htpasswd



SYNOPSIS
       htpasswd [ -c ] [ -m ] [ -D ] passwdfile username


       htpasswd  -b  [  -c  ] [ -m | -d | -p | -s ] [ -D ] passwdfile username
       password


       htpasswd -n [ -m | -d | -s | -p ] username


       htpasswd -nb [ -m | -d | -s | -p ] username password



SUMMARY
       htpasswd is used to create and update  the  flat-files  used  to  store
       usernames  and  password  for  basic  authentication  of HTTP users. If
       htpasswd cannot access a file, such as not being able to write  to  the
       output  file  or not being able to read the file in order to update it,
       it returns an error status and makes no changes.


       Resources available from the Apache HTTP server can  be  restricted  to
       just  the  users  listed in the files created by htpasswd. This program
       can only manage usernames and passwords stored in a flat-file.  It  can
       encrypt and display password information for use in other types of data
       stores, though. To use a DBM database see dbmmanage.


       htpasswd encrypts passwords using either a version of MD5 modified  for
       Apache,  or the system's crypt() routine. Files managed by htpasswd may
       contain  both  types  of  passwords;  some  user   records   may   have
       MD5-encrypted  passwords  while  others in the same file may have pass-
       words encrypted with crypt().


       This manual page only lists the command line arguments. For details  of
       the  directives necessary to configure user authentication in httpd see
       the Apache manual, which is part of the Apache distribution or  can  be
       found at http://httpd.apache.org/.



OPTIONS
       -b     Use  batch  mode;  i.e.,  get the password from the command line
              rather than prompting for it. This option should  be  used  with
              extreme  care, since the password is clearly visible on the com-
              mand line.

       -c     Create the passwdfile.  If  passwdfile  already  exists,  it  is
              rewritten and truncated. This option cannot be combined with the
              the httpd server on Windows and Netware and TPF.

       -s     Use SHA encryption for passwords. Facilitates migration  from/to
              Netscape  servers  using  the  LDAP Directory Interchange Format
              (ldif).

       -p     Use plaintext passwords. Though htpasswd will  support  creation
              on  all  platforms, the httpd daemon will only accept plain text
              passwords on Windows, Netware and TPF.

       -D     Delete user. If the username exists in  the  specified  htpasswd
              file, it will be deleted.

       passwdfile
              Name of the file to contain the user name and password. If -c is
              given, this file is created if it does  not  already  exist,  or
              rewritten and truncated if it does exist.

       username
              The username to create or update in passwdfile. If username does
              not exist in this file, an entry is added. If it does exist, the
              password is changed.

       password
              The  plaintext  password to be encrypted and stored in the file.
              Only used with the -b flag.


EXIT STATUS
       htpasswd returns a zero status ("true") if the  username  and  password
       have  been  successfully  added  or updated in the passwdfile. htpasswd
       returns 1 if it encounters some problem accessing files, 2 if there was
       a  syntax  problem with the command line, 3 if the password was entered
       interactively and the verification entry didn't match, 4 if its  opera-
       tion  was  interrupted,  5  if a value is too long (username, filename,
       password, or final computed record), 6 if the username contains illegal
       characters  (see  the Restrictions section), and 7 if the file is not a
       valid password file.


EXAMPLES
             htpasswd /usr/local/etc/apache/.htpasswd-users jsmith



       Adds or modifies the password for user jsmith. The user is prompted for
       the  password. The password will be encrypted using the modified Apache
       MD5 algorithm. If the file does not exist,  htpasswd  will  do  nothing
       except return an error.


             htpasswd -c /home/doe/public_html/.htpasswd jane


       crypt() algorithm, and stores it in the specified file.


SECURITY CONSIDERATIONS
       Web  password  files  such  as  those managed by htpasswd should not be
       within the Web server's URI space -- that is, they should not be fetch-
       able with a browser.


       This program is not safe as a setuid executable. Do not make it setuid.


       The  use  of  the  -b  option is discouraged, since when it is used the
       unencrypted password appears on the command line.


       When using the crypt() algorithm, note that only the first 8 characters
       of the password are used to form the password. If the supplied password
       is longer, the extra characters will be silently discarded.


       The SHA encryption format does not use salting: for a  given  password,
       there is only one encrypted representation. The crypt() and MD5 formats
       permute the representation by prepending a random salt string, to  make
       dictionary attacks against the passwords more difficult.


RESTRICTIONS
       On the Windows and MPE platforms, passwords encrypted with htpasswd are
       limited to no more than 255 characters in length. Longer passwords will
       be truncated to 255 characters.


       The  MD5 algorithm used by htpasswd is specific to the Apache software;
       passwords encrypted using it will not be usable with other Web servers.


       Usernames are limited to 255 bytes and may not include the character :.




Apache HTTP Server                2011-06-19                       HTPASSWD(1)
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