MAKEINDEX(1)                       TeX Live                       MAKEINDEX(1)

       makeindex - a general purpose, formatter-independent index processor

       makeindex  [-c]  [-g]  [-i] [-l] [-o ind] [-p num] [-q] [-r] [-s sfile]
       [-t log] [-L] [-T] [idx0 idx1 idx2...]

       The program makeindex is a general purpose hierarchical  index  genera-
       tor;  it accepts one or more input files (often produced by a text for-
       matter such as TeX (tex(1L)) or troff(1), sorts the entries,  and  pro-
       duces  an output file which can be formatted.  The index can have up to
       three levels (0, 1, and 2) of subitem nesting.  The way in which  words
       are  flagged  for  indexing within the main document is specific to the
       formatter used; makeindex does not automate the  process  of  selecting
       these  words.   As  the  output index is hierarchical, makeindex can be
       considered complementary to the awk(1)-based make.index(1L)  system  of
       Bentley and Kernighan, which is specific to troff(1), generates non-hi-
       erarchical indices, and employs a much simpler  syntax  for  indicating
       index  entries.   For  illustration  of use with troff and TeX, see the
       section EXAMPLES below.

       The formats of the input and output files  are  specified  in  a  style
       file;  by  default, input is assumed to be a .idx file, as generated by

       Unless specified explicitly, the base name  of  the  first  input  file
       (idx0)  is  used to determine the names of other files.  For each input
       file name specified, a file of that name is sought.  If  this  file  is
       not found and the file name has no extension, the extension .idx is ap-
       pended.  If no file with this name is found, makeindex aborts.

       If exactly one input file was given and  no  explicit  style  file  was
       specified  using  -s,  makeindex uses a file with the extension .mst as
       default style file (when present).

       For important notes on how to select index keywords, see  the  document
       by Lamport cited below.  As an issue separate from selecting index key-
       words, a systematic mechanism for placing index terms in a document  is
       suggested in Index Preparation and Processing, a paper cited below.

       -c        Compress  intermediate  blanks (ignoring leading and trailing
                 blanks and tabs).  By default, blanks in the  index  key  are

       -g        Employ  German  word  ordering  in  the index, in accord with
                 rules set forth in DIN 5007.  By default, makeindex employs a
                 word  ordering  in which precedence is: symbols, numbers, up-
                 percase letters, lowercase letters.  The sequence  in  German
                 word  ordering is: symbols, lowercase letters, uppercase let-
                 ters, numbers.  Additionally, this option  enables  makeindex
                 to  recognize  the German TeX-commands {"a, "o, "u and "s} as
                 {ae, oe, ue and ss} during the sorting of the  entries.   The
                 quote  character must be redefined in a style file (for exam-
                 ple, redefine quote as '+').  If the quote character  is  not
                 redefined, makeindex will produce an error message and abort.

       -i        Take  input from stdin.  When this option is specified and -o
                 is not, output is written to stdout.

       -l        Letter ordering; by default, word ordering is used  (see  the
                 ORDERING section).

       -o ind    Employ  ind  as  the output index file.  By default, the file
                 name is created by appending the extension .ind to  the  base
                 name of the first input file (idx0).

       -p num    Set  the  starting page number of the output index file to be
                 num (useful when the index file  is  to  be  formatted  sepa-
                 rately).   The  argument  num  may be numerical or one of the

                 any       The starting page is the last  source  page  number
                           plus 1.

                 odd       The  starting  page is the first odd page following
                           the last source page number.

                 even      The starting page is the first even page  following
                           the last source page number.

                 The last source page is obtained by searching backward in the
                 log file for the first instance of a number  included  within
                 paired  square brackets ([...]).  If a page number is missing
                 or the log file is not found, no attempt will be made to  set
                 the starting page number.  The source log file name is deter-
                 mined by appending the extension .log to the base name of the
                 first input file (idx0).

       -q        Quiet mode; send no messages to stderr.  By default, progress
                 and error messages are sent to stderr as well as to the tran-
                 script file.

       -r        Disable  implicit  page  range formation; page ranges must be
                 created by using explicit range operators;  see  SPECIAL  EF-
                 FECTS  below.  By default, three or more successive pages are
                 automatically abbreviated as a range (e.g. 1--5).

       -s sty    Employ sty as the style file (no default).   The  environment
                 variable  INDEXSTYLE  defines  the  path where the style file
                 should be found.

       -t log    Employ log as the transcript file.  By default, the file name
                 is  created  by appending the extension .ilg to the base name
                 of the first input file (idx0).

       -L        sort based on locale settings. Not available on all systems.

       -T        special support for Thai documents. Not available on all sys-

       The  style  file  informs  makeindex about the format of the .idx input
       files and the intended format of the final output file; examples appear
       below.   This file can reside anywhere in the path defined by the envi-
       ronment variable INDEXSTYLE.  The style file contains a list of <speci-
       fier,  attribute>  pairs.  There are two types of specifiers: input and
       output.  Pairs do not have to appear in any particular order.   A  line
       begun by `%' is a comment.  In the following list of specifiers and ar-
       guments, <string> is an arbitrary string  delimited  by  double  quotes
       ("..."),  <char>  is a single letter embraced by single quotes ('...'),
       and <number> is  a  nonnegative  integer.   The  maximum  length  of  a
       <string>  is  2048.  A literal backslash or quote must be escaped (by a
       backslash).  Anything not specified in the style file will be  assigned
       a default value, which is shown at the head of the rightmost column.

       actual <char>            '@'
                                Symbol  indicating  that  the next entry is to
                                appear in the output file.

       arg_close <char>         '}'
                                Closing delimiter for the  index  entry  argu-

       arg_open <char>          '{'
                                Opening  delimiter  for  the index entry argu-

       encap <char>             '|'
                                Symbol indicating that the rest of  the  argu-
                                ment  list  is to be used as the encapsulating
                                command for the page number.

       escape <char>            '\\'
                                Symbol which escapes the following letter, un-
                                less  its  preceding  letter is escape.  Note:
                                quote is used to escape the letter which imme-
                                diately  follows  it, but if it is preceded by
                                escape, it is treated as a ordinary character.
                                These two symbols must be distinct.

       keyword <string>         "\\indexentry"
                                Command  which  tells makeindex that its argu-
                                ment is an index entry.

       level <char>             '!'
                                Delimiter denoting a new level of subitem.

       page_compositor <string> "-"
                                Delimiter separating parts of a composite page
                                number (see SPECIAL EFFECTS below).

       quote <char>             '"'
                                Note: quote is used to escape the letter which
                                immediately follows it, but if it is  preceded
                                by escape, it is treated as a ordinary charac-
                                ter.  These two symbols must be distinct.

       range_close <char>       ')'
                                Closing delimiter indicating the end of an ex-
                                plicit page range.

       range_open <char>        '('
                                Opening  delimiter indicating the beginning of
                                an explicit page range.

       preamble <string>        "\\begin{theindex}\n"
                                Preamble of output file.

       postamble <string>       "\n\n\\end{theindex}\n"
                                Postamble of output file.

       setpage_prefix <string>  "\n  \\setcounter{page}{"
                                Prefix of command which sets the starting page

       setpage_suffix <string>  "}\n"
                                Suffix of command which sets the starting page

       group_skip <string>      "\n\n  \\indexspace\n"
                                Vertical space to be  inserted  before  a  new
                                group begins.

       headings_flag <string>   0
                                Flag  indicating  treatment of new group head-
                                ers, which are  inserted  when  before  a  new
                                group  (symbols, numbers, and the 26 letters):
                                positive values cause an uppercase  letter  to
                                be  inserted  between  prefix  and suffix, and
                                negative values cause a lowercase letter to be
                                inserted  (default  is  0,  which  produces no

       heading_prefix <string>  ""
                                Letter heading prefix to be inserted before  a
                                new letter begins.

       heading_suffix <string>  ""
                                Letter  heading  suffix  to be inserted when a
                                new letter begins.

       symhead_positive <string>
                                Heading for symbols to be  inserted  if  head-
                                ings_flag is positive.

       symhead_negative <string>
                                Heading  for  symbols  to be inserted if head-
                                ings_flag is negative.

       numhead_positive <string>
                                Heading for numbers to be  inserted  if  head-
                                ings_flag is positive.

       numhead_negative <string>
                                Heading  for  numbers  to be inserted if head-
                                ings_flag is negative.

       item_0 <string>          "\n  \\item "
                                Command to be  inserted  between  two  primary
                                (level 0) items.

       item_1 <string>          "\n     \\subitem "
                                Command  to  be inserted between two secondary
                                (level 1) items.

       item_2 <string>          "\n       \\subsubitem "
                                Command to be inserted  between  two  level  2

       item_01  <string>        "\n    \\subitem "
                                Command  to be inserted between a level 0 item
                                and a level 1 item.

       item_x1 <string>         "\n    \\subitem "
                                Command to be inserted between a level 0  item
                                and  a  level  1  item, where the level 0 item
                                does not have associated page numbers.

       item_12 <string>         "\n    \\subsubitem "
                                Command to be inserted between a level 1  item
                                and a level 2 item.

       item_x2 <string>         "\n    \\subsubitem "
                                Command  to be inserted between a level 1 item
                                and a level 2 item, where  the  level  1  item
                                does not have associated page numbers.

       delim_0 <string>         ", "
                                Delimiter to be inserted between a level 0 key
                                and its first page number (default: comma fol-
                                lowed by a blank).

       delim_1 <string>         ", "
                                Delimiter to be inserted between a level 1 key
                                and its first page number (default: comma fol-
                                lowed by a blank).

       delim_2 <string>         ", "
                                Delimiter to be inserted between a level 2 key
                                and its first page number (default: comma fol-
                                lowed by a blank).

       delim_n <string>         ", "
                                Delimiter to be inserted between two page num-
                                bers for the same key in any  level  (default:
                                comma followed by a blank).

       delim_r <string>         "--"
                                Delimiter  to be inserted between the starting
                                and ending page numbers of a range.

       delim_t <string>         ""
                                Delimiter to be inserted at the end of a  page
                                list.  This delimiter has no effect on entries
                                which have no associated page list.

       encap_prefix <string>    "\\"
                                First part of prefix for the command which en-
                                capsulates the page number.

       encap_infix <string>     "{"
                                Second  part  of  prefix for the command which
                                encapsulates the page number.

       encap_suffix <string>    "}".
                                Suffix for the command which encapsulates  the
                                page number.

       page_precedence <string> "rnaRA".
                                Page type precedence order.  The default spec-
                                ifies: lowercase roman, numeric/arabic, lower-
                                case  alphabetic,  uppercase  roman, uppercase

       line_max <number>        72
                                Maximum length of a line in the output, beyond
                                which a line wraps.

       indent_space <string>    "\t\t"
                                Space  to  be  inserted  in front of a wrapped
                                line (default: two tabs).

       indent_length <number>   16
                                Length of indent_space (default:  16,  equiva-
                                lent to 2 tabs).

       suffix_2p <string>       ""
                                Delimiter  to  replace the range delimiter and
                                the second page number of  a  two  page  list.
                                When  present, it overrides delim_r.  Example:

       suffix_3p <string>       ""
                                Delimiter to replace the range  delimiter  and
                                the  second  page number of a three page list.
                                When present, it overrides  delim_r  and  suf-
                                fix_mp.  Example: "ff.".

       suffix_mp <string>       ""
                                Delimiter  to  replace the range delimiter and
                                the second page number of a multiple page list
                                (three  or more pages). When present, it over-
                                rides delim_r.  Example: "f.".

       The following example shows a style file called, which defines
       an  index  for  a book which can be formatted independently of the main


       Assuming that a particular book style requires the index  (as  well  as
       any chapters) to start from an odd page number, and that the input file
       is named foo.idx, the following command line produces  output  in  file

              makeindex  -s  -o footmp.ind  -p odd  foo

       Here  a  non-default  output  file name is used to avoid clobbering the
       output for the book itself (presumably foo.dvi, which would  have  been
       the default name for the index output file!).

       A  sample  control file for creating an index, which we will assume re-
       sides in the file

              keyword "IX:"
              ".\\\" start of index output
              \".\\\" enter two column mode
              .ps 9p
              .vs 11p
              .de I1
              .ti 0.25i
              .de I2
              .ti 0.5i
              postamble "\n.\\\" end of index output"
              setpage_prefix "\ % "
              setpage_suffix ""
              group_skip "\n.sp 1.0"
              headings_flag 1
              heading_prefix "\n.IS\n"
              heading_suffix "\n.IE"
              item_0 "\\n"
              item_1 "\n.I1\n"
              item_2 "\n.I2\n"
              item_01 "\n.I1\n"
              item_x1 "\n.I1\n"
              item_12 "\n.I2\n"
              item_x2 "\n.I2\n"
              delim_0 ", "
              delim_1 ", "
              delim_2 ", "
              delim_r "-"
              delim_t "."
              encap_prefix "\\fB"
              encap_infix ""
              encap_suffix "\\fP"
              indent_space ""
              indent_length 0

       The local macro package may require modification, as in this example of
       an  extension  to  the  -ms macros (note that at some sites, this macro
       should replace a pre-existing macro of the same name):

              .de IX
              .ie '\\n(.z'' .tm IX: \\$1 \\$2 \\$3 \\$4 \\$5 \\$6 \\$7 \\$8 \\$9 {\\n(PN}
              .el \\!.IX \\$1 \\$2 \\$3 \\$4 \\$5 \\$6 \\$7 \\$8 \\$9 {\\n(PN}

       (note that the string {\\n(PN} is separated from the rest of  the  line
       by a tab.  If your local macro package does not contain this extension,
       just include those lines at the beginning of your file.  Here is a sim-
       ple troff(1) input file, which we will assume is named sample.txt:

              This is a sample file to test the \fImakeindex\fP(1L)
              program, and see
              .IX {indexing!programs!C language}
              .IX {makeindex@\fImakeindex\fP(1L)}
              .IX {Knuth}
              .IX {typesetting!computer-aided}
              how well it functions in the \fItroff\fP(1) environment.

       Note  that  index  entries are indicated by the .IX macro, which causes
       the following text to be written to stdout along with the current  page

       To create an input file for makeindex, in the Bourne shell environment,
       do the equivalent at your site of the command:

       psroff -ms -Tpsc -t sample.txt > /dev/null 2> sample.tmp

       Some sites will require ditroff instead of psroff.  To filter  out  any
       genuine error messages, invoke grep(1):

              grep '^IX: ' sample.tmp > sample.idx

       With  UCSF  Enhanced  troff/TRANSCRIPT, the -I option of psroff(1L) can
       produce both formatter output and an index file:

              psroff -ms -I sample.inp -Tpsc sample.txt

       If it is wished to suppress the formatter output:

              psroff -ms -I sample.inp -Tpsc -t sample.txt > /dev/null

       Any of the above procedures leaves the  input  for  makeindex  in  sam-
       ple.inp.  The next step is to invoke makeindex:

              makeindex -s sample.idx

       This leaves troff(1)-ready output in the file sample.ind.

       By default, makeindex assumes word ordering; if the -l option is in ef-
       fect, letter ordering is used.  In word ordering, a blank precedes  any
       letter  in  the alphabet, whereas in letter ordering, it does not count
       at all.  This is illustrated by the following example:

              word order                      letter order
              sea lion                        seal
              seal                            sea lion

       Numbers are always sorted in numeric order.  For instance,

              9 (nine),  123
              10 (ten), see Derek, Bo

       Letters are first sorted without regard to case; when words are identi-
       cal, the uppercase version precedes its lowercase counterpart.

       A  special  symbol is defined here to be any character not appearing in
       the union of digits and the English  alphabetic  characters.   Patterns
       starting  with  special symbols precede numbers, which precede patterns
       starting with letters.  As a special case, a  string  starting  with  a
       digit  but mixed with non-digits is considered to be a pattern starting
       with a special character.

       Entries such as


       in the input file will be converted to

              \item alpha, 1
                 \subitem beta, 3
                    \subsubitem gamma, 10

       in the output index file.  Notice that the level symbol (`!')  is  used
       above to delimit hierarchical levels.

       It is possible to make an item appear in a designated form by using the
       actual (`@') operator.  For instance,

              \indexentry{alpha@{\it alpha\/}}{1}

       will become

              \item {\it alpha\/},  1

       after processing.  The pattern preceding  `@'  is  used  as  sort  key,
       whereas  the one following it is written to the output file.  Note that
       two appearances of the same key, one with and one  without  the  actual
       operator, are regarded as distinct entries.

       The item, subitem, and subsubitem fields may have individual sort keys:

              \indexentry{aa@{\it aa\/}!bb@{\it bb\/}!cc@{\it cc\/}}{1}

       This will be converted to

              \item {\it aa}, 1
                 \subitem {\it bb}, 3
                    \subsubitem {\it cc}, 10

       It  is  possible to encapsulate a page number with a designated command
       using the encap (`|') operator:


       will be converted to

              \item alpha, \bold{1}

       where, with a suitable definition for TeX, \bold{n} will expand to {\bf
       n}.   In this example, the three output attributes associated with page
       encapsulation encap_prefix, encap_infix, and  encap_suffix,  correspond
       to  backslash,  left brace, and right brace, respectively.  This mecha-
       nism allows page numbers to be set in different  fonts.   For  example,
       the  page where the definition of a keyword appears can be in one font,
       the location of a primary example can be in another font, and other ap-
       pearances in yet a third font.

       The  encap  operator can also be used to create cross references in the


       will become

              \item alpha, \see{beta}{1}

       in the output file, where


       will expand to

              {\it see\/} beta

       Note that in a cross reference like this the page number disappears.

       A pair of encap concatenated with  range_open  (`|(')  and  range_close
       (`|)') creates an explicit page range:


       will become

              \item alpha, 1--5

       Intermediate  pages  indexed  by  the  same key will be merged into the
       range implicitly.  This is especially useful  when  an  entire  section
       about  a  particular  subject  is to be indexed, in which case only the
       range opening and closing operators need to be inserted at  the  begin-
       ning  and  end  of the section.  Explicit page range formation can also
       include an extra command to set the page range in a designated font:


       will become

              \item alpha, \bold{1--5}

       Several potential problems are worth mentioning.  First, entries like


       will be interpreted as

              \item alpha, \bold{3}, 1--5

       but with a warning message in the transcript about encountering an  in-
       consistent  page  encapsulator.  An explicit range beginning in a Roman
       page number and ending in Arabic is also considered an error.  In  this
       instance,  (if possible) the range is broken into two subranges, one in
       Roman and the other in Arabic.  For instance,


       will be turned into

              \item alpha, i--iv, 3--7

       with a warning message in the transcript file complaining about an  il-
       legal range formation.

       Every  special  symbol  mentioned in this section may be escaped by the
       quote operator (`"').  Thus


       will actually become

              \item alpha@beta,  1

       as a result of executing makeindex.  The  quoting  power  of  quote  is
       eliminated if it is immediately preceded by escape (`\').  For example,



              \item f\"ur, 1

       which  represents  an  umlaut-accented `u' to the TeX family of proces-

       A page number can be a composite of one or more fields separated by the
       delimiter  bound  to  page_compositor (`-'), e.g., II-12 for page 12 of
       Chapter II.  Page numbers may contain up to ten fields.

       Since version 2.11 of makeindex, the quote operator may quote any char-
       acter  in  the range 1 ... 255.   Character 0 is excluded because it is
       used internally in the makeindex source code as  a  string  terminator.
       With this change, sort keys can be created for all eight-bit characters
       except 0.  The sorting order is

              punctuation characters (in ASCII order),
              control characters (1 ... 31),
              space (32),
              letters (ignoring case),
              characters 127 ... 255.

       Here is an example showing the indexing of all printable ASCII  charac-
       ters  other  than  letters and digits, assuming the default TeX format.
       For convenience, the page number references are the corresponding ASCII
       ordinal values.

              \indexentry{" @"  (space)}{32}
              \indexentry{"!@"! (exclamation point)}{33}
              \indexentry{""@"" (quotation mark)}{34}
              \indexentry{"#@"\# (sharp sign)}{35}
              \indexentry{"$@"\$ (dollar sign)}{36}
              \indexentry{"%@"\% (percent sign)}{37}
              \indexentry{"&@"\& (ampersand)}{38}
              \indexentry{"<@"$<$ (left angle bracket)}{60}
              \indexentry{"=@"= (equals)}{61}
              \indexentry{">@"$>$ (right angle bracket)}{62}
              \indexentry{"?@"? (query)}{63}
              \indexentry{"@@"@ (at sign)}{64}
              \indexentry{"[@"[ (left square bracket)}{91}
              \indexentry{"\@"\verb=\= (backslash)}{92}
              \indexentry{"]@"] (right square bracket)}{93}
              \indexentry{"^@"\verb=^= (caret)}{94}
              \indexentry{"_@"\verb=_= (underscore)}{95}
              \indexentry{"`@"\verb=~= (grave accent)}{96}
              \indexentry{"{@"\"{ (left brace)}{123}
              \indexentry{"|@"\verb="|= (vertical bar)}{124}
              \indexentry{"}@"\"} (right brace)}{125}
              \indexentry{"~@"\verb=~= (tilde)}{126}

       Characters  in the actual fields following the `@' character which have
       special significance to TeX must be represented as  control  sequences,
       or  as math mode characters.  Note particularly how the entries for the
       at sign, left and right braces, and the vertical bar, are  coded.   The
       index file output by makeindex for this example looks like this:


                \item ! (exclamation point), 33
                \item " (quotation mark), 34
                \item \# (sharp sign), 35
                \item \$ (dollar sign), 36
                \item \% (percent sign), 37
                \item \& (ampersand), 38
                \item $<$ (left angle bracket), 60
                \item = (equals), 61
                \item $>$ (right angle bracket), 62
                \item ? (query), 63
                \item @ (at sign), 64
                \item [ (left square bracket), 91
                \item \verb=\= (backslash), 92
                \item ] (right square bracket), 93
                \item \verb=^= (caret), 94
                \item \verb=_= (underscore), 95
                \item \verb=~= (grave accent), 96
                \item \{ (left brace), 123
                \item \verb=|= (vertical bar), 124
                \item \} (right brace), 125
                \item \verb=~= (tilde), 126


                \item   (space), 32


       makeindex             executable file

                             TeX macro file used by makeindex

                             TeX macro file used by makeindex

       ditroff(1L), latex(1L), make.index (1L), qsort(3), tex(1L), troff(1L)

       UCSF  Enhanced  troff/TRANSCRIPT  --  An Overview, R. P. C. Rodgers and
       Conrad Huang, LSMB Technical Report 90-2, UCSF School of Pharmacy,  San
       Francisco, 1990.

       Index  Preparation and Processing, Pehong Chen and Michael A. Harrison,
       Software: Practice and Experience, 19(9), 897-915, September 1988.

       Automating Index Preparation, Pehong  Chen  and  Michael  A.  Harrison.
       Technical Report 87/347, Computer Science Division, University of Cali-
       fornia, Berkeley, 1987 (a LaTeX document supplied with makeindex).

       MakeIndex: An Index Processor for LaTeX, Leslie Lamport, February  1987
       (a LaTeX document supplied with makeindex).

       Tools  for  Printing  Indices,  Jon  L. Bentley and Brian W. Kernighan,
       Electronic Publishing -- Origination, Dissemination, and Design,  1(1),
       3-18,  June 1988 (also available as: Computing Science Technical Report
       No. 128, AT&T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ 07974, 1986).

       Pehong Chen, Chen & Harrison International Systems,  Inc.   Palo  Alto,
       California, USA.
       Manual  page  extensively  revised and corrected, and troff(1) examples
       created by Rick P. C. Rodgers, UCSF School of Pharmacy.

       Leslie Lamport contributed significantly to the  design  of  MakeIndex.
       Michael  Harrison  provided  valuable comments and suggestions.  Nelson
       Beebe improved on the portable version, and maintained the source  dis-
       tribution  for the TeX Users Group for many years.  Andreas Brosig con-
       tributed to the German word ordering.   The  modification  to  the  -ms
       macros  was  derived  from a method proposed by Ravi Sethi of AT&T Bell
       Laboratories.  The LOG and CONTRIB files in the makeindex  source  dis-
       tribution record other contributions.

       makeindex  is currently maintained as part of the TeX Live distribution
       (; please send bug reports to

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