IMAKE(1)                    General Commands Manual                   IMAKE(1)

       imake - C preprocessor interface to the make utility

       imake  [ -Ddefine ] [ -Idir ] [ -Udefine ] [ -Ttemplate ] [ -f filename
       ] [ -C filename ] [ -s filename ] [ -e ] [ -v ]

       Imake is used to generate Makefiles from a template, a set of cpp macro
       functions,  and  a  per-directory input file called an Imakefile.  This
       allows machine dependencies (such as compiler options,  alternate  com-
       mand  names,  and  special  make  rules)  to  be kept separate from the
       descriptions of the various items to be built.

       The following command line options may be passed to imake:

               This option is passed directly to cpp.  It is typically used to
               set  directory-specific  variables.   For example, the X Window
               System used this flag to set TOPDIR to the name of  the  direc-
               tory  containing the top of the core distribution and CURDIR to
               the name of the current directory, relative to the top.

               This option is passed directly to cpp.  It is typically used to
               indicate the directory in which the imake template and configu-
               ration files may be found.

               This option is passed directly to cpp.  It is typically used to
               unset variables when debugging imake configuration files.

               This  option  specifies  the  name  of the master template file
               (which is usually located in the directory specified  with  -I)
               used by cpp.  The default is Imake.tmpl.

       -f filename
               This option specifies the name of the per-directory input file.
               The default is Imakefile.

       -C filename
               This option specifies the name of the  .c  file  that  is  con-
               structed in the current directory.  The default is Imakefile.c.

       -s filename
               This  option specifies the name of the make description file to
               be generated but make should not be invoked.  If  the  filename
               is a dash (-), the output is written to stdout.  The default is
               to generate, but not execute, a Makefile.

       -e      This option indicates the imake should  execute  the  generated
               Makefile.  The default is to leave this to the user.

       -v      This  option  indicates that imake should print the cpp command
               line that it is using to generate the Makefile.

       Imake invokes cpp with any -I or -D flags passed on  the  command  line
       and passes the name of a file containing the following 3 lines:

                 #define IMAKE_TEMPLATE "Imake.tmpl"
                 #define INCLUDE_IMAKEFILE <Imakefile>
                 #include IMAKE_TEMPLATE

       where  Imake.tmpl and Imakefile may be overridden by the -T and -f com-
       mand options, respectively.

       The IMAKE_TEMPLATE typically reads in a file containing  machine-depen-
       dent  parameters (specified as cpp symbols), a site-specific parameters
       file, a file defining variables, a file containing cpp macro  functions
       for  generating  make  rules,  and  finally the Imakefile (specified by
       INCLUDE_IMAKEFILE) in the current directory.  The  Imakefile  uses  the
       macro  functions  to indicate what targets should be built; imake takes
       care of generating the appropriate rules.

       Imake configuration files contain two types of variables,  imake  vari-
       ables  and  make variables.  The imake variables are interpreted by cpp
       when imake is run.  By convention they are mixed case.  The make  vari-
       ables  are  written into the Makefile for later interpretation by make.
       By convention make variables are upper case.

       The rules file (usually named Imake.rules in the  configuration  direc-
       tory)  contains  a  variety  of cpp macro functions that are configured
       according to the current platform.  Imake replaces any  occurrences  of
       the  string  ``@@''  with  a newline to allow macros that generate more
       than one line of make rules.  For example, the macro

        #define      program_target(program, objlist)        @@\
       program:        objlist         @@\
               $(CC)  -o  $@  objlist  $(LDFLAGS)

       when called with program_target(foo, foo1.o  foo2.o) will expand to

       foo:    foo1.o  foo2.o
               $(CC)  -o  $@  foo1.o  foo2.o  $(LDFLAGS)

       Imake also replaces any occurrences of  the  word  ``XCOMM''  with  the
       character  ``#''  to  permit  placing  comments in the Makefile without
       causing ``invalid directive'' errors from the preprocessor.

       Some complex imake macros require generated  make  variables  local  to
       each  invocation  of  the  macro,  often because their value depends on
       parameters passed to the macro.  Such variables can be created by using
       an  imake  variable of the form XVARdefn, where n is a single digit.  A
       unique make variable will be substituted.   Later  occurrences  of  the
       variable  XVARusen will be replaced by the variable created by the cor-
       responding XVARdefn.

       On systems whose cpp reduces multiple  tabs  and  spaces  to  a  single
       space,  imake  attempts  to  put  back any necessary tabs (make is very
       picky about the difference between tabs and spaces).  For this  reason,
       colons (:) in command lines must be preceded by a backslash (\).

       The  X  Window  System  used  imake  extensively up through the X11R6.9
       release, for both full builds within the source tree and external soft-
       ware.   X  has  since  moved to GNU autoconf and automake for its build
       system in X11R7.0 and later releases, but  still  maintains  imake  for
       building  existing  external  software  programs that have not yet con-

       As mentioned above, two special variables, TOPDIR and CURDIR,  are  set
       to  make referencing files using relative path names easier.  For exam-
       ple, the following command is  generated  automatically  to  build  the
       Makefile in the directory lib/X/ (relative to the top of the sources):

            %  ../.././config/imake  -I../.././config  \
                 -DTOPDIR=../../.   -DCURDIR=./lib/X

       When building X programs outside the source tree, a special symbol Use-
       Installed is defined and TOPDIR and CURDIR are omitted.  If the config-
       uration  files have been properly installed, the script xmkmf(1) may be

       Here is a summary of the files read by imake as used by X.  The  inden-
       tation shows what files include what other files.
           Imake.tmpl  generic variables
               site.def        site-specific, BeforeVendorCF defined
               *.cf    machine-specific
                   *Lib.rules  shared library rules
               site.def        site-specific, AfterVendorCF defined
               Imake.rules     rules
               Project.tmpl    X-specific variables
                   *Lib.tmpl   shared library variables
                   Library.tmpl        library rules
                   Server.tmpl server rules
                   Threads.tmpl        multi-threaded rules

       Note  that  site.def gets included twice, once before the *.cf file and
       once after.  Although most  site  customizations  should  be  specified
       after  the  *.cf file, some, such as the choice of compiler, need to be
       specified before, because other variable settings may depend on them.

       The first time site.def is included,  the  variable  BeforeVendorCF  is
       defined,  and  the  second time, the variable AfterVendorCF is defined.
       All code in site.def should be inside an #ifdef for one of  these  sym-

              temporary input file for cpp

              temporary Makefile for -s

              temporary Imakefile if specified Imakefile uses # comments

              default C preprocessor

       make(1), xmkmf(1)

       Paul DuBois
              imake-Related         Software         and        Documentation,

       Paul DuBois
              Software Portability with imake, Second Edition, O'Reilly &  As-
              sociates, 1996.

       S. I. Feldman,
              Make -- A Program for Maintaining Computer Programs

       The  following  environment  variables may be set, however their use is
       not recommended as they introduce dependencies  that  are  not  readily
       apparent when imake is run:

            If  defined,  this  specifies a ``-I'' include argument to pass to
            the C preprocessor.  E.g., ``-I/usr/X11/config''.

            If defined, this should be a valid path to a preprocessor program.
            E.g.,  ``/usr/local/cpp''.   By  default,  imake will use cc -E or
            /usr/bin/cpp, depending on the OS specific configuration.

            If defined, this should be a valid path to a make program, such as
            ``/usr/local/make''.   By  default,  imake  will use whatever make
            program is found using execvp(3).  This variable is only  used  if
            the ``-e'' option is specified.

       Todd Brunhoff, Tektronix and MIT Project Athena; Jim Fulton, MIT X Con-

X Version 11                      imake 1.0.7                         IMAKE(1)
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