DGST(1SSL) OpenSSL DGST(1SSL)
openssl-dgst, dgst - perform digest operations
openssl dgst [-digest] [-help] [-c] [-d] [-hex] [-binary] [-r] [-out
filename] [-sign filename] [-keyform arg] [-passin arg] [-verify
filename] [-prverify filename] [-signature filename] [-hmac key]
[-fips-fingerprint] [-rand file...] [-engine id] [-engine_impl]
openssl digest [...]
The digest functions output the message digest of a supplied file or
files in hexadecimal. The digest functions also generate and verify
digital signatures using message digests.
The generic name, dgst, may be used with an option specifying the
algorithm to be used. The default digest is sha256. A supported
digest name may also be used as the command name. To see the list of
supported algorithms, use the list --digest-commands command.
Print out a usage message.
Specifies name of a supported digest to be used. To see the list of
supported digests, use the command list --digest-commands.
-c Print out the digest in two digit groups separated by colons, only
relevant if hex format output is used.
-d Print out BIO debugging information.
Digest is to be output as a hex dump. This is the default case for
a "normal" digest as opposed to a digital signature. See NOTES
below for digital signatures using -hex.
Output the digest or signature in binary form.
-r Output the digest in the "coreutils" format used by programs like
Filename to output to, or standard output by default.
Digitally sign the digest using the private key in "filename". Note
this option does not support Ed25519 or Ed448 private keys. Use the
pkeyutl command instead for this.
Specifies the key format to sign digest with. The DER, PEM, P12,
and ENGINE formats are supported.
Pass options to the signature algorithm during sign or verify
operations. Names and values of these options are algorithm-
The private key password source. For more information about the
format of arg see the PASS PHRASE ARGUMENTS section in openssl(1).
Verify the signature using the public key in "filename". The
output is either "Verification OK" or "Verification Failure".
Verify the signature using the private key in "filename".
The actual signature to verify.
Create a hashed MAC using "key".
Create MAC (keyed Message Authentication Code). The most popular
MAC algorithm is HMAC (hash-based MAC), but there are other MAC
algorithms which are not based on hash, for instance gost-mac
algorithm, supported by ccgost engine. MAC keys and other options
should be set via -macopt parameter.
Passes options to MAC algorithm, specified by -mac key. Following
options are supported by both by HMAC and gost-mac:
Specifies MAC key as alphanumeric string (use if key contain
printable characters only). String length must conform to any
restrictions of the MAC algorithm for example exactly 32 chars
Specifies MAC key in hexadecimal form (two hex digits per
byte). Key length must conform to any restrictions of the MAC
algorithm for example exactly 32 chars for gost-mac.
A file or files containing random data used to seed the random
number generator. Multiple files can be specified separated by an
OS-dependent character. The separator is ; for MS-Windows, , for
OpenVMS, and : for all others.
Writes random data to the specified file upon exit. This can be
used with a subsequent -rand flag.
Compute HMAC using a specific key for certain OpenSSL-FIPS
Use engine id for operations (including private key storage). This
engine is not used as source for digest algorithms, unless it is
also specified in the configuration file or -engine_impl is also
When used with the -engine option, it specifies to also use engine
id for digest operations.
File or files to digest. If no files are specified then standard
input is used.
To create a hex-encoded message digest of a file:
openssl dgst -md5 -hex file.txt
To sign a file using SHA-256 with binary file output:
openssl dgst -sha256 -sign privatekey.pem -out signature.sign file.txt
To verify a signature:
openssl dgst -sha256 -verify publickey.pem \
-signature signature.sign \
The digest mechanisms that are available will depend on the options
used when building OpenSSL. The list digest-commands command can be
used to list them.
New or agile applications should use probably use SHA-256. Other
digests, particularly SHA-1 and MD5, are still widely used for
interoperating with existing formats and protocols.
When signing a file, dgst will automatically determine the algorithm
(RSA, ECC, etc) to use for signing based on the private key's ASN.1
info. When verifying signatures, it only handles the RSA, DSA, or
ECDSA signature itself, not the related data to identify the signer and
algorithm used in formats such as x.509, CMS, and S/MIME.
A source of random numbers is required for certain signing algorithms,
in particular ECDSA and DSA.
The signing and verify options should only be used if a single file is
being signed or verified.
Hex signatures cannot be verified using openssl. Instead, use "xxd -r"
or similar program to transform the hex signature into a binary
signature prior to verification.
The default digest was changed from MD5 to SHA256 in OpenSSL 1.1.0 The
FIPS-related options were removed in OpenSSL 1.1.0
Copyright 2000-2018 The OpenSSL Project Authors. All Rights Reserved.
Licensed under the OpenSSL license (the "License"). You may not use
this file except in compliance with the License. You can obtain a copy
in the file LICENSE in the source distribution or at
1.1.1 2022-07-04 DGST(1SSL)
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