
       |                           |        account name        |
       +---------------------------+----------------------------+
       |                           | Your user name             |
       +---------------------------+----------------------------+
       |                           | The server version         |
       +---------------------------+----------------------------+
       |                           | The current day of the     |
       |                           | week in three-letter       |
       |                           | format (Mon, Tue, ...)     |
       +---------------------------+----------------------------+
       |                           | The current year, four     |
       |                           | digits                     |
       +---------------------------+----------------------------+
       |y                          | The current year, two      |
       |                           | digits                     |
       +---------------------------+----------------------------+
       |_                          | A space                    |
       +---------------------------+----------------------------+
       |\                          | A space (a space follows   |
       |                           | the backslash)             |
       +---------------------------+----------------------------+
       |'                          | Single quote               |
       +---------------------------+----------------------------+
       |                           | Double quote               |
       +---------------------------+----------------------------+
       |T}:T{ A literal  backslash |                            |
       |character                  |                            |
       +---------------------------+----------------------------+
       |\fIx                       |                            |
       |                           |        x, for any "x" not  |
       |                           |        listed above        |
       +---------------------------+----------------------------+

       You can set the prompt in several ways:

       o   Use an environment variable.  You can set the MYSQL_PS1 environment
           variable to a prompt string. For example:

               export MYSQL_PS1="(\u@\h) [\d]> "

       o   Use a command-line option.  You can set the --prompt option on the
           command line to mysql. For example:

               $> mysql --prompt="(\u@\h) [\d]> "
               (user@host) [database]>

       o   Use an option file.  You can set the prompt option in the [mysql]
           group of any MySQL option file, such as /etc/my.cnf or the .my.cnf
           file in your home directory. For example:

               [mysql]
               prompt=(\\u@\\h) [\\d]>\\_

           In this example, note that the backslashes are doubled. If you set
           the prompt using the prompt option in an option file, it is
           advisable to double the backslashes when using the special prompt
           options. There is some overlap in the set of permissible prompt
           options and the set of special escape sequences that are recognized
           in option files. (The rules for escape sequences in option files
           are listed in Section 4.2.2.2, "Using Option Files".) The overlap
           may cause you problems if you use single backslashes. For example,
           \s is interpreted as a space rather than as the current seconds
           value. The following example shows how to define a prompt within an
           option file to include the current time in hh:mm:ss> format:

               [mysql]
               prompt="\\r:\\m:\\s> "

       o   Set the prompt interactively.  You can change your prompt
           interactively by using the prompt (or \R) command. For example:

               mysql> prompt (\u@\h) [\d]>\_
               PROMPT set to '(\u@\h) [\d]>\_'
               (user@host) [database]>
               (user@host) [database]> prompt
               Returning to default PROMPT of mysql>
               mysql>

MYSQL CLIENT LOGGING
       The mysql client can do these types of logging for statements executed
       interactively:

       o   On Unix, mysql writes the statements to a history file. By default,
           this file is named .mysql_history in your home directory. To
           specify a different file, set the value of the MYSQL_HISTFILE
           environment variable.

       o   On all platforms, if the --syslog option is given, mysql writes the
           statements to the system logging facility. On Unix, this is syslog;
           on Windows, it is the Windows Event Log. The destination where
           logged messages appear is system dependent. On Linux, the
           destination is often the /var/log/messages file.

       The following discussion describes characteristics that apply to all
       logging types and provides information specific to each logging type.

       o   How Logging Occurs

       o   Controlling the History File

       o   syslog Logging Characteristics
       How Logging Occurs

       For each enabled logging destination, statement logging occurs as
       follows:

       o   Statements are logged only when executed interactively. Statements
           are noninteractive, for example, when read from a file or a pipe.
           It is also possible to suppress statement logging by using the
           --batch or --execute option.

       o   Statements are ignored and not logged if they match any pattern in
           the "ignore" list. This list is described later.

       o   mysql logs each nonignored, nonempty statement line individually.

       o   If a nonignored statement spans multiple lines (not including the
           terminating delimiter), mysql concatenates the lines to form the
           complete statement, maps newlines to spaces, and logs the result,
           plus a delimiter.

       Consequently, an input statement that spans multiple lines can be
       logged twice. Consider this input:

           mysql> SELECT
               -> 'Today is'
               -> ,
               -> CURDATE()
               -> ;

       In this case, mysql logs the "SELECT", "'Today is'", ",", "CURDATE()",
       and ";" lines as it reads them. It also logs the complete statement,
       after mapping SELECT\n'Today is'\n,\nCURDATE() to SELECT 'Today is' ,
       CURDATE(), plus a delimiter. Thus, these lines appear in logged output:

           SELECT
           'Today is'
           ,
           CURDATE()
           ;
           SELECT 'Today is' , CURDATE();

       mysql ignores for logging purposes statements that match any pattern in
       the "ignore" list. By default, the pattern list is
       "*IDENTIFIED*:*PASSWORD*", to ignore statements that refer to
       passwords. Pattern matching is not case-sensitive. Within patterns, two
       characters are special:

       o   ?  matches any single character.

       o   * matches any sequence of zero or more characters.

       To specify additional patterns, use the --histignore option or set the
       MYSQL_HISTIGNORE environment variable. (If both are specified, the
       option value takes precedence.) The value should be a list of one or
       more colon-separated patterns, which are appended to the default
       pattern list.

       Patterns specified on the command line might need to be quoted or
       escaped to prevent your command interpreter from treating them
       specially. For example, to suppress logging for UPDATE and DELETE
       statements in addition to statements that refer to passwords, invoke
       mysql like this:

           mysql --histignore="*UPDATE*:*DELETE*"

       Controlling the History File

       The .mysql_history file should be protected with a restrictive access
       mode because sensitive information might be written to it, such as the
       text of SQL statements that contain passwords. See Section 6.1.2.1,
       "End-User Guidelines for Password Security". Statements in the file are
       accessible from the mysql client when the up-arrow key is used to
       recall the history. See Disabling Interactive History.

       If you do not want to maintain a history file, first remove
       .mysql_history if it exists. Then use either of the following
       techniques to prevent it from being created again:

       o   Set the MYSQL_HISTFILE environment variable to /dev/null. To cause
           this setting to take effect each time you log in, put it in one of
           your shell's startup files.

       o   Create .mysql_history as a symbolic link to /dev/null; this need be
           done only once:

               ln -s /dev/null $HOME/.mysql_history
       syslog Logging Characteristics

       If the --syslog option is given, mysql writes interactive statements to
       the system logging facility. Message logging has the following
       characteristics.

       Logging occurs at the "information" level. This corresponds to the
       LOG_INFO priority for syslog on Unix/Linux syslog capability and to
       EVENTLOG_INFORMATION_TYPE for the Windows Event Log. Consult your
       system documentation for configuration of your logging capability.

       Message size is limited to 1024 bytes.

       Messages consist of the identifier MysqlClient followed by these
       values:

       o   SYSTEM_USER

           The operating system user name (login name) or -- if the user is
           unknown.

       o   MYSQL_USER

           The MySQL user name (specified with the --user option) or -- if the
           user is unknown.

       o   CONNECTION_ID:

           The client connection identifier. This is the same as the
           CONNECTION_ID() function value within the session.

       o   DB_SERVER

           The server host or -- if the host is unknown.

       o   DB

           The default database or -- if no database has been selected.

       o   QUERY

           The text of the logged statement.

       Here is a sample of output generated on Linux by using --syslog. This
       output is formatted for readability; each logged message actually takes
       a single line.

           Mar  7 12:39:25 myhost MysqlClient[20824]:
             SYSTEM_USER:'oscar', MYSQL_USER:'my_oscar', CONNECTION_ID:23,
             DB_SERVER:'127.0.0.1', DB:'--', QUERY:'USE test;'
           Mar  7 12:39:28 myhost MysqlClient[20824]:
             SYSTEM_USER:'oscar', MYSQL_USER:'my_oscar', CONNECTION_ID:23,
             DB_SERVER:'127.0.0.1', DB:'test', QUERY:'SHOW TABLES;'

MYSQL CLIENT SERVER-SIDE HELP
           mysql> help search_string

       If you provide an argument to the help command, mysql uses it as a
       search string to access server-side help from the contents of the MySQL
       Reference Manual. The proper operation of this command requires that
       the help tables in the mysql database be initialized with help topic
       information (see Section 5.1.14, "Server-Side Help Support").

       If there is no match for the search string, the search fails:

           mysql> help me
           Nothing found
           Please try to run 'help contents' for a list of all accessible topics

       Use help contents to see a list of the help categories:

           mysql> help contents
           You asked for help about help category: "Contents"
           For more information, type 'help <item>', where <item> is one of the
           following categories:
              Account Management
              Administration
              Data Definition
              Data Manipulation
              Data Types
              Functions
              Functions and Modifiers for Use with GROUP BY
              Geographic Features
              Language Structure
              Plugins
              Storage Engines
              Stored Routines
              Table Maintenance
              Transactions
              Triggers

       If the search string matches multiple items, mysql shows a list of
       matching topics:

           mysql> help logs
           Many help items for your request exist.
           To make a more specific request, please type 'help <item>',
           where <item> is one of the following topics:
              SHOW
              SHOW BINARY LOGS
              SHOW ENGINE
              SHOW LOGS

       Use a topic as the search string to see the help entry for that topic:

           mysql> help show binary logs
           Name: 'SHOW BINARY LOGS'
           Description:
           Syntax:
           SHOW BINARY LOGS
           SHOW MASTER LOGS
           Lists the binary log files on the server. This statement is used as
           part of the procedure described in [purge-binary-logs], that shows how
           to determine which logs can be purged.
           mysql> SHOW BINARY LOGS;
           +---------------+-----------+
           | Log_name      | File_size |
           +---------------+-----------+
           | binlog.000015 |    724935 |
           | binlog.000016 |    733481 |
           +---------------+-----------+

       The search string can contain the wildcard characters % and _. These
       have the same meaning as for pattern-matching operations performed with
       the LIKE operator. For example, HELP rep% returns a list of topics that
       begin with rep:

           mysql> HELP rep%
           Many help items for your request exist.
           To make a more specific request, please type 'help <item>',
           where <item> is one of the following
           topics:
              REPAIR TABLE
              REPEAT FUNCTION
              REPEAT LOOP
              REPLACE
              REPLACE FUNCTION

EXECUTING SQL STATEMENTS FROM A TEXT FILE
       The mysql client typically is used interactively, like this:

           mysql db_name

       However, it is also possible to put your SQL statements in a file and
       then tell mysql to read its input from that file. To do so, create a
       text file text_file that contains the statements you wish to execute.
       Then invoke mysql as shown here:

           mysql db_name < text_file

       If you place a USE db_name statement as the first statement in the
       file, it is unnecessary to specify the database name on the command
       line:

           mysql < text_file

       If you are already running mysql, you can execute an SQL script file
       using the source command or \.  command:

           mysql> source file_name
           mysql> \. file_name

       Sometimes you may want your script to display progress information to
       the user. For this you can insert statements like this:

           SELECT '<info_to_display>' AS ' ';

       The statement shown outputs <info_to_display>.

       You can also invoke mysql with the --verbose option, which causes each
       statement to be displayed before the result that it produces.

       mysql ignores Unicode byte order mark (BOM) characters at the beginning
       of input files. Previously, it read them and sent them to the server,
       resulting in a syntax error. Presence of a BOM does not cause mysql to
       change its default character set. To do that, invoke mysql with an
       option such as --default-character-set=utf8.

       For more information about batch mode, see Section 3.5, "Using mysql in
       Batch Mode".

MYSQL CLIENT TIPS
       This section provides information about techniques for more effective
       use of mysql and about mysql operational behavior.

       o   Input-Line Editing

       o   Disabling Interactive History

       o   Unicode Support on Windows

       o   Displaying Query Results Vertically

       o   Using Safe-Updates Mode (--safe-updates)

       o   Disabling mysql Auto-Reconnect

       o   mysql Client Parser Versus Server Parser
       Input-Line Editing

       mysql supports input-line editing, which enables you to modify the
       current input line in place or recall previous input lines. For
       example, the left-arrow and right-arrow keys move horizontally within
       the current input line, and the up-arrow and down-arrow keys move up
       and down through the set of previously entered lines.  Backspace
       deletes the character before the cursor and typing new characters
       enters them at the cursor position. To enter the line, press Enter.

       On Windows, the editing key sequences are the same as supported for
       command editing in console windows. On Unix, the key sequences depend
       on the input library used to build mysql (for example, the libedit or
       readline library).

       Documentation for the libedit and readline libraries is available
       online. To change the set of key sequences permitted by a given input
       library, define key bindings in the library startup file. This is a
       file in your home directory: .editrc for libedit and .inputrc for
       readline.

       For example, in libedit, Control+W deletes everything before the
       current cursor position and Control+U deletes the entire line. In
       readline, Control+W deletes the word before the cursor and Control+U
       deletes everything before the current cursor position. If mysql was
       built using libedit, a user who prefers the readline behavior for these
       two keys can put the following lines in the .editrc file (creating the
       file if necessary):

           bind "^W" ed-delete-prev-word
           bind "^U" vi-kill-line-prev

       To see the current set of key bindings, temporarily put a line that
       says only bind at the end of .editrc. Then mysql shows the bindings
       when it starts.  Disabling Interactive History

       The up-arrow key enables you to recall input lines from current and
       previous sessions. In cases where a console is shared, this behavior
       may be unsuitable.  mysql supports disabling the interactive history
       partially or fully, depending on the host platform.

       On Windows, the history is stored in memory.  Alt+F7 deletes all input
       lines stored in memory for the current history buffer. It also deletes
       the list of sequential numbers in front of the input lines displayed
       with F7 and recalled (by number) with F9. New input lines entered after
       you press Alt+F7 repopulate the current history buffer. Clearing the
       buffer does not prevent logging to the Windows Event Viewer, if the
       --syslog option was used to start mysql. Closing the console window
       also clears the current history buffer.

       To disable interactive history on Unix, first delete the .mysql_history
       file, if it exists (previous entries are recalled otherwise). Then
       start mysql with the --histignore="*" option to ignore all new input
       lines. To re-enable the recall (and logging) behavior, restart mysql
       without the option.

       If you prevent the .mysql_history file from being created (see
       Controlling the History File) and use --histignore="*" to start the
       mysql client, the interactive history recall facility is disabled
       fully. Alternatively, if you omit the --histignore option, you can
       recall the input lines entered during the current session.  Unicode
       Support on Windows

       Windows provides APIs based on UTF-16LE for reading from and writing to
       the console; the mysql client for Windows is able to use these APIs.
       The Windows installer creates an item in the MySQL menu named MySQL
       command line client - Unicode. This item invokes the mysql client with
       properties set to communicate through the console to the MySQL server
       using Unicode.

       To take advantage of this support manually, run mysql within a console
       that uses a compatible Unicode font and set the default character set
       to a Unicode character set that is supported for communication with the
       server:

        1. Open a console window.

        2. Go to the console window properties, select the font tab, and
           choose Lucida Console or some other compatible Unicode font. This
           is necessary because console windows start by default using a DOS
           raster font that is inadequate for Unicode.

        3. Execute mysql.exe with the --default-character-set=utf8 (or
           utf8mb4) option. This option is necessary because utf16le is one of
           the character sets that cannot be used as the client character set.
           See the section called "Impermissible Client Character Sets".

       With those changes, mysql can use the Windows APIs to communicate with
       the console using UTF-16LE, and communicate with the server using
       UTF-8. (The menu item mentioned previously sets the font and character
       set as just described.)

       To avoid those steps each time you run mysql, you can create a shortcut
       that invokes mysql.exe. The shortcut should set the console font to
       Lucida Console or some other compatible Unicode font, and pass the
       --default-character-set=utf8 (or utf8mb4) option to mysql.exe.

       Alternatively, create a shortcut that only sets the console font, and
       set the character set in the [mysql] group of your my.ini file:

           [mysql]
           default-character-set=utf8

       Displaying Query Results Vertically

       Some query results are much more readable when displayed vertically,
       instead of in the usual horizontal table format. Queries can be
       displayed vertically by terminating the query with \G instead of a
       semicolon. For example, longer text values that include newlines often
       are much easier to read with vertical output:

           mysql> SELECT * FROM mails WHERE LENGTH(txt) < 300 LIMIT 300,1\G
           *************************** 1. row ***************************
             msg_nro: 3068
                date: 2000-03-01 23:29:50
           time_zone: +0200
           mail_from: Jones
               reply: jones@example.com
             mail_to: "John Smith" <smith@example.com>
                 sbj: UTF-8
                 txt: >>>>> "John" == John Smith writes:
           John> Hi.  I think this is a good idea.  Is anyone familiar
           John> with UTF-8 or Unicode? Otherwise, I'll put this on my
           John> TODO list and see what happens.
           Yes, please do that.
           Regards,
           Jones
                file: inbox-jani-1
                hash: 190402944
           1 row in set (0.09 sec)

       Using Safe-Updates Mode (--safe-updates)

       For beginners, a useful startup option is --safe-updates (or
       --i-am-a-dummy, which has the same effect). Safe-updates mode is
       helpful for cases when you might have issued an UPDATE or DELETE
       statement but forgotten the WHERE clause indicating which rows to
       modify. Normally, such statements update or delete all rows in the
       table. With --safe-updates, you can modify rows only by specifying the
       key values that identify them, or a LIMIT clause, or both. This helps
       prevent accidents. Safe-updates mode also restricts SELECT statements
       that produce (or are estimated to produce) very large result sets.

       The --safe-updates option causes mysql to execute the following
       statement when it connects to the MySQL server, to set the session
       values of the sql_safe_updates, sql_select_limit, and max_join_size
       system variables:

           SET sql_safe_updates=1, sql_select_limit=1000, max_join_size=1000000;

       The SET statement affects statement processing as follows:

       o   Enabling sql_safe_updates causes UPDATE and DELETE statements to
           produce an error if they do not specify a key constraint in the
           WHERE clause, or provide a LIMIT clause, or both. For example:

               UPDATE tbl_name SET not_key_column=val WHERE key_column=val;
               UPDATE tbl_name SET not_key_column=val LIMIT 1;

       o   Setting sql_select_limit to 1,000 causes the server to limit all
           SELECT result sets to 1,000 rows unless the statement includes a
           LIMIT clause.

       o   Setting max_join_size to 1,000,000 causes multiple-table SELECT
           statements to produce an error if the server estimates it must
           examine more than 1,000,000 row combinations.

       To specify result set limits different from 1,000 and 1,000,000, you
       can override the defaults by using the --select-limit and
       --max-join-size options when you invoke mysql:

           mysql --safe-updates --select-limit=500 --max-join-size=10000

       It is possible for UPDATE and DELETE statements to produce an error in
       safe-updates mode even with a key specified in the WHERE clause, if the
       optimizer decides not to use the index on the key column:

       o   Range access on the index cannot be used if memory usage exceeds
           that permitted by the range_optimizer_max_mem_size system variable.
           The optimizer then falls back to a table scan. See the section
           called "Limiting Memory Use for Range Optimization".

       o   If key comparisons require type conversion, the index may not be
           used (see Section 8.3.1, "How MySQL Uses Indexes"). Suppose that an
           indexed string column c1 is compared to a numeric value using WHERE
           c1 = 2222. For such comparisons, the string value is converted to a
           number and the operands are compared numerically (see Section 12.3,
           "Type Conversion in Expression Evaluation"), preventing use of the
           index. If safe-updates mode is enabled, an error occurs.

       As of MySQL 5.7.25, safe-updates mode also includes these behaviors:

       o   EXPLAIN with UPDATE and DELETE statements does not produce
           safe-updates errors. This enables use of EXPLAIN plus SHOW WARNINGS
           to see why an index is not used, which can be helpful in cases such
           as when a range_optimizer_max_mem_size violation or type conversion
           occurs and the optimizer does not use an index even though a key
           column was specified in the WHERE clause.

       o   When a safe-updates error occurs, the error message includes the
           first diagnostic that was produced, to provide information about
           the reason for failure. For example, the message may indicate that
           the range_optimizer_max_mem_size value was exceeded or type
           conversion occurred, either of which can preclude use of an index.

       o   For multiple-table deletes and updates, an error is produced with
           safe updates enabled only if any target table uses a table scan.
       Disabling mysql Auto-Reconnect

       If the mysql client loses its connection to the server while sending a
       statement, it immediately and automatically tries to reconnect once to
       the server and send the statement again. However, even if mysql
       succeeds in reconnecting, your first connection has ended and all your
       previous session objects and settings are lost: temporary tables, the
       autocommit mode, and user-defined and session variables. Also, any
       current transaction rolls back. This behavior may be dangerous for you,
       as in the following example where the server was shut down and
       restarted between the first and second statements without you knowing
       it:

           mysql> SET @a=1;
           Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.05 sec)
           mysql> INSERT INTO t VALUES(@a);
           ERROR 2006: MySQL server has gone away
           No connection. Trying to reconnect...
           Connection id:    1
           Current database: test
           Query OK, 1 row affected (1.30 sec)
           mysql> SELECT * FROM t;
           +------+
           | a    |
           +------+
           | NULL |
           +------+
           1 row in set (0.05 sec)

       The @a user variable has been lost with the connection, and after the
       reconnection it is undefined. If it is important to have mysql
       terminate with an error if the connection has been lost, you can start
       the mysql client with the --skip-reconnect option.

       For more information about auto-reconnect and its effect on state
       information when a reconnection occurs, see Automatic Reconnection
       Control[5].  mysql Client Parser Versus Server Parser

       The mysql client uses a parser on the client side that is not a
       duplicate of the complete parser used by the mysqld server on the
       server side. This can lead to differences in treatment of certain
       constructs. Examples:

       o   The server parser treats strings delimited by " characters as
           identifiers rather than as plain strings if the ANSI_QUOTES SQL
           mode is enabled.

           The mysql client parser does not take the ANSI_QUOTES SQL mode into
           account. It treats strings delimited by ", ', and ` characters the
           same, regardless of whether ANSI_QUOTES is enabled.

       o   Within /*! ... */ comments, the mysql client parser interprets
           short-form mysql commands. The server parser does not interpret
           them because these commands have no meaning on the server side.

           If it is desirable for mysql not to interpret short-form commands
           within comments, a partial workaround is to use the --binary-mode
           option, which causes all mysql commands to be disabled except \C
           and \d in noninteractive mode (for input piped to mysql or loaded
           using the source command).

COPYRIGHT
       Copyright (C) 1997, 2021, Oracle and/or its affiliates.

       This documentation is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
       modify it only under the terms of the GNU General Public License as
       published by the Free Software Foundation; version 2 of the License.

       This documentation is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
       but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
       MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU
       General Public License for more details.

       You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along
       with the program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc.,
       51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA or see
       http://www.gnu.org/licenses/.

NOTES
        1. MySQL Shell 8.0
           https://dev.mysql.com/doc/mysql-shell/8.0/en/

        2. C API Basic Data Structures
           https://dev.mysql.com/doc/c-api/5.7/en/c-api-data-structures.html

        3. Multiple Statement Execution Support
           https://dev.mysql.com/doc/c-api/5.7/en/c-api-multiple-queries.html

        4. mysql_change_user()
           https://dev.mysql.com/doc/c-api/5.7/en/mysql-change-user.html

        5. Automatic Reconnection Control
           https://dev.mysql.com/doc/c-api/5.7/en/c-api-auto-reconnect.html

SEE ALSO
       For more information, please refer to the MySQL Reference Manual, which
       may already be installed locally and which is also available online at
       http://dev.mysql.com/doc/.

AUTHOR
       Oracle Corporation (http://dev.mysql.com/).

MySQL 5.7                         11/29/2021                          MYSQL(1)
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