htpasswd  [ -c ] [ -i ] [ -m | -B | -d | -s | -p ] [ -C cost ] [ -D ] [
       -v ] passwdfile username

       htpasswd -b [ -c ] [ -m | -B | -d | -s | -p ] [ -C cost ] [ -D ] [ -v ]
       passwdfile username password

       htpasswd -n [ -i ] [ -m | -B | -d | -s | -p ] [ -C cost ] username

       htpasswd -nb [ -m | -B | -d | -s | -p ] [ -C cost ] username password

       htpasswd  is  used  to  create  and update the flat-files used to store
       usernames and password for  basic  authentication  of  HTTP  users.  If
       htpasswd  cannot  access a file, such as not being able to write to the
       output file or not being able to read the file in order to  update  it,
       it returns an error status and makes no changes.

       Resources  available  from  the Apache HTTP server can be restricted to
       just the users listed in the files created by  htpasswd.  This  program
       can  only  manage usernames and passwords stored in a flat-file. It can
       encrypt and display password information for use in other types of data
       stores, though. To use a DBM database see dbmmanage or htdbm.

       htpasswd encrypts passwords using either bcrypt, a version of MD5 modi-
       fied for Apache, SHA1, or the system's crypt() routine.  Files  managed
       by  htpasswd may contain a mixture of different encoding types of pass-
       words; some user records may have  bcrypt  or  MD5-encrypted  passwords
       while  others  in  the  same  file  may  have  passwords encrypted with

       This manual page only lists the command line arguments. For details  of
       the  directives necessary to configure user authentication in httpd see
       the Apache manual, which is part of the Apache distribution or  can  be
       found at

       -b     Use  batch  mode;  i.e.,  get the password from the command line
              rather than prompting for it. This option should  be  used  with
              extreme  care, since the password is clearly visible on the com-
              mand line. For script use see the -i option.

              bined with the -c option.

       -m     Use MD5 encryption for passwords. This  is  the  default  (since
              version 2.2.18).

       -B     Use  bcrypt  encryption for passwords. This is currently consid-
              ered to be very secure.

       -C     This flag is only allowed in combination with -B (bcrypt encryp-
              tion).  It sets the computing time used for the bcrypt algorithm
              (higher is more secure but slower, default: 5, valid: 4 to 31).

       -d     Use crypt() encryption for passwords. This is not  supported  by
              the  httpd  server on Windows and Netware. This algorithm limits
              the password length to 8 characters. This algorithm is  insecure
              by  today's standards. It used to be the default algorithm until
              version 2.2.17.

       -s     Use SHA encryption for passwords. Facilitates migration  from/to
              Netscape  servers  using  the  LDAP Directory Interchange Format
              (ldif). This algorithm is insecure by today's standards.

       -p     Use plaintext passwords. Though htpasswd will  support  creation
              on  all  platforms, the httpd daemon will only accept plain text
              passwords on Windows and Netware.

       -D     Delete user. If the username exists in  the  specified  htpasswd
              file, it will be deleted.

       -v     Verify  password.  Verify  that  the  given password matches the
              password of the user stored in the specified htpasswd file.

              Name of the file to contain the user name and password. If -c is
              given,  this  file  is  created if it does not already exist, or
              rewritten and truncated if it does exist.

              The username to create or update in passwdfile. If username does
              not exist in this file, an entry is added. If it does exist, the
              password is changed.

              The plaintext password to be encrypted and stored in  the  file.
              Only used with the -b flag.

       htpasswd  returns  a  zero status ("true") if the username and password
       have been successfully added or updated  in  the  passwdfile.  htpasswd
       returns 1 if it encounters some problem accessing files, 2 if there was
       a syntax problem with the command line, 3 if the password  was  entered
       interactively  and the verification entry didn't match, 4 if its opera-
       tion was interrupted, 5 if a value is  too  long  (username,  filename,
       MD5  algorithm.  If  the  file does not exist, htpasswd will do nothing
       except return an error.

             htpasswd -c /home/doe/public_html/.htpasswd jane

       Creates a new file and stores a record in it for user jane. The user is
       prompted  for  the  password. If the file exists and cannot be read, or
       cannot be written, it is not altered and htpasswd will display  a  mes-
       sage and return an error status.

             htpasswd -db /usr/web/.htpasswd-all jones Pwd4Steve

       Encrypts  the  password  from  the  command  line (Pwd4Steve) using the
       crypt() algorithm, and stores it in the specified file.

       Web password files such as those managed  by  htpasswd  should  not  be
       within the Web server's URI space -- that is, they should not be fetch-
       able with a browser.

       This program is not safe as a setuid executable. Do not make it setuid.

       The use of the -b option is discouraged, since  when  it  is  used  the
       unencrypted password appears on the command line.

       When using the crypt() algorithm, note that only the first 8 characters
       of the password are used to form the password. If the supplied password
       is longer, the extra characters will be silently discarded.

       The  SHA  encryption format does not use salting: for a given password,
       there is only one encrypted representation. The crypt() and MD5 formats
       permute  the representation by prepending a random salt string, to make
       dictionary attacks against the passwords more difficult.

       The SHA and crypt() formats are insecure by today's standards.

       On the Windows platform, passwords encrypted with htpasswd are  limited
       to  no  more  than  255  characters in length. Longer passwords will be
       truncated to 255 characters.
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