DVIPS(1)                    General Commands Manual                   DVIPS(1)

       dvips - convert a TeX DVI file to PostScript

       dvips [OPTIONS] file[.dvi]

       THIS MAN PAGE IS OBSOLETE!  See the Texinfo documentation instead.  You
       can read it either in Emacs or with the standalone info  program  which
       comes  with  the  GNU  texinfo distribution as ftp.gnu.org:pub/gnu/tex-

       The program dvips takes a DVI file file[.dvi] produced by  TeX  (or  by
       some  other  processor  such as GFtoDVI) and converts it to PostScript,
       sending the output to a file or directly to a printer.   The  DVI  file
       may  be specified without the .dvi extension.  Fonts used may either be
       resident in the printer or defined as bitmaps in PK files, or  a  `vir-
       tual'  combination of both.  If the mktexpk program is installed, dvips
       will automatically invoke METAFONT to generate fonts that don't already

       For  more  information, see the Texinfo manual dvips.texi, which should
       be installed somewhere on your system, hopefully accessible through the
       standard Info tree.

       -a     Conserve  memory  by  making three passes over the .dvi file in-
              stead of two and only loading those  characters  actually  used.
              Generally  only useful on machines with a very limited amount of
              memory, like some PCs.

       -A     Print only odd pages (TeX pages, not sequence pages).

       -b num Generate num copies of each page, but duplicating the page  body
              rather  than using the #numcopies option.  This can be useful in
              conjunction with a header file setting  \bop-hook  to  do  color
              separations or other neat tricks.

       -B     Print only even pages (TeX pages, not sequence pages).

       -c num Generate num copies of every page.  Default is 1.  (For collated
              copies, see the -C option below.)

       -C num Create num copies, but collated (by replicating the data in  the
              PostScript  file).  Slower than the -c option, but easier on the
              hands, and faster than resubmitting  the  same  PostScript  file
              multiple times.

       -d num Set  the  debug flags.  This is intended only for emergencies or
              for unusual fact-finding expeditions; it will work only if dvips
              has been compiled with the DEBUG option.  If nonzero, prints ad-
              ditional information on standard error.   For  maximum  informa-
              tion,  you  can use `-1'.  See the Dvips Texinfo manual for more

       -D num Set the resolution in dpi (dots per inch) to num.  This  affects
              the  choice  of  bitmap fonts that are loaded and also the posi-
              tioning of letters in resident PostScript fonts. Must be between
              10  and  10000.   This  affects both the horizontal and vertical
              resolution.  If a high resolution (something  greater  than  400
              dpi, say) is selected, the -Z flag should probably also be used.

       -e num Make sure that each character is placed at most this many pixels
              from its `true' resolution-independent position on the page. The
              default value of this parameter is resolution dependent.  Allow-
              ing  individual  characters  to  `drift'  from  their  correctly
              rounded  positions by a few pixels, while regaining the true po-
              sition at the beginning of each new word, improves  the  spacing
              of letters in words.

       -E     makes dvips attempt to generate an EPSF file with a tight bound-
              ing box.  This only works on one-page files, and it  only  looks
              at  marks  made  by  characters  and  rules, not by any included
              graphics.  In addition, it gets the glyph metrics from  the  tfm
              file, so characters that lie outside their enclosing tfm box may
              confuse it.  In addition, the bounding box might be  a  bit  too
              loose  if the character glyph has significant left or right side
              bearings.  Nonetheless, this  option  works  well  for  creating
              small EPSF files for equations or tables or the like.  (Note, of
              course, that dvips output is resolution dependent and thus  does
              not  make  very good EPSF files, especially if the images are to
              be scaled; use these EPSF files with a great deal of care.)

       -f     Run as a filter.  Read the .dvi file  from  standard  input  and
              write  the  PostScript  to  standard output.  The standard input
              must be seekable, so it cannot be a pipe.  If  you  must  use  a
              pipe, write a shell script that copies the pipe output to a tem-
              porary file and then points dvips at  this  file.   This  option
              also  disables  the automatic reading of the PRINTER environment
              variable, and turns off the automatic sending of control D if it
              was  turned  on with the -F option or in the configuration file;
              use -F after this option if you want both.

       -F     Causes Control-D (ASCII code 4) to be appended as the very  last
              character  of the PostScript file.  This is useful when dvips is
              driving the  printer  directly  instead  of  working  through  a
              spooler,  as is common on extremely small systems.  NOTE! DO NOT
              USE THIS OPTION!

       -G     Causes dvips to shift non-printing characters to higher-numbered
              positions.  This may be useful sometimes.

       -h name
              Prepend file name as an additional header file. (However, if the
              name is simply `-' suppress all header files from  the  output.)
              This header file gets added to the PostScript userdict.

       -i     Make  each  section  be  a separate file.  Under certain circum-
              stances, dvips will split the document up into `sections' to  be
              processed independently; this is most often done for memory rea-
              sons.  Using this option tells dvips to place each section  into
              a  separate  file;  the new file names are created replacing the
              suffix of the supplied output file name  by  a  three-digit  se-
              quence  number.   This  option is most often used in conjunction
              with the -S option which sets  the  maximum  section  length  in
              pages.   For  instance,  some phototypesetters cannot print more
              than ten or so consecutive pages before running  out  of  steam;
              these  options  can  be  used to automatically split a book into
              ten-page sections, each to its own file.

       -j     Download only needed characters from Type 1 fonts. This  is  the
              default in the current release.  Some debugging flags trace this
              operation.  You can also control partial downloading on  a  per-
              font basis, via the psfonts.map file.

       -k     Print  crop  marks.  This option increases the paper size (which
              should be specified, either with a paper size  special  or  with
              the  -T option) by a half inch in each dimension.  It translates
              each page by a quarter inch and draws  cross-style  crop  marks.
              It  is mostly useful with typesetters that can set the page size

       -K     This option causes comments  in  included  PostScript  graphics,
              font files, and headers to be removed.  This is sometimes neces-
              sary to get around bugs in spoolers or PostScript  post-process-
              ing  programs.  Specifically, the %%Page comments, when left in,
              often cause difficulties.  Use of this flag can cause  some  in-
              cluded graphics to fail, since the PostScript header macros from
              some software packages read portions of the input stream line by
              line,  searching for a particular comment.  This option has been
              turned off by default because PostScript previewers and spoolers
              have been getting better.

       -l num The last page printed will be the first one numbered num Default
              is the last page in the document.  If the num is prefixed by  an
              equals  sign,  then  it  (and  any argument to the -p option) is
              treated as a sequence number, rather than  a  value  to  compare
              with  \count0 values.  Thus, using -l =9 will end with the ninth
              page of the document, no matter what the pages are actually num-

       -m     Specify manual feed for printer.

       -mode mode
              Use mode as the Metafont device name for path searching and font
              generation.  This overrides any value from configuration  files.
              With  the  default  paths,  explicitly  specifying the mode also
              makes the program assume the fonts are in a  subdirectory  named

       -M     Turns  off the automatic font generation facility.  If any fonts
              are missing, commands to generate the fonts are appended to  the
              file  missfont.log  in the current directory; this file can then
              be executed and deleted to create the missing fonts.

       -n num At most num pages will be printed. Default is 100000.

       -N     Turns off structured comments; this might be necessary  on  some
              systems that try to interpret PostScript comments in weird ways,
              or on some PostScript printers.  Old versions of  TranScript  in
              particular cannot handle modern Encapsulated PostScript.

              This  will disable the use of Omega extensions when interpreting
              DVI files.  By default, the additional opcodes 129 and  134  are
              recognized  by dvips as Omega or pTeX extensions and interpreted
              as requests to set 2-byte characters.

              This will disable the use of pTeX extensions  when  interpreting
              DVI  files.   By default, the additional opcodes 130 and 135 are
              recognized by dvips as pTeX extensions and  interpreted  as  re-
              quests  to  set  3-byte characters, and 255 as request to change
              the typesetting direction.

              The only drawback is that the virtual font array will (at  least
              temporarily)  require 65536 or more positions instead of the de-
              fault 256 positions, i.e., the memory requirements of dvips will
              be  somewhat larger.  If you find this unacceptable or encounter
              another problem with the  Omega  or  pTeX  extensions,  you  can
              switch off the pTeX extension by using -noptex, or both by using
              -noomega (but please do send a bug report if you find such prob-
              lems - see the bug address in the AUTHORS section below).

       -o name
              The  output  will  be sent to file name If no file name is given
              (i.e., -o is last on the command  line),  the  default  name  is
              file.ps  where the .dvi file was called file.dvi; if this option
              isn't given, any default in the configuration file is used.   If
              the  first  character of the supplied output file name is an ex-
              clamation mark, then the remainder will be used as  an  argument
              to popen; thus, specifying !lpr as the output file will automat-
              ically queue the file for printing.  This option  also  disables
              the  automatic  reading of the PRINTER environment variable, and
              turns off the automatic sending of control D if it was turned on
              with  the  -F  option or in the configuration file; use -F after
              this option if you want both.

       -O offset
              Move the origin by a certain amount.  The offset is a comma-sep-
              arated  pair of dimensions, such as .1in,-.3cm (in the same syn-
              tax used in the papersize special).  The origin of the  page  is
              shifted from the default position (of one inch down, one inch to
              the right from the upper left  corner  of  the  paper)  by  this

       -p num The  first page printed will be the first one numbered num.  De-
              fault is the first page in the document.  If the num is prefixed
              by  an  equals sign, then it (and any argument to the -l option)
              is treated as a sequence number, rather than a value to  compare
              with  \count0  values.   Thus,  using  -p =3 will start with the
              third page of the document, no matter what the pages  are  actu-
              ally numbered.

       -pp pagelist
              A  comma-separated  list of pages and ranges (a-b) may be given,
              which will be interpreted as \count0 values.  Pages  not  speci-
              fied will not be printed.  Multiple -pp options may be specified
              or all pages and page ranges can be specified with one  -pp  op-

       -P printername
              Sets  up the output for the appropriate printer.  This is imple-
              mented by reading in config.printername , which can then set the
              output pipe (as in, !lpr -Pprintername as well as the font paths
              and any other config.ps defaults for that  printer  only.   Note
              that  config.ps  is  read before config.printername In addition,
              another file called ~/.dvipsrc is searched for immediately after
              config.ps;  this  file  is intended for user defaults.  If no -P
              command is given, the environment variable PRINTER  is  checked.
              If  that variable exists, and a corresponding configuration file
              exists, that configuration file is read in.

       -q     Run in quiet mode.  Don't chatter about pages  converted,  etc.;
              report nothing but errors to standard error.

       -r     Stack  pages in reverse order.  Normally, page 1 will be printed

              Run securely.  -R2 disables  both  shell  command  execution  in
              \special'{}  (via  backticks ` ) and config files (via the E op-
              tion), and opening of any absolute filenames.   -R1  ,  the  de-
              fault, forbids shell escapes but allows absolute filenames.  -R0
              allows both.  The config file option is z

       -s     Causes the entire global output to be enclosed in a save/restore
              pair.   This  causes the file to not be truly conformant, and is
              thus not recommended, but is  useful  if  you  are  driving  the
              printer  directly  and don't care too much about the portability
              of the output.

       -S num Set the maximum number of pages in each `section'.  This  option
              is most commonly used with the -i option; see that documentation
              above for more information.

       -t papertype
              This sets the paper type to papertype.  The papertype should  be
              defined in one of the configuration files, along with the appro-
              priate code to select it.  (Currently known types  include  let-
              ter, legal, ledger, a4, a3).  You can also specify -t landscape,
              which rotates a document by 90 degrees.  To  rotate  a  document
              whose  size is not letter, you can use the -t option twice, once
              for the page size, and once for landscape.  You should  not  use
              any  -t  option  when  the DVI file already contains a papersize
              special, as is done  by  some  LaTeX  packages,  notably  hyper-

              The  upper  left  corner of each page in the .dvi file is placed
              one inch from the left and one inch from the top.  Use  of  this
              option is highly dependent on the configuration file.  Note that
              executing the letter or a4 or other PostScript  operators  cause
              the  document  to be nonconforming and can cause it not to print
              on certain printers, so the paper size should not  execute  such
              an operator if at all possible.

       -T papersize
              Set the paper size to the given pair of dimensions.  This option
              takes its arguments in the same style as -O.  It  overrides  any
              paper size special in the dvi file.

       -u psmapfile
              Set  psmapfile  to  be  the  file that dvips uses for looking up
              PostScript font aliases.  If psmapfile begins with a  +  charac-
              ter,  then  the  rest of the name is used as the name of the map
              file, and the map file is appended to the list of map files (in-
              stead  of replacing the list).  In either case, if psmapfile has
              no extension, then .map is added at the end.

       -U     Disable a PostScript virtual  memory  saving  optimization  that
              stores  the character metric information in the same string that
              is used to store the bitmap information.  This is only necessary
              when  driving  the  Xerox  4045  PostScript  interpreter.  It is
              caused by a bug in that interpreter that results in `garbage' on
              the  bottom  of each character.  Not recommended unless you must
              drive this printer.

       -v     Print the dvips version number and exit.

       -V     Download non-resident PostScript fonts  as  bitmaps.   This  re-
              quires  use  of  `gsftopk'  or  `pstopk' or some other such pro-
              gram(s) in order to generate the required  bitmap  fonts;  these
              programs are supplied with dvips.

       -x num Set the magnification ratio to num/1000.  Overrides the magnifi-
              cation specified in the .dvi  file.   Must  be  between  10  and
              100000.  Instead of an integer, num may be a real number for in-
              creased precision.

       -X num Set the horizontal resolution in dots per inch to num.

       -y num Set the magnification ratio to num/1000 times the  magnification
              specified in the .dvi file.  See -x above.

       -Y num Set the vertical resolution in dots per inch to num.

       -z     Pass  html  hyperdvi specials through to the output for eventual
              distillation into PDF.  This is not enabled by default to  avoid
              including  the  header files unnecessarily, and use of temporary
              files in creating the output.

       -Z     Causes bitmapped fonts to be compressed before  they  are  down-
              loaded,  thereby  reducing the size of the PostScript font-down-
              loading information.  Especially useful at high  resolutions  or
              when  very  large fonts are used.  Will slow down printing some-
              what, especially on early 68000-based PostScript printers.

       mf(1),    afm2tfm(1),    tex(1),    latex(1),    lpr(1),    dvips.texi,

       Dvipsk  uses  the same environment variables and algorithms for finding
       font files as TeX and its friends do.  See the  documentation  for  the
       Kpathsea library for details.  (Repeating it here is too cumbersome.)

       KPATHSEA_DEBUG: Trace Kpathsea lookups; set to -1 for complete tracing.

       PRINTER: see above.

       PostScript is a registered trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated.

       Tomas  Rokicki; extended to virtual fonts by Don Knuth.  Path searching
       and configuration modifications by Karl Berry.

       Maintained in TeX Live; please send bug reports or other correspondence
       to tex-k@tug.org (http://lists.tug.org/tex-k).

                                1 February 2016                       DVIPS(1)
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