busybox


SYNTAX
        busybox <applet> [arguments...]  # or

        <applet> [arguments...]          # if symlinked

DESCRIPTION
       BusyBox combines tiny versions of many common UNIX utilities into a
       single small executable. It provides minimalist replacements for most
       of the utilities you usually find in GNU coreutils, util-linux, etc.
       The utilities in BusyBox generally have fewer options than their full-
       featured GNU cousins; however, the options that are included provide
       the expected functionality and behave very much like their GNU
       counterparts.

       BusyBox has been written with size-optimization and limited resources
       in mind.  It is also extremely modular so you can easily include or
       exclude commands (or features) at compile time. This makes it easy to
       customize your embedded systems. To create a working system, just add
       /dev, /etc, and a Linux kernel.  BusyBox provides a fairly complete
       POSIX environment for any small or embedded system.

       BusyBox is extremely configurable.  This allows you to include only the
       components you need, thereby reducing binary size. Run 'make config' or
       'make menuconfig' to select the functionality that you wish to enable.
       Then run 'make' to compile BusyBox using your configuration.

       After the compile has finished, you should use 'make install' to
       install BusyBox. This will install the 'bin/busybox' binary, in the
       target directory specified by CONFIG_PREFIX. CONFIG_PREFIX can be set
       when configuring BusyBox, or you can specify an alternative location at
       install time (i.e., with a command line like 'make
       CONFIG_PREFIX=/tmp/foo install'). If you enabled any applet
       installation scheme (either as symlinks or hardlinks), these will also
       be installed in the location pointed to by CONFIG_PREFIX.

USAGE
       BusyBox is a multi-call binary.  A multi-call binary is an executable
       program that performs the same job as more than one utility program.
       That means there is just a single BusyBox binary, but that single
       binary acts like a large number of utilities.  This allows BusyBox to
       be smaller since all the built-in utility programs (we call them
       applets) can share code for many common operations.

       You can also invoke BusyBox by issuing a command as an argument on the
       command line.  For example, entering

               /bin/busybox ls

       will also cause BusyBox to behave as 'ls'.

       Of course, adding '/bin/busybox' into every command would be painful.
       So most people will invoke BusyBox using links to the BusyBox binary.


COMMON OPTIONS
       Most BusyBox applets support the --help argument to provide a terse
       runtime description of their behavior.  If the
       CONFIG_FEATURE_VERBOSE_USAGE option has been enabled, more detailed
       usage information will also be available.

COMMANDS
       Currently available applets include:

               [, [[, acpid, addgroup, adduser, adjtimex, ar, arping, ash, awk,
               basename, blockdev, brctl, bunzip2, bzcat, bzip2, cal, cat, chgrp,
               chmod, chown, chroot, chvt, clear, cmp, cp, cpio, crond, crontab,
               cut, date, dc, dd, deallocvt, delgroup, deluser, df, diff, dirname,
               dmesg, dnsdomainname, dos2unix, dpkg, dpkg-deb, du, dumpkmap,
               dumpleases, echo, ed, egrep, eject, env, expand, expr, false, fbset,
               fdflush, fdisk, fgrep, find, fold, free, freeramdisk, fsck.minix,
               ftpget, ftpput, getopt, getty, grep, gunzip, gzip, head, hexdump,
               hostid, hostname, httpd, hwclock, id, ifconfig, ifdown, ifup, init,
               ionice, ip, ipcalc, kill, killall, klogd, last, length, less,
               linuxrc, ln, loadfont, loadkmap, logger, login, logname, logread,
               losetup, ls, lzcat, lzma, makedevs, md5sum, mdev, mesg, microcom,
               mkdir, mkfifo, mkfs.minix, mknod, mkswap, mktemp, more, mount, mt,
               mv, nameif, nc, netstat, nslookup, od, openvt, passwd, patch, pidof,
               ping, ping6, pivot_root, printf, ps, pwd, rdate, readlink, realpath,
               renice, reset, rev, rm, rmdir, route, rpm, rpm2cpio, run-parts, sed,
               seq, setkeycodes, sh, sha1sum, sha256sum, sha512sum, sleep, sort,
               start-stop-daemon, static-sh, strings, stty, su, sulogin, swapoff,
               swapon, switch_root, sync, sysctl, syslogd, tac, tail, tar, tee,
               telnet, telnetd, test, tftp, time, timeout, top, touch, tr,
               traceroute, traceroute6, true, tty, tunctl, udhcpc, udhcpd, umount,
               uname, uncompress, unexpand, uniq, unix2dos, unlzma, unxz, unzip,
               uptime, usleep, uudecode, uuencode, vconfig, vi, vlock, watch,
               watchdog, wc, wget, which, who, whoami, xargs, xz, xzcat, yes, zcat

COMMAND DESCRIPTIONS
       acpid
           acpid [-d] [-c CONFDIR] [-l LOGFILE] [-a ACTIONFILE] [-M MAPFILE]
           [-e PROC_EVENT_FILE] [-p PIDFILE]

           Listen to ACPI events and spawn specific helpers on event arrival

           Options:

                   -c DIR  Config directory [/etc/acpi]
                   -d      Don't daemonize, (implies -f)
                   -e FILE /proc event file [/proc/acpi/event]
                   -f      Run in foreground
                   -l FILE Log file [/var/log/acpid.log]
                   -p FILE Pid file [/var/run/acpid.pid]
                   -a FILE Action file [/etc/acpid.conf]
                   -M FILE Map file [/etc/acpi.map]

       addgroup
           Add a user

           Options:

                   -h DIR          Home directory
                   -g GECOS        GECOS field
                   -s SHELL        Login shell
                   -G GRP          Add user to existing group
                   -S              Create a system user
                   -D              Don't assign a password
                   -H              Don't create home directory
                   -u UID          User id

       adjtimex
           adjtimex [-q] [-o OFF] [-f FREQ] [-p TCONST] [-t TICK]

           Read and optionally set system timebase parameters. See adjtimex(2)

           Options:

                   -q      Quiet
                   -o OFF  Time offset, microseconds
                   -f FREQ Frequency adjust, integer kernel units (65536 is 1ppm)
                           (positive values make clock run faster)
                   -t TICK Microseconds per tick, usually 10000
                   -p TCONST

       ar  ar [-o] [-v] [-p] [-t] [-x] ARCHIVE FILES

           Extract or list FILES from an ar archive

           Options:

                   -o      Preserve original dates
                   -p      Extract to stdout
                   -t      List
                   -x      Extract
                   -v      Verbose

       arping
           arping [-fqbDUA] [-c CNT] [-w TIMEOUT] [-I IFACE] [-s SRC_IP]
           DST_IP

           Send ARP requests/replies

           Options:

                   -f              Quit on first ARP reply
                   -q              Quiet
                   -b              Keep broadcasting, don't go unicast
                   -D              Duplicated address detection mode
                   -U              Unsolicited ARP mode, update your neighbors
                   -A              ARP answer mode, update your neighbors
                   -c N            Stop after sending N ARP requests

       basename
           basename FILE [SUFFIX]

           Strip directory path and .SUFFIX from FILE

       blockdev
           blockdev OPTION BLOCKDEV

           Options:

                   --setro         Set ro
                   --setrw         Set rw
                   --getro         Get ro
                   --getss         Get sector size
                   --getbsz        Get block size
                   --setbsz BYTES  Set block size
                   --getsize       Get device size in 512-byte sectors
                   --getsize64     Get device size in bytes
                   --flushbufs     Flush buffers
                   --rereadpt      Reread partition table

       brctl
           brctl COMMAND [BRIDGE [INTERFACE]]

           Manage ethernet bridges

           Commands:

                   addbr BRIDGE            Create BRIDGE
                   delbr BRIDGE            Delete BRIDGE
                   addif BRIDGE IFACE      Add IFACE to BRIDGE
                   delif BRIDGE IFACE      Delete IFACE from BRIDGE

       bunzip2
           bunzip2 [-cf] [FILE]...

           Decompress FILEs (or stdin)

           Options:

                   -c      Write to stdout
                   -f      Force

       bzcat
           bzcat FILE

           Decompress to stdout

       bzip2
           bzip2 [OPTIONS] [FILE]...

           Compress FILEs (or stdin) with bzip2 algorithm


                   -j      Use julian dates
                   -y      Display the entire year

       cat cat [FILE]...

           Concatenate FILEs and print them to stdout

       chgrp
           chgrp [-RhLHPcvf]... GROUP FILE...

           Change the group membership of each FILE to GROUP

           Options:

                   -R      Recurse
                   -h      Affect symlinks instead of symlink targets
                   -L      Traverse all symlinks to directories
                   -H      Traverse symlinks on command line only
                   -P      Don't traverse symlinks (default)
                   -c      List changed files
                   -v      Verbose
                   -f      Hide errors

       chmod
           chmod [-Rcvf] MODE[,MODE]... FILE...

           Each MODE is one or more of the letters ugoa, one of the symbols
           +-= and one or more of the letters rwxst

           Options:

                   -R      Recurse
                   -c      List changed files
                   -v      List all files
                   -f      Hide errors

       chown
           chown [-RhLHPcvf]... OWNER[<.|:>[GROUP]] FILE...

           Change the owner and/or group of each FILE to OWNER and/or GROUP

           Options:

                   -R      Recurse
                   -h      Affect symlinks instead of symlink targets
                   -L      Traverse all symlinks to directories
                   -H      Traverse symlinks on command line only
                   -P      Don't traverse symlinks (default)
                   -c      List changed files
                   -v      List all files
                   -f      Hide errors

       chroot
           Clear screen

       cmp cmp [-l] [-s] FILE1 [FILE2 [SKIP1 [SKIP2]]]

           Compare FILE1 with FILE2 (or stdin)

           Options:

                   -l      Write the byte numbers (decimal) and values (octal)
                           for all differing bytes
                   -s      Quiet

       cp  cp [OPTIONS] SOURCE DEST

           Copy SOURCE to DEST, or multiple SOURCE(s) to DIRECTORY

           Options:

                   -a      Same as -dpR
                   -R,-r   Recurse
                   -d,-P   Preserve symlinks (default if -R)
                   -L      Follow all symlinks
                   -H      Follow symlinks on command line
                   -p      Preserve file attributes if possible
                   -f      Overwrite
                   -i      Prompt before overwrite
                   -l,-s   Create (sym)links

       cpio
           cpio [-dmvu] [-F FILE] [-H newc] [-tio]

           Extract or list files from a cpio archive, or create an archive
           using file list on stdin

           Main operation mode:

                   -t      List
                   -i      Extract
                   -o      Create (requires -H newc)
           Options:

                   -d      Make leading directories
                   -m      Preserve mtime
                   -v      Verbose
                   -u      Overwrite
                   -F FILE Input (-t,-i,-p) or output (-o) file
                   -H newc Archive format

       crond
           crond -fbS -l N -L LOGFILE -c DIR

                   -f      Foreground
                   -b      Background (default)
                   -S      Log to syslog (default)
                   FILE    Replace crontab by FILE ('-': stdin)

       cut cut [OPTIONS] [FILE]...

           Print selected fields from each input FILE to stdout

           Options:

                   -b LIST Output only bytes from LIST
                   -c LIST Output only characters from LIST
                   -d CHAR Use CHAR instead of tab as the field delimiter
                   -s      Output only the lines containing delimiter
                   -f N    Print only these fields
                   -n      Ignored

       date
           date [OPTIONS] [+FMT] [TIME]

           Display time (using +FMT), or set time

           Options:

                   [-s,--set] TIME Set time to TIME
                   -u,--utc        Work in UTC (don't convert to local time)
                   -R,--rfc-2822   Output RFC-2822 compliant date string
                   -I[SPEC]        Output ISO-8601 compliant date string
                                   SPEC='date' (default) for date only,
                                   'hours', 'minutes', or 'seconds' for date and
                                   time to the indicated precision
                   -r,--reference FILE     Display last modification time of FILE
                   -d,--date TIME  Display TIME, not 'now'
                   -D FMT          Use FMT for -d TIME conversion

           Recognized TIME formats:

                   hh:mm[:ss]
                   [YYYY.]MM.DD-hh:mm[:ss]
                   YYYY-MM-DD hh:mm[:ss]
                   [[[[[YY]YY]MM]DD]hh]mm[.ss]

       dc  dc EXPRESSION...

           Tiny RPN calculator. Operations: +, add, -, sub, *, mul, /, div, %,
           mod, **, exp, and, or, not, eor, p - print top of the stack
           (without popping), f - print entire stack, o - pop the value and
           set output radix (must be 10, 16, 8 or 2).  Examples: 'dc 2 2 add'
           -> 4, 'dc 8 8 * 2 2 + /' -> 16

       dd  dd [if=FILE] [of=FILE] [ibs=N] [obs=N] [bs=N] [count=N] [skip=N]
                [seek=N] [conv=notrunc|noerror|sync|fsync]

           Copy a file with converting and formatting

           Options:
                   conv=fsync      Physically write data out before finishing

           Numbers may be suffixed by c (x1), w (x2), b (x512), kD (x1000), k
           (x1024), MD (x1000000), M (x1048576), GD (x1000000000) or G
           (x1073741824)

       deallocvt
           deallocvt [N]

           Deallocate unused virtual terminal /dev/ttyN

       delgroup
           delgroup GROUP

           Delete group GROUP from the system

       deluser
           deluser USER

           Delete USER from the system

       df  df [-Pkmhai] [-B SIZE] [FILESYSTEM]...

           Print filesystem usage statistics

           Options:

                   -P      POSIX output format
                   -k      1024-byte blocks (default)
                   -m      1M-byte blocks
                   -h      Human readable (e.g. 1K 243M 2G)
                   -a      Show all filesystems
                   -i      Inodes
                   -B SIZE Blocksize

       diff
           diff [-abBdiNqrTstw] [-L LABEL] [-S FILE] [-U LINES] FILE1 FILE2

           Compare files line by line and output the differences between them.
           This implementation supports unified diffs only.

           Options:

                   -a      Treat all files as text
                   -b      Ignore changes in the amount of whitespace
                   -B      Ignore changes whose lines are all blank
                   -d      Try hard to find a smaller set of changes
                   -i      Ignore case differences
                   -L      Use LABEL instead of the filename in the unified header
                   -N      Treat absent files as empty
                   -q      Output only whether files differ
                   -r      Recurse
                   -S      Start with FILE when comparing directories
                   -T      Make tabs line up by prefixing a tab when necessary

           Print or control the kernel ring buffer

           Options:

                   -c              Clear ring buffer after printing
                   -n LEVEL        Set console logging level
                   -s SIZE         Buffer size

       dos2unix
           dos2unix [-ud] [FILE]

           Convert FILE in-place from DOS to Unix format.  When no file is
           given, use stdin/stdout.

           Options:

                   -u      dos2unix
                   -d      unix2dos

       dpkg
           dpkg [-ilCPru] [-F OPT] PACKAGE

           Install, remove and manage Debian packages

           Options:

                   -i,--install    Install the package
                   -l,--list       List of installed packages
                   --configure     Configure an unpackaged package
                   -P,--purge      Purge all files of a package
                   -r,--remove     Remove all but the configuration files for a package
                   --unpack        Unpack a package, but don't configure it
                   --force-depends Ignore dependency problems
                   --force-confnew Overwrite existing config files when installing
                   --force-confold Keep old config files when installing

       dpkg-deb
           dpkg-deb [-cefxX] FILE [argument]

           Perform actions on Debian packages (.debs)

           Options:

                   -c      List contents of filesystem tree
                   -e      Extract control files to [argument] directory
                   -f      Display control field name starting with [argument]
                   -x      Extract packages filesystem tree to directory
                   -X      Verbose extract

       du  du [-aHLdclsxhmk] [FILE]...

           Summarize disk space used for each FILE and/or directory.  Disk
           space is printed in units of 1024 bytes.
                   -m      Sizes in megabytes
                   -k      Sizes in kilobytes (default)

       dumpkmap
           dumpkmap > keymap

           Print a binary keyboard translation table to stdout

       dumpleases
           dumpleases [-r|-a] [-f LEASEFILE]

           Display DHCP leases granted by udhcpd

           Options:

                   -f,--file=FILE  Lease file
                   -r,--remaining  Show remaining time
                   -a,--absolute   Show expiration time

       echo
           echo [-neE] [ARG]...

           Print the specified ARGs to stdout

           Options:

                   -n      Suppress trailing newline
                   -e      Interpret backslash escapes (i.e., \t=tab)
                   -E      Don't interpret backslash escapes (default)

       ed  ed

       eject
           eject [-t] [-T] [DEVICE]

           Eject DEVICE or default /dev/cdrom

           Options:

                   -s      SCSI device
                   -t      Close tray
                   -T      Open/close tray (toggle)

       env env [-iu] [-] [name=value]... [PROG ARGS]

           Print the current environment or run PROG after setting up the
           specified environment

           Options:

                   -, -i   Start with an empty environment
                   -u      Remove variable from the environment

       expand
           Print the value of EXPRESSION to stdout

           EXPRESSION may be:

                   ARG1 | ARG2     ARG1 if it is neither null nor 0, otherwise ARG2
                   ARG1 & ARG2     ARG1 if neither argument is null or 0, otherwise 0
                   ARG1 < ARG2     1 if ARG1 is less than ARG2, else 0. Similarly:
                   ARG1 <= ARG2
                   ARG1 = ARG2
                   ARG1 != ARG2
                   ARG1 >= ARG2
                   ARG1 > ARG2
                   ARG1 + ARG2     Sum of ARG1 and ARG2. Similarly:
                   ARG1 - ARG2
                   ARG1 * ARG2
                   ARG1 / ARG2
                   ARG1 % ARG2
                   STRING : REGEXP         Anchored pattern match of REGEXP in STRING
                   match STRING REGEXP     Same as STRING : REGEXP
                   substr STRING POS LENGTH Substring of STRING, POS counted from 1
                   index STRING CHARS      Index in STRING where any CHARS is found, or 0
                   length STRING           Length of STRING
                   quote TOKEN             Interpret TOKEN as a string, even if
                                           it is a keyword like 'match' or an
                                           operator like '/'
                   (EXPRESSION)            Value of EXPRESSION

           Beware that many operators need to be escaped or quoted for shells.
           Comparisons are arithmetic if both ARGs are numbers, else
           lexicographical. Pattern matches return the string matched between
           \( and \) or null; if \( and \) are not used, they return the
           number of characters matched or 0.

       false
           false

           Return an exit code of FALSE (1)

       fbset
           fbset [OPTIONS] [MODE]

           Show and modify frame buffer settings

       fdflush
           fdflush DEVICE

           Force floppy disk drive to detect disk change

       fdisk
           fdisk [-ul] [-C CYLINDERS] [-H HEADS] [-S SECTORS] [-b SSZ] DISK

           Change partition table

           Options:
           default EXPRESSION is '-print'

           EXPRESSION may consist of:

                   -follow         Follow symlinks
                   -xdev           Don't descend directories on other filesystems
                   -maxdepth N     Descend at most N levels. -maxdepth 0 applies
                                   tests/actions to command line arguments only
                   -mindepth N     Don't act on first N levels
                   -name PATTERN   File name (w/o directory name) matches PATTERN
                   -iname PATTERN  Case insensitive -name
                   -path PATTERN   Path matches PATTERN
                   -regex PATTERN  Path matches regex PATTERN
                   -type X         File type is X (X is one of: f,d,l,b,c,...)
                   -perm NNN       Permissions match any of (+NNN), all of (-NNN),
                                   or exactly NNN
                   -mtime DAYS     Modified time is greater than (+N), less than (-N),
                                   or exactly N days
                   -mmin MINS      Modified time is greater than (+N), less than (-N),
                                   or exactly N minutes
                   -newer FILE     Modified time is more recent than FILE's
                   -inum N         File has inode number N
                   -user NAME      File is owned by user NAME (numeric user ID allowed)
                   -group NAME     File belongs to group NAME (numeric group ID allowed)
                   -depth          Process directory name after traversing it
                   -size N[bck]    File size is N (c:bytes,k:kbytes,b:512 bytes(def.))
                                   +/-N: file size is bigger/smaller than N
                   -links N        Number of links is greater than (+N), less than (-N),
                                   or exactly N
                   -print          Print (default and assumed)
                   -print0         Delimit output with null characters rather than
                                   newlines
                   -exec CMD ARG ; Run CMD with all instances of {} replaced by the
                                   matching files
                   -prune          Stop traversing current subtree
                   (EXPR)          Group an expression

       fold
           fold [-bs] [-w WIDTH] [FILE]...

           Wrap input lines in each FILE (or stdin), writing to stdout

           Options:

                   -b      Count bytes rather than columns
                   -s      Break at spaces
                   -w      Use WIDTH columns instead of 80

       free
           free [-b/k/m/g]

           Display the amount of free and used system memory

       freeramdisk
                   -r      Perform interactive repairs
                   -a      Perform automatic repairs
                   -v      Verbose
                   -s      Output superblock information
                   -m      Show "mode not cleared" warnings
                   -f      Force file system check

       ftpget
           ftpget [OPTIONS] HOST [LOCAL_FILE] REMOTE_FILE

           Retrieve a remote file via FTP

           Options:

                   -c,--continue   Continue previous transfer
                   -v,--verbose    Verbose
                   -u,--username   Username
                   -p,--password   Password
                   -P,--port       Port number

       ftpput
           ftpput [OPTIONS] HOST [REMOTE_FILE] LOCAL_FILE

           Store a local file on a remote machine via FTP

           Options:

                   -v,--verbose    Verbose
                   -u,--username   Username
                   -p,--password   Password
                   -P,--port       Port number

       getopt
           getopt [OPTIONS]

           Options:

                   -a,--alternative                Allow long options starting with single -
                   -l,--longoptions=longopts       Long options to be recognized
                   -n,--name=progname              The name under which errors are reported
                   -o,--options=optstring          Short options to be recognized
                   -q,--quiet                      Disable error reporting by getopt(3)
                   -Q,--quiet-output               No normal output
                   -s,--shell=shell                Set shell quoting conventions
                   -T,--test                       Test for getopt(1) version
                   -u,--unquoted                   Don't quote the output

       getty
           getty [OPTIONS] BAUD_RATE TTY [TERMTYPE]

           Open a tty, prompt for a login name, then invoke /bin/login

           Options:

       grep
           grep [-HhnlLoqvsriwFEz] [-m N] [-A/B/C N] PATTERN/-e PATTERN.../-f
           FILE [FILE]...

           Search for PATTERN in FILEs (or stdin)

           Options:

                   -H      Add 'filename:' prefix
                   -h      Do not add 'filename:' prefix
                   -n      Add 'line_no:' prefix
                   -l      Show only names of files that match
                   -L      Show only names of files that don't match
                   -c      Show only count of matching lines
                   -o      Show only the matching part of line
                   -q      Quiet. Return 0 if PATTERN is found, 1 otherwise
                   -v      Select non-matching lines
                   -s      Suppress open and read errors
                   -r      Recurse
                   -i      Ignore case
                   -w      Match whole words only
                   -F      PATTERN is a literal (not regexp)
                   -E      PATTERN is an extended regexp
                   -z      Input is NUL terminated
                   -m N    Match up to N times per file
                   -A N    Print N lines of trailing context
                   -B N    Print N lines of leading context
                   -C N    Same as '-A N -B N'
                   -e PTRN Pattern to match
                   -f FILE Read pattern from file

       gunzip
           gunzip [-cft] [FILE]...

           Decompress FILEs (or stdin)

           Options:

                   -c      Write to stdout
                   -f      Force
                   -t      Test file integrity

       gzip
           gzip [-cfd] [FILE]...

           Compress FILEs (or stdin)

           Options:

                   -d      Decompress
                   -c      Write to stdout
                   -f      Force

       head
           N may be suffixed by k (x1024), b (x512), or m (x1024^2).

       hexdump
           hexdump [-bcCdefnosvx] [FILE]...

           Display FILEs (or stdin) in a user specified format

           Options:

                   -b              One-byte octal display
                   -c              One-byte character display
                   -C              Canonical hex+ASCII, 16 bytes per line
                   -d              Two-byte decimal display
                   -e FORMAT STRING
                   -f FORMAT FILE
                   -n LENGTH       Interpret only LENGTH bytes of input
                   -o              Two-byte octal display
                   -s OFFSET       Skip OFFSET bytes
                   -v              Display all input data
                   -x              Two-byte hexadecimal display

       hostid
           hostid

           Print out a unique 32-bit identifier for the machine

       hostname
           hostname [OPTIONS] [HOSTNAME | -F FILE]

           Get or set hostname or DNS domain name

           Options:

                   -s      Short
                   -i      Addresses for the hostname
                   -d      DNS domain name
                   -f      Fully qualified domain name
                   -F FILE Use FILE's content as hostname

       httpd
           httpd [-ifv[v]] [-c CONFFILE] [-p [IP:]PORT] [-r REALM] [-h HOME]
           or httpd -d/-e STRING

           Listen for incoming HTTP requests

           Options:

                   -i              Inetd mode
                   -f              Don't daemonize
                   -v[v]           Verbose
                   -p [IP:]PORT    Bind to IP:PORT (default *:80)
                   -r REALM        Authentication Realm for Basic Authentication
                   -h HOME         Home directory (default .)
                   -c FILE         Configuration file (default {/etc,HOME}/httpd.conf)
                   -s      Set system time from hardware clock
                   -w      Set hardware clock to system time
                   -u      Hardware clock is in UTC
                   -l      Hardware clock is in local time
                   -f FILE Use specified device (e.g. /dev/rtc2)

       id  id [OPTIONS] [USER]

           Print information about USER or the current user

           Options:

                   -u      User ID
                   -g      Group ID
                   -G      Supplementary group IDs
                   -n      Print names instead of numbers
                   -r      Print real ID instead of effective ID

       ifconfig
           ifconfig [-a] interface [address]

           Configure a network interface

           Options:

                   [add ADDRESS[/PREFIXLEN]]
                   [del ADDRESS[/PREFIXLEN]]
                   [[-]broadcast [ADDRESS]] [[-]pointopoint [ADDRESS]]
                   [netmask ADDRESS] [dstaddr ADDRESS]
                   [outfill NN] [keepalive NN]
                   [hw ether|infiniband ADDRESS] [metric NN] [mtu NN]
                   [[-]trailers] [[-]arp] [[-]allmulti]
                   [multicast] [[-]promisc] [txqueuelen NN] [[-]dynamic]
                   [mem_start NN] [io_addr NN] [irq NN]
                   [up|down] ...

       ifdown
           ifdown [-anmvf] [-i FILE] IFACE...

           Options:

                   -a      De/configure all interfaces automatically
                   -i FILE Use FILE for interface definitions
                   -n      Print out what would happen, but don't do it
                           (note: doesn't disable mappings)
                   -m      Don't run any mappings
                   -v      Print out what would happen before doing it
                   -f      Force de/configuration

       ifup
           ifup [-anmvf] [-i FILE] IFACE...

           Options:


       ionice
           ionice [-c 1-3] [-n 0-7] [-p PID] [PROG]

           Change I/O priority and class

           Options:

                   -c      Class. 1:realtime 2:best-effort 3:idle
                   -n      Priority

       ip  ip [OPTIONS] {address | route | link | tunnel | rule} {COMMAND}

           ip [OPTIONS] OBJECT {COMMAND} where OBJECT := {address | route |
           link | tunnel | rule} OPTIONS := { -f[amily] { inet | inet6 | link
           } | -o[neline] }

       ipcalc
           ipcalc [OPTIONS] ADDRESS[[/]NETMASK] [NETMASK]

           Calculate IP network settings from a IP address

           Options:

                   -b,--broadcast  Display calculated broadcast address
                   -n,--network    Display calculated network address
                   -m,--netmask    Display default netmask for IP
                   -p,--prefix     Display the prefix for IP/NETMASK
                   -h,--hostname   Display first resolved host name
                   -s,--silent     Don't ever display error messages

       kill
           kill [-l] [-SIG] PID...

           Send a signal (default: TERM) to given PIDs

           Options:

                   -l      List all signal names and numbers

       killall
           killall [-l] [-q] [-SIG] PROCESS_NAME...

           Send a signal (default: TERM) to given processes

           Options:

                   -l      List all signal names and numbers
                   -q      Don't complain if no processes were killed

       klogd
           klogd [-c N] [-n]

           Kernel logger
           length STRING

           Print STRING's length

       less
           less [-EMNmh~I?] [FILE]...

           View FILE (or stdin) one screenful at a time

           Options:

                   -E      Quit once the end of a file is reached
                   -M,-m   Display status line with line numbers
                           and percentage through the file
                   -N      Prefix line number to each line
                   -I      Ignore case in all searches
                   -~      Suppress ~s displayed past the end of the file

       ln  ln [OPTIONS] TARGET... LINK|DIR

           Create a link LINK or DIR/TARGET to the specified TARGET(s)

           Options:

                   -s      Make symlinks instead of hardlinks
                   -f      Remove existing destinations
                   -n      Don't dereference symlinks - treat like normal file
                   -b      Make a backup of the target (if exists) before link operation
                   -S suf  Use suffix instead of ~ when making backup files

       loadfont
           loadfont < font

           Load a console font from stdin

       loadkmap
           loadkmap < keymap

           Load a binary keyboard translation table from stdin

       logger
           logger [OPTIONS] [MESSAGE]

           Write MESSAGE (or stdin) to syslog

           Options:

                   -s      Log to stderr as well as the system log
                   -t TAG  Log using the specified tag (defaults to user name)
                   -p PRIO Priority (numeric or facility.level pair)

       login
           login [-p] [-h HOST] [[-f] USER]


       logread
           logread [-f]

           Show messages in syslogd's circular buffer

           Options:

                   -f      Output data as log grows

       losetup
           losetup [-o OFS] LOOPDEV FILE - associate loop devices      losetup
           -d LOOPDEV - disassociate      losetup [-f] - show

           Options:

                   -o OFS  Start OFS bytes into FILE
                   -f      Show first free loop device

       ls  ls [-1AacCdeFilnpLRrSsTtuvwxXhk] [FILE]...

           List directory contents

           Options:

                   -1      List in a single column
                   -A      Don't list . and ..
                   -a      Don't hide entries starting with .
                   -C      List by columns
                   -c      With -l: sort by ctime
                   --color[={always,never,auto}]   Control coloring
                   -d      List directory entries instead of contents
                   -e      List full date and time
                   -F      Append indicator (one of */=@|) to entries
                   -i      List inode numbers
                   -l      Long listing format
                   -n      List numeric UIDs and GIDs instead of names
                   -p      Append indicator (one of /=@|) to entries
                   -L      List entries pointed to by symlinks
                   -R      Recurse
                   -r      Sort in reverse order
                   -S      Sort by file size
                   -s      List the size of each file, in blocks
                   -T N    Assume tabstop every N columns
                   -t      With -l: sort by modification time
                   -u      With -l: sort by access time
                   -v      Sort by version
                   -w N    Assume the terminal is N columns wide
                   -x      List by lines
                   -X      Sort by extension
                   -h      List sizes in human readable format (1K 243M 2G)

       lzcat
           lzcat FILE
                   -f      Force

       makedevs
           makedevs [-d device_table] rootdir

           Create a range of special files as specified in a device table.
           Device table entries take the form of:

           <type> <mode> <uid> <gid> <major> <minor> <start> <inc> <count>
           Where name is the file name, type can be one of:      f    Regular
           file      d    Directory      c    Character device      b    Block
           device      p    Fifo (named pipe) uid is the user id for the
           target file, gid is the group id for the target file. The rest of
           the entries (major, minor, etc) apply to to device special files. A
           '-' may be used for blank entries.

       md5sum
           md5sum [FILE]...
              or: md5sum -c [-sw] [FILE]

           Print or check MD5 checksums

           Options:

                   -c      Check sums against given list
                   -s      Don't output anything, status code shows success
                   -w      Warn about improperly formatted checksum lines

       mdev
           mdev [-s]

                   -s      Scan /sys and populate /dev during system boot

           It can be run by kernel as a hotplug helper. To activate it:
            echo /sbin/mdev > /proc/sys/kernel/hotplug

       mesg
           mesg [y|n]

           Control write access to your terminal      y    Allow write access
           to your terminal      n    Disallow write access to your terminal

       microcom
           microcom [-d DELAY] [-t TIMEOUT] [-s SPEED] [-X] TTY

           Copy bytes for stdin to TTY and from TTY to stdout

           Options:

                   -d      Wait up to DELAY ms for TTY output before sending every
                           next byte to it
                   -t      Exit if both stdin and TTY are silent for TIMEOUT ms
                   -s      Set serial line to SPEED
                   -X      Disable special meaning of NUL and Ctrl-X from stdin

           mkfifo [-m MODE] NAME

           Create named pipe

           Options:

                   -m MODE Mode (default a=rw)

       mkfs.minix
           mkfs.minix [-c | -l FILE] [-nXX] [-iXX] BLOCKDEV [KBYTES]

           Make a MINIX filesystem

           Options:

                   -c              Check device for bad blocks
                   -n [14|30]      Maximum length of filenames
                   -i INODES       Number of inodes for the filesystem
                   -l FILE         Read bad blocks list from FILE
                   -v              Make version 2 filesystem

       mknod
           mknod [-m MODE] NAME TYPE MAJOR MINOR

           Create a special file (block, character, or pipe)

           Options:

                   -m MODE Creation mode (default a=rw)
           TYPE:
                   b       Block device
                   c or u  Character device
                   p       Named pipe (MAJOR and MINOR are ignored)

       mkswap
           mkswap [-L LBL] BLOCKDEV [KBYTES]

           Prepare BLOCKDEV to be used as swap partition

           Options:

                   -L LBL  Label

       mktemp
           mktemp [-dt] [-p DIR] [TEMPLATE]

           Create a temporary file with name based on TEMPLATE and print its
           name.  TEMPLATE must end with XXXXXX (e.g. [/dir/]nameXXXXXX).

           Options:

                   -d      Make a directory instead of a file
                   -t      Generate a path rooted in temporary directory
                   -p DIR  Use DIR as a temporary directory (implies -t)

           Mount a filesystem. Filesystem autodetection requires /proc.

           Options:

                   -a              Mount all filesystems in fstab
                   -f              Dry run
                   -i              Don't run mount helper
                   -r              Read-only mount
                   -w              Read-write mount (default)
                   -t FSTYPE       Filesystem type
                   -O OPT          Mount only filesystems with option OPT (-a only)
           -o OPT:
                   loop            Ignored (loop devices are autodetected)
                   [a]sync         Writes are [a]synchronous
                   [no]atime       Disable/enable updates to inode access times
                   [no]diratime    Disable/enable atime updates to directories
                   [no]relatime    Disable/enable atime updates relative to modification time
                   [no]dev         (Dis)allow use of special device files
                   [no]exec        (Dis)allow use of executable files
                   [no]suid        (Dis)allow set-user-id-root programs
                   [r]shared       Convert [recursively] to a shared subtree
                   [r]slave        Convert [recursively] to a slave subtree
                   [r]private      Convert [recursively] to a private subtree
                   [un]bindable    Make mount point [un]able to be bind mounted
                   bind            Bind a file or directory to another location
                   move            Relocate an existing mount point
                   remount         Remount a mounted filesystem, changing flags
                   ro/rw           Same as -r/-w

           There are filesystem-specific -o flags.

       mt  mt [-f device] opcode value

           Control magnetic tape drive operation

           Available Opcodes:

           bsf bsfm bsr bss datacompression drvbuffer eof eom erase fsf fsfm
           fsr fss load lock mkpart nop offline ras1 ras2 ras3 reset retension
           rewind rewoffline seek setblk setdensity setpart tell unload unlock
           weof wset

       mv  mv [-fin] SOURCE DEST or: mv [-fin] SOURCE... DIRECTORY

           Rename SOURCE to DEST, or move SOURCE(s) to DIRECTORY

           Options:

                   -f      Don't prompt before overwriting
                   -i      Interactive, prompt before overwrite
                   -n      Don't overwrite an existing file

       nameif
           nameif [-s] [-c FILE] [{IFNAME MACADDR}]

           Options:

                   -e PROG Run PROG after connect
                   -l      Listen mode, for inbound connects
                           (use -l twice with -e for persistent server)
                   -p PORT Local port
                   -w SEC  Timeout for connect
                   -i SEC  Delay interval for lines sent
                   -f FILE Use file (ala /dev/ttyS0) instead of network

       netstat
           netstat [-ral] [-tuwx] [-en]

           Display networking information

           Options:

                   -r      Routing table
                   -a      All sockets
                   -l      Listening sockets
                           Else: connected sockets
                   -t      TCP sockets
                   -u      UDP sockets
                   -w      Raw sockets
                   -x      Unix sockets
                           Else: all socket types
                   -e      Other/more information
                   -n      Don't resolve names

       nslookup
           nslookup [HOST] [SERVER]

           Query the nameserver for the IP address of the given HOST
           optionally using a specified DNS server

       od  od [-aBbcDdeFfHhIiLlOovXx] [-t TYPE] [FILE]

           Write an unambiguous representation, octal bytes by default, of
           FILE (or stdin) to stdout

       openvt
           openvt [-c N] [-sw] [PROG ARGS]

           Start PROG on a new virtual terminal

           Options:

                   -c N    Use specified VT
                   -s      Switch to the VT
                   -w      Wait for PROG to exit

       passwd
           passwd [OPTIONS] [USER]
           patch [OPTIONS] [ORIGFILE [PATCHFILE]]

                   -p,--strip N            Strip N leading components from file names
                   -i,--input DIFF         Read DIFF instead of stdin
                   -R,--reverse            Reverse patch
                   -N,--forward            Ignore already applied patches
                   --dry-run               Don't actually change files
                   -E,--remove-empty-files Remove output files if they become empty

       pidof
           pidof [NAME]...

           List PIDs of all processes with names that match NAMEs

       ping
           ping [OPTIONS] HOST

           Send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packets to network hosts

           Options:

                   -4,-6           Force IP or IPv6 name resolution
                   -c CNT          Send only CNT pings
                   -s SIZE         Send SIZE data bytes in packets (default:56)
                   -I IFACE/IP     Use interface or IP address as source
                   -W SEC          Seconds to wait for the first response (default:10)
                                   (after all -c CNT packets are sent)
                   -w SEC          Seconds until ping exits (default:infinite)
                                   (can exit earlier with -c CNT)
                   -q              Quiet, only displays output at start
                                   and when finished

       ping6
           ping6 [OPTIONS] HOST

           Send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packets to network hosts

           Options:

                   -c CNT          Send only CNT pings
                   -s SIZE         Send SIZE data bytes in packets (default:56)
                   -I IFACE/IP     Use interface or IP address as source
                   -q              Quiet, only displays output at start
                                   and when finished

       pivot_root
           pivot_root NEW_ROOT PUT_OLD

           Move the current root file system to PUT_OLD and make NEW_ROOT the
           new root file system

       printf
           printf FORMAT [ARGUMENT]...

       pwd pwd

           Print the full filename of the current working directory

       rdate
           rdate [-sp] HOST

           Get and possibly set the system date and time from a remote HOST

           Options:

                   -s      Set the system date and time (default)
                   -p      Print the date and time

       readlink
           readlink [-fnv] FILE

           Display the value of a symlink

           Options:

                   -f      Canonicalize by following all symlinks
                   -n      Don't add newline
                   -v      Verbose

       realpath
           realpath FILE...

           Return the absolute pathnames of given FILE

       renice
           renice {{-n INCREMENT} | PRIORITY} [[-p | -g | -u] ID...]

           Change scheduling priority for a running process

           Options:

                   -n      Adjust current nice value (smaller is faster)
                   -p      Process id(s) (default)
                   -g      Process group id(s)
                   -u      Process user name(s) and/or id(s)

       reset
           reset

           Reset the screen

       rev rev [FILE]...

           Reverse lines of FILE

       rm  rm [-irf] FILE...

           Remove (unlink) FILEs
           Options:

                   -p|--parents    Include parents
                   --ignore-fail-on-non-empty

       route
           route [{add|del|delete}]

           Edit kernel routing tables

           Options:

                   -n      Don't resolve names
                   -e      Display other/more information
                   -A inet{6}      Select address family

       rpm rpm -i PACKAGE.rpm; rpm -qp[ildc] PACKAGE.rpm

           Manipulate RPM packages

           Commands:

                   -i      Install package
                   -qp     Query package
           Options:

                   -i      Show information
                   -l      List contents
                   -d      List documents
                   -c      List config files

       rpm2cpio
           rpm2cpio package.rpm

           Output a cpio archive of the rpm file

       run-parts
           run-parts [-t] [-a ARG] [-u MASK] DIRECTORY

           Run a bunch of scripts in DIRECTORY

           Options:

                   -t      Print what would be run, but don't actually run anything
                   -a ARG  Pass ARG as argument for every program
                   -u MASK Set the umask to MASK before running every program

       sed sed [-efinr] SED_CMD [FILE]...

           Options:

                   -e CMD  Add CMD to sed commands to be executed
                   -f FILE Add FILE contents to sed commands to be executed
                   -i      Edit files in-place (else sends result to stdout)

                   -w      Pad to last with leading zeros
                   -s SEP  String separator

       setkeycodes
           setkeycodes SCANCODE KEYCODE...

           Set entries into the kernel's scancode-to-keycode map, allowing
           unusual keyboards to generate usable keycodes.

           SCANCODE may be either xx or e0xx (hexadecimal), and KEYCODE is
           given in decimal.

       sha1sum
           sha1sum [FILE]...
              or: sha1sum -c [-sw] [FILE]

           Print or check SHA1 checksums

           Options:

                   -c      Check sums against given list
                   -s      Don't output anything, status code shows success
                   -w      Warn about improperly formatted checksum lines

       sha256sum
           sha256sum [FILE]...
              or: sha256sum -c [-sw] [FILE]

           Print or check SHA256 checksums

           Options:

                   -c      Check sums against given list
                   -s      Don't output anything, status code shows success
                   -w      Warn about improperly formatted checksum lines

       sha512sum
           sha512sum [FILE]...
              or: sha512sum -c [-sw] [FILE]

           Print or check SHA512 checksums

           Options:

                   -c      Check sums against given list
                   -s      Don't output anything, status code shows success
                   -w      Warn about improperly formatted checksum lines

       sleep
           sleep [N]...

           Pause for a time equal to the total of the args given, where each
           arg can have an optional suffix of (s)econds, (m)inutes, (h)ours,
                   -d      Dictionary order (blank or alphanumeric only)
                   -f      Ignore case
                   -g      General numerical sort
                   -i      Ignore unprintable characters
                   -k      Sort key
                   -M      Sort month
                   -n      Sort numbers
                   -o      Output to file
                   -k      Sort by key
                   -t CHAR Key separator
                   -r      Reverse sort order
                   -s      Stable (don't sort ties alphabetically)
                   -u      Suppress duplicate lines
                   -z      Lines are terminated by NUL, not newline
                   -mST    Ignored for GNU compatibility

       start-stop-daemon
           start-stop-daemon [OPTIONS] [-S|-K] ... [-- ARGS...]

           Search for matching processes, and then -K: stop all matching
           processes.  -S: start a process unless a matching process is found.

           Process matching:

                   -u,--user USERNAME|UID  Match only this user's processes
                   -n,--name NAME          Match processes with NAME
                                           in comm field in /proc/PID/stat
                   -x,--exec EXECUTABLE    Match processes with this command
                                           in /proc/PID/cmdline
                   -p,--pidfile FILE       Match a process with PID from the file
                   All specified conditions must match
           -S only:
                   -x,--exec EXECUTABLE    Program to run
                   -a,--startas NAME       Zeroth argument
                   -b,--background         Background
                   -N,--nicelevel N        Change nice level
                   -c,--chuid USER[:[GRP]] Change to user/group
                   -m,--make-pidfile       Write PID to the pidfile specified by -p
           -K only:
                   -s,--signal SIG         Signal to send
                   -t,--test               Match only, exit with 0 if a process is found
           Other:

                   -o,--oknodo             Exit with status 0 if nothing is done
                   -v,--verbose            Verbose
                   -q,--quiet              Quiet

       strings
           strings [-afo] [-n LEN] [FILE]...

           Display printable strings in a binary file

           Options:


                   -F DEVICE       Open device instead of stdin
                   -a              Print all current settings in human-readable form
                   -g              Print in stty-readable form
                   [SETTING]       See manpage

       su  su [OPTIONS] [-] [USERNAME]

           Change user id or become root

           Options:

                   -p,-m   Preserve environment
                   -c CMD  Command to pass to 'sh -c'
                   -s SH   Shell to use instead of default shell

       sulogin
           sulogin [-t N] [TTY]

           Single user login

           Options:

                   -t N    Timeout

       swapoff
           swapoff [-a] [DEVICE]

           Stop swapping on DEVICE

           Options:

                   -a      Stop swapping on all swap devices

       swapon
           swapon [-a] [DEVICE]

           Start swapping on DEVICE

           Options:

                   -a      Start swapping on all swap devices

       switch_root
           switch_root [-c /dev/console] NEW_ROOT NEW_INIT [ARGS]

           Free initramfs and switch to another root fs:

           chroot to NEW_ROOT, delete all in /, move NEW_ROOT to /, execute
           NEW_INIT. PID must be 1. NEW_ROOT must be a mountpoint.

           Options:

                   -c DEV  Reopen stdio to DEV after switch

                   -n      Don't print key names
                   -e      Don't warn about unknown keys
                   -w      Change sysctl setting
                   -p FILE Load sysctl settings from FILE (default /etc/sysctl.conf)
                   -a      Display all values
                   -A      Display all values in table form

       syslogd
           syslogd [OPTIONS]

           System logging utility.  This version of syslogd ignores
           /etc/syslog.conf

           Options:

                   -n              Run in foreground
                   -O FILE         Log to given file (default:/var/log/messages)
                   -l N            Set local log level
                   -S              Smaller logging output
                   -R HOST[:PORT]  Log to IP or hostname on PORT (default PORT=514/UDP)
                   -L              Log locally and via network (default is network only if -R)
                   -C[size(KiB)]   Log to shared mem buffer (read it using logread)

       tac tac [FILE]...

           Concatenate FILEs and print them in reverse

       tail
           tail [OPTIONS] [FILE]...

           Print last 10 lines of each FILE (or stdin) to stdout.  With more
           than one FILE, precede each with a filename header.

           Options:

                   -f              Print data as file grows
                   -s SECONDS      Wait SECONDS between reads with -f
                   -n N[kbm]       Print last N lines
                   -c N[kbm]       Print last N bytes
                   -q              Never print headers
                   -v              Always print headers

           N may be suffixed by k (x1024), b (x512), or m (x1024^2).  If N
           starts with a '+', output begins with the Nth item from the start
           of each file, not from the end.

       tar tar -[cxtzjaZmvO] [-f TARFILE] [-C DIR] [FILE]...

           Create, extract, or list files from a tar file

           Operation:

                   c       Create
                   h       Follow symlinks
                   m       Don't restore mtime

       tee tee [-ai] [FILE]...

           Copy stdin to each FILE, and also to stdout

           Options:

                   -a      Append to the given FILEs, don't overwrite
                   -i      Ignore interrupt signals (SIGINT)

       telnet
           telnet [-a] [-l USER] HOST [PORT]

           Connect to telnet server

           Options:

                   -a      Automatic login with $USER variable
                   -l USER Automatic login as USER

       telnetd
           telnetd [OPTIONS]

           Handle incoming telnet connections

           Options:

                   -l LOGIN        Exec LOGIN on connect
                   -f ISSUE_FILE   Display ISSUE_FILE instead of /etc/issue
                   -K              Close connection as soon as login exits
                                   (normally wait until all programs close slave pty)
                   -p PORT         Port to listen on
                   -b ADDR[:PORT]  Address to bind to
                   -F              Run in foreground
                   -i              Inetd mode

       test
           test EXPRESSION ]

           Check file types, compare values etc. Return a 0/1 exit code
           depending on logical value of EXPRESSION

       tftp
           tftp [OPTIONS] HOST [PORT]

           Transfer a file from/to tftp server

           Options:

                   -l FILE Local FILE
                   -r FILE Remote FILE
                   -g      Get file

       timeout
           timeout [-t SECS] [-s SIG] PROG ARGS

           Runs PROG. Sends SIG to it if it is not gone in SECS seconds.
           Defaults: SECS: 10, SIG: TERM.

       top top [-b] [-nCOUNT] [-dSECONDS]

           Provide a view of process activity in real time.  Read the status
           of all processes from /proc each SECONDS and display a screenful of
           them.

       touch
           touch [-c] [-d DATE] [-r FILE] FILE [FILE]...

           Update the last-modified date on the given FILE[s]

           Options:

                   -c      Don't create files
                   -d DT   Date/time to use
                   -r FILE Use FILE's date/time

       tr  tr [-cds] STRING1 [STRING2]

           Translate, squeeze, or delete characters from stdin, writing to
           stdout

           Options:

                   -c      Take complement of STRING1
                   -d      Delete input characters coded STRING1
                   -s      Squeeze multiple output characters of STRING2 into one character

       traceroute
           traceroute [-46FIldnrv] [-f 1ST_TTL] [-m MAXTTL] [-p PORT] [-q
           PROBES]      [-s SRC_IP] [-t TOS] [-w WAIT_SEC] [-g GATEWAY] [-i
           IFACE]      [-z PAUSE_MSEC] HOST [BYTES]

           Trace the route to HOST

           Options:

                   -4,-6   Force IP or IPv6 name resolution
                   -F      Set the don't fragment bit
                   -I      Use ICMP ECHO instead of UDP datagrams
                   -l      Display the TTL value of the returned packet
                   -d      Set SO_DEBUG options to socket
                   -n      Print numeric addresses
                   -r      Bypass routing tables, send directly to HOST
                   -v      Verbose
                   -m      Max time-to-live (max number of hops)
                   -p      Base UDP port number used in probes
                           (default 33434)

           Options:

                   -d      Set SO_DEBUG options to socket
                   -n      Print numeric addresses
                   -r      Bypass routing tables, send directly to HOST
                   -v      Verbose
                   -m      Max time-to-live (max number of hops)
                   -p      Base UDP port number used in probes
                           (default is 33434)
                   -q      Number of probes per TTL (default 3)
                   -s      IP address to use as the source address
                   -t      Type-of-service in probe packets (default 0)
                   -w      Time in seconds to wait for a response (default 3)

       true
           true

           Return an exit code of TRUE (0)

       tty tty

           Print file name of stdin's terminal

           Options:

                   -s      Print nothing, only return exit status

       tunctl
           tunctl [-f device] ([-t name] | -d name)

           Create or delete tun interfaces

           Options:

                   -f name         tun device (/dev/net/tun)
                   -t name         Create iface 'name'
                   -d name         Delete iface 'name'

       udhcpc
           udhcpc [-fbnqoCR] [-i IFACE] [-r IP] [-s PROG] [-p PIDFILE]
                [-H HOSTNAME] [-V VENDOR] [-x OPT:VAL]... [-O OPT]...

                   -i,--interface IFACE    Interface to use (default eth0)
                   -p,--pidfile FILE       Create pidfile
                   -s,--script PROG        Run PROG at DHCP events (default /usr/share/udhcpc/default.script)
                   -t,--retries N          Send up to N discover packets
                   -T,--timeout N          Pause between packets (default 3 seconds)
                   -A,--tryagain N         Wait N seconds after failure (default 20)
                   -f,--foreground         Run in foreground
                   -b,--background         Background if lease is not obtained
                   -n,--now                Exit if lease is not obtained
                   -q,--quit               Exit after obtaining lease
                   -R,--release            Release IP on exit
                   -S,--syslog             Log to syslog too
                   -C,--clientid-none      Don't send MAC as client identifier

       udhcpd
           udhcpd [-fS] [CONFFILE]

           DHCP server

                   -f      Run in foreground
                   -S      Log to syslog too

       umount
           umount [OPTIONS] FILESYSTEM|DIRECTORY

           Unmount file systems

           Options:

                   -a      Unmount all file systems
                   -r      Try to remount devices as read-only if mount is busy
                   -l      Lazy umount (detach filesystem)
                   -f      Force umount (i.e., unreachable NFS server)
                   -d      Free loop device if it has been used

       uname
           uname [-amnrspv]

           Print system information

           Options:

                   -a      Print all
                   -m      The machine (hardware) type
                   -n      Hostname
                   -r      OS release
                   -s      OS name (default)
                   -p      Processor type
                   -v      OS version

       uncompress
           uncompress [-cf] [FILE]...

           Decompress .Z file[s]

           Options:

                   -c      Write to stdout
                   -f      Overwrite

       unexpand
           unexpand [-fa][-t N] [FILE]...

           Convert spaces to tabs, writing to stdout

           Options:
                   -c      Prefix lines by the number of occurrences
                   -d      Only print duplicate lines
                   -u      Only print unique lines
                   -f N    Skip first N fields
                   -s N    Skip first N chars (after any skipped fields)
                   -w N    Compare N characters in line

       unix2dos
           unix2dos [-ud] [FILE]

           Convert FILE in-place from Unix to DOS format.  When no file is
           given, use stdin/stdout.

           Options:

                   -u      dos2unix
                   -d      unix2dos

       unlzma
           unlzma [-cf] [FILE]...

           Decompress FILE (or stdin)

           Options:

                   -c      Write to stdout
                   -f      Force

       unxz
           unxz [-cf] [FILE]...

           Decompress FILE (or stdin)

           Options:

                   -c      Write to stdout
                   -f      Force

       unzip
           unzip [-opts[modifiers]] FILE[.zip] [LIST] [-x XLIST] [-d DIR]

           Extract files from ZIP archives

           Options:

                   -l      List archive contents (with -q for short form)
                   -n      Never overwrite files (default)
                   -o      Overwrite
                   -p      Send output to stdout
                   -q      Quiet
                   -x XLST Exclude these files
                   -d DIR  Extract files into DIR

       uptime
           Uudecode a file Finds outfile name in uuencoded source unless -o is
           given

       uuencode
           uuencode [-m] [INFILE] STORED_FILENAME

           Uuencode a file to stdout

           Options:

                   -m      Use base64 encoding per RFC1521

       vconfig
           vconfig COMMAND [OPTIONS]

           Create and remove virtual ethernet devices

           Options:

                   add             [interface-name] [vlan_id]
                   rem             [vlan-name]
                   set_flag        [interface-name] [flag-num] [0 | 1]
                   set_egress_map  [vlan-name] [skb_priority] [vlan_qos]
                   set_ingress_map [vlan-name] [skb_priority] [vlan_qos]
                   set_name_type   [name-type]

       vi  vi [OPTIONS] [FILE]...

           Edit FILE

           Options:

                   -c      Initial command to run ($EXINIT also available)
                   -R      Read-only
                   -H      Short help regarding available features

       vlock
           vlock [-a]

           Lock a virtual terminal. A password is required to unlock.

           Options:

                   -a      Lock all VTs

       watch
           watch [-n SEC] [-t] PROG ARGS

           Run PROG periodically

           Options:

                   -n      Loop period in seconds (default 2)
                   -t      Don't print header

           Use 500ms to specify period in milliseconds

       wc  wc [-cmlwL] [FILE]...

           Count lines, words, and bytes for each FILE (or stdin)

           Options:

                   -c      Count bytes
                   -m      Count characters
                   -l      Count newlines
                   -w      Count words
                   -L      Print longest line length

       wget
           wget [-c|--continue] [-s|--spider] [-q|--quiet]
           [-O|--output-document FILE]      [--header 'header: value']
           [-Y|--proxy on/off] [-P DIR]      [--no-check-certificate]
           [-U|--user-agent AGENT] URL

           Retrieve files via HTTP or FTP

           Options:

                   -s      Spider mode - only check file existence
                   -c      Continue retrieval of aborted transfer
                   -q      Quiet
                   -P DIR  Save to DIR (default .)
                   -O FILE Save to FILE ('-' for stdout)
                   -U STR  Use STR for User-Agent header
                   -Y      Use proxy ('on' or 'off')

       which
           which [COMMAND]...

           Locate a COMMAND

       who who [-a]

           Show who is logged on

           Options:

                   -a      Show all

       whoami
           whoami

           Print the user name associated with the current effective user id

       xargs
           xargs [OPTIONS] [PROG ARGS]

           Run PROG on every item given by stdin

           Options:

                   -d      Decompress
                   -c      Write to stdout
                   -f      Force

       xzcat
           xzcat FILE

           Decompress to stdout

       yes yes [STRING]

           Repeatedly output a line with STRING, or 'y'

       zcat
           zcat FILE

           Decompress to stdout

LIBC NSS
       GNU Libc (glibc) uses the Name Service Switch (NSS) to configure the
       behavior of the C library for the local environment, and to configure
       how it reads system data, such as passwords and group information.
       This is implemented using an /etc/nsswitch.conf configuration file, and
       using one or more of the /lib/libnss_* libraries.  BusyBox tries to
       avoid using any libc calls that make use of NSS.  Some applets however,
       such as login and su, will use libc functions that require NSS.

       If you enable CONFIG_USE_BB_PWD_GRP, BusyBox will use internal
       functions to directly access the /etc/passwd, /etc/group, and
       /etc/shadow files without using NSS.  This may allow you to run your
       system without the need for installing any of the NSS configuration
       files and libraries.

       When used with glibc, the BusyBox 'networking' applets will similarly
       require that you install at least some of the glibc NSS stuff (in
       particular, /etc/nsswitch.conf, /lib/libnss_dns*, /lib/libnss_files*,
       and /lib/libresolv*).

       Shameless Plug: As an alternative, one could use a C library such as
       uClibc.  In addition to making your system significantly smaller,
       uClibc does not require the use of any NSS support files or libraries.

MAINTAINER
       Denis Vlasenko <vda.linux@googlemail.com>

AUTHORS
       The following people have contributed code to BusyBox whether they know
       it or not.  If you have written code included in BusyBox, you should
       probably be listed here so you can obtain your bit of eternal glory.
       If you should be listed here, or the description of what you have done
       needs more detail, or is incorrect, please send in an update.

           rpm2cpio, unzip, get_header_cpio, read_gz interface, rpm

       Jeff Angielski <jeff@theptrgroup.com>

           ftpput, ftpget

       Edward Betts <edward@debian.org>

           expr, hostid, logname, whoami

       John Beppu <beppu@codepoet.org>

           du, nslookup, sort

       Brian Candler <B.Candler@pobox.com>

           tiny-ls(ls)

       Randolph Chung <tausq@debian.org>

           fbset, ping, hostname

       Dave Cinege <dcinege@psychosis.com>

           more(v2), makedevs, dutmp, modularization, auto links file,
           various fixes, Linux Router Project maintenance

       Jordan Crouse <jordan@cosmicpenguin.net>

           ipcalc

       Magnus Damm <damm@opensource.se>

           tftp client insmod powerpc support

       Larry Doolittle <ldoolitt@recycle.lbl.gov>

           pristine source directory compilation, lots of patches and fixes.

       Glenn Engel <glenne@engel.org>

           httpd

       Gennady Feldman <gfeldman@gena01.com>

           Sysklogd (single threaded syslogd, IPC Circular buffer support,
           logread), various fixes.

       Karl M. Hegbloom <karlheg@debian.org>

           cp_mv.c, the test suite, various fixes to utility.c, &c.

       Daniel Jacobowitz <dan@debian.org>

           tr

       Glenn McGrath <bug1@iinet.net.au>

           Common unarchiving code and unarchiving applets, ifupdown, ftpgetput,
           nameif, sed, patch, fold, install, uudecode.
           Various bugfixes, review and apply numerous patches.

       Manuel Novoa III <mjn3@codepoet.org>

           cat, head, mkfifo, mknod, rmdir, sleep, tee, tty, uniq, usleep, wc, yes,
           mesg, vconfig, make_directory, parse_mode, dirname, mode_string,
           get_last_path_component, simplify_path, and a number trivial libbb routines

           also bug fixes, partial rewrites, and size optimizations in
           ash, basename, cal, cmp, cp, df, du, echo, env, ln, logname, md5sum, mkdir,
           mv, realpath, rm, sort, tail, touch, uname, watch, arith, human_readable,
           interface, dutmp, ifconfig, route

       Vladimir Oleynik <dzo@simtreas.ru>

           cmdedit; xargs(current), httpd(current);
           ports: ash, crond, fdisk, inetd, stty, traceroute, top;
           locale, various fixes
           and irreconcilable critic of everything not perfect.

       Bruce Perens <bruce@pixar.com>

           Original author of BusyBox in 1995, 1996. Some of his code can
           still be found hiding here and there...

       Tim Riker <Tim@Rikers.org>

           bug fixes, member of fan club

       Kent Robotti <robotti@metconnect.com>

           reset, tons and tons of bug reports and patches.

       Chip Rosenthal <chip@unicom.com>, <crosenth@covad.com>

           wget - Contributed by permission of Covad Communications

       Pavel Roskin <proski@gnu.org>

           Lots of bugs fixes and patches.

       Gyepi Sam <gyepi@praxis-sw.com>

           Remote logging feature for syslogd

       Linus Torvalds <torvalds@transmeta.com>


           tarcat (since removed), loadkmap, various fixes, Debian maintenance

       Tito Ragusa <farmatito@tiscali.it>

           devfsd and size optimizations in strings, openvt and deallocvt.

       Paul Fox <pgf@foxharp.boston.ma.us>

           vi editing mode for ash, various other patches/fixes

       Roberto A. Foglietta <me@roberto.foglietta.name>

           port: dnsd

       Bernhard Reutner-Fischer <rep.dot.nop@gmail.com>

           misc

       Mike Frysinger <vapier@gentoo.org>

           initial e2fsprogs, printenv, setarch, sum, misc

       Jie Zhang <jie.zhang@analog.com>

           fixed two bugs in msh and hush (exitcode of killed processes)



version 1.18.5                    2012-11-16                        BUSYBOX(1)
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