busybox


SYNTAX
        busybox <applet> [arguments...]  # or

        <applet> [arguments...]          # if symlinked

DESCRIPTION
       BusyBox combines tiny versions of many common UNIX utilities into a
       single small executable. It provides minimalist replacements for most
       of the utilities you usually find in GNU coreutils, util-linux, etc.
       The utilities in BusyBox generally have fewer options than their full-
       featured GNU cousins; however, the options that are included provide
       the expected functionality and behave very much like their GNU
       counterparts.

       BusyBox has been written with size-optimization and limited resources
       in mind.  It is also extremely modular so you can easily include or
       exclude commands (or features) at compile time. This makes it easy to
       customize your embedded systems. To create a working system, just add
       /dev, /etc, and a Linux kernel.  BusyBox provides a fairly complete
       POSIX environment for any small or embedded system.

       BusyBox is extremely configurable.  This allows you to include only the
       components you need, thereby reducing binary size. Run 'make config' or
       'make menuconfig' to select the functionality that you wish to enable.
       Then run 'make' to compile BusyBox using your configuration.

       After the compile has finished, you should use 'make install' to
       install BusyBox. This will install the 'bin/busybox' binary, in the
       target directory specified by CONFIG_PREFIX. CONFIG_PREFIX can be set
       when configuring BusyBox, or you can specify an alternative location at
       install time (i.e., with a command line like 'make
       CONFIG_PREFIX=/tmp/foo install'). If you enabled any applet
       installation scheme (either as symlinks or hardlinks), these will also
       be installed in the location pointed to by CONFIG_PREFIX.

USAGE
       BusyBox is a multi-call binary.  A multi-call binary is an executable
       program that performs the same job as more than one utility program.
       That means there is just a single BusyBox binary, but that single
       binary acts like a large number of utilities.  This allows BusyBox to
       be smaller since all the built-in utility programs (we call them
       applets) can share code for many common operations.

       You can also invoke BusyBox by issuing a command as an argument on the
       command line.  For example, entering

               /bin/busybox ls

       will also cause BusyBox to behave as 'ls'.

       Of course, adding '/bin/busybox' into every command would be painful.
       So most people will invoke BusyBox using links to the BusyBox binary.


COMMON OPTIONS
       Most BusyBox applets support the --help argument to provide a terse
       runtime description of their behavior.  If the
       CONFIG_FEATURE_VERBOSE_USAGE option has been enabled, more detailed
       usage information will also be available.

COMMANDS
       Currently available applets include:

               [, [[, adjtimex, ar, arp, arping, ash, awk, basename, blockdev,
               brctl, bunzip2, bzcat, bzip2, cal, cat, chgrp, chmod, chown,
               chpasswd, chroot, chvt, clear, cmp, cp, cpio, crond, crontab,
               cttyhack, cut, date, dc, dd, deallocvt, depmod, df, diff, dirname,
               dmesg, dnsdomainname, dos2unix, dpkg, dpkg-deb, du, dumpkmap,
               dumpleases, echo, ed, egrep, env, expand, expr, false, fdisk, fgrep,
               find, fold, free, freeramdisk, ftpget, ftpput, getopt, getty, grep,
               groups, gunzip, gzip, halt, head, hexdump, hostid, hostname, httpd,
               hwclock, id, ifconfig, ifdown, ifup, init, insmod, ionice, ip,
               ipcalc, kill, killall, klogd, last, less, ln, loadfont, loadkmap,
               logger, login, logname, logread, losetup, ls, lsmod, lzcat, lzma,
               md5sum, mdev, microcom, mkdir, mkfifo, mknod, mkswap, mktemp,
               modinfo, modprobe, more, mount, mt, mv, nameif, nc, netstat,
               nslookup, od, openvt, passwd, patch, pidof, ping, ping6, pivot_root,
               poweroff, printf, ps, pwd, rdate, readlink, realpath, reboot,
               renice, reset, rev, rm, rmdir, rmmod, route, rpm, rpm2cpio,
               run-parts, sed, seq, setkeycodes, setsid, sh, sha1sum, sha256sum,
               sha512sum, sleep, sort, start-stop-daemon, stat, static-sh, strings,
               stty, su, sulogin, swapoff, swapon, switch_root, sync, sysctl,
               syslogd, tac, tail, tar, taskset, tee, telnet, telnetd, test, tftp,
               time, timeout, top, touch, tr, traceroute, traceroute6, true, tty,
               tunctl, udhcpc, udhcpd, umount, uname, uncompress, unexpand, uniq,
               unix2dos, unlzma, unxz, unzip, uptime, usleep, uudecode, uuencode,
               vconfig, vi, watch, watchdog, wc, wget, which, who, whoami, xargs,
               xz, xzcat, yes, zcat

COMMAND DESCRIPTIONS
       adjtimex
           adjtimex [-q] [-o OFF] [-f FREQ] [-p TCONST] [-t TICK]

           Read and optionally set system timebase parameters. See adjtimex(2)

                   -q      Quiet
                   -o OFF  Time offset, microseconds
                   -f FREQ Frequency adjust, integer kernel units (65536 is 1ppm)
                           (positive values make clock run faster)
                   -t TICK Microseconds per tick, usually 10000
                   -p TCONST

       ar  ar [-o] [-v] [-p] [-t] [-x] ARCHIVE FILES

           Extract or list FILES from an ar archive

                   -o      Preserve original dates
                   -a              Display (all) hosts
                   -s              Set new ARP entry
                   -d              Delete a specified entry
                   -v              Verbose
                   -n              Don't resolve names
                   -i IF           Network interface
                   -D              Read <hwaddr> from given device
                   -A,-p AF        Protocol family
                   -H HWTYPE       Hardware address type

       arping
           arping [-fqbDUA] [-c CNT] [-w TIMEOUT] [-I IFACE] [-s SRC_IP]
           DST_IP

           Send ARP requests/replies

                   -f              Quit on first ARP reply
                   -q              Quiet
                   -b              Keep broadcasting, don't go unicast
                   -D              Duplicated address detection mode
                   -U              Unsolicited ARP mode, update your neighbors
                   -A              ARP answer mode, update your neighbors
                   -c N            Stop after sending N ARP requests
                   -w TIMEOUT      Time to wait for ARP reply, seconds
                   -I IFACE        Interface to use (default eth0)
                   -s SRC_IP       Sender IP address
                   DST_IP          Target IP address

       ash ash [-/+OPTIONS] [-/+o OPT]... [-c 'SCRIPT' [ARG0 [ARGS]] / FILE
           [ARGS]]

           Unix shell interpreter

       awk awk [OPTIONS] [AWK_PROGRAM] [FILE]...

                   -v VAR=VAL      Set variable
                   -F SEP          Use SEP as field separator
                   -f FILE         Read program from FILE

       basename
           basename FILE [SUFFIX]

           Strip directory path and .SUFFIX from FILE

       blockdev
           blockdev OPTION BLOCKDEV

                   --setro         Set ro
                   --setrw         Set rw
                   --getro         Get ro
                   --getss         Get sector size
                   --getbsz        Get block size
                   --setbsz BYTES  Set block size
                   --getsz         Get device size in 512-byte sectors
                   delbr BRIDGE            Delete BRIDGE
                   addif BRIDGE IFACE      Add IFACE to BRIDGE
                   delif BRIDGE IFACE      Delete IFACE from BRIDGE

       bunzip2
           bunzip2 [-cf] [FILE]...

           Decompress FILEs (or stdin)

                   -c      Write to stdout
                   -f      Force

       bzcat
           bzcat FILE

           Decompress to stdout

       bzip2
           bzip2 [OPTIONS] [FILE]...

           Compress FILEs (or stdin) with bzip2 algorithm

                   -1..9   Compression level
                   -d      Decompress
                   -c      Write to stdout
                   -f      Force

       cal cal [-jy] [[MONTH] YEAR]

           Display a calendar

                   -j      Use julian dates
                   -y      Display the entire year

       cat cat [FILE]...

           Concatenate FILEs and print them to stdout

       chgrp
           chgrp [-RhLHPcvf]... GROUP FILE...

           Change the group membership of each FILE to GROUP

                   -R      Recurse
                   -h      Affect symlinks instead of symlink targets
                   -L      Traverse all symlinks to directories
                   -H      Traverse symlinks on command line only
                   -P      Don't traverse symlinks (default)
                   -c      List changed files
                   -v      Verbose
                   -f      Hide errors

       chmod
           chmod [-Rcvf] MODE[,MODE]... FILE...
           Change the owner and/or group of each FILE to OWNER and/or GROUP

                   -R      Recurse
                   -h      Affect symlinks instead of symlink targets
                   -L      Traverse all symlinks to directories
                   -H      Traverse symlinks on command line only
                   -P      Don't traverse symlinks (default)
                   -c      List changed files
                   -v      List all files
                   -f      Hide errors

       chpasswd
           chpasswd [--md5|--encrypted]

           Read user:password from stdin and update /etc/passwd

                   -e,--encrypted  Supplied passwords are in encrypted form
                   -m,--md5        Use MD5 encryption instead of DES

       chroot
           chroot NEWROOT [PROG ARGS]

           Run PROG with root directory set to NEWROOT

       chvt
           chvt N

           Change the foreground virtual terminal to /dev/ttyN

       clear
           clear

           Clear screen

       cmp cmp [-l] [-s] FILE1 [FILE2 [SKIP1 [SKIP2]]]

           Compare FILE1 with FILE2 (or stdin)

                   -l      Write the byte numbers (decimal) and values (octal)
                           for all differing bytes
                   -s      Quiet

       cp  cp [OPTIONS] SOURCE... DEST

           Copy SOURCE(s) to DEST

                   -a      Same as -dpR
                   -R,-r   Recurse
                   -d,-P   Preserve symlinks (default if -R)
                   -L      Follow all symlinks
                   -H      Follow symlinks on command line
                   -p      Preserve file attributes if possible
                   -f      Overwrite
                   -i      Prompt before overwrite
                   -o      Create (requires -H newc)
                   -d      Make leading directories
                   -m      Preserve mtime
                   -v      Verbose
                   -u      Overwrite
                   -F FILE Input (-t,-i,-p) or output (-o) file
                   -H newc Archive format

       crond
           crond -fbS -l N -L LOGFILE -c DIR

                   -f      Foreground
                   -b      Background (default)
                   -S      Log to syslog (default)
                   -l      Set log level. 0 is the most verbose, default 8
                   -L      Log to file
                   -c      Working dir

       crontab
           crontab [-c DIR] [-u USER] [-ler]|[FILE]

                   -c      Crontab directory
                   -u      User
                   -l      List crontab
                   -e      Edit crontab
                   -r      Delete crontab
                   FILE    Replace crontab by FILE ('-': stdin)

       cttyhack
           cttyhack [PROG ARGS]

           Give PROG a controlling tty if possible.  Example for /etc/inittab
           (for busybox init):      ::respawn:/bin/cttyhack /bin/sh Giving
           controlling tty to shell running with PID 1:      $ exec cttyhack
           sh Starting interactive shell from boot shell script:

                   setsid cttyhack sh

       cut cut [OPTIONS] [FILE]...

           Print selected fields from each input FILE to stdout

                   -b LIST Output only bytes from LIST
                   -c LIST Output only characters from LIST
                   -d CHAR Use CHAR instead of tab as the field delimiter
                   -s      Output only the lines containing delimiter
                   -f N    Print only these fields
                   -n      Ignored

       date
           date [OPTIONS] [+FMT] [TIME]

           Display time (using +FMT), or set time


                   hh:mm[:ss]
                   [YYYY.]MM.DD-hh:mm[:ss]
                   YYYY-MM-DD hh:mm[:ss]
                   [[[[[YY]YY]MM]DD]hh]mm[.ss]
                   'date TIME' form accepts MMDDhhmm[[YY]YY][.ss] instead

       dc  dc EXPRESSION...

           Tiny RPN calculator. Operations: +, add, -, sub, *, mul, /, div, %,
           mod, and, or, not, xor, p - print top of the stack (without
           popping), f - print entire stack, o - pop the value and set output
           radix (must be 10, 16, 8 or 2).  Examples: 'dc 2 2 add p' -> 4, 'dc
           8 8 mul 2 2 + / p' -> 16

       dd  dd [if=FILE] [of=FILE] [ibs=N] [obs=N] [bs=N] [count=N] [skip=N]
                [seek=N] [conv=notrunc|noerror|sync|fsync]

           Copy a file with converting and formatting

                   if=FILE         Read from FILE instead of stdin
                   of=FILE         Write to FILE instead of stdout
                   bs=N            Read and write N bytes at a time
                   ibs=N           Read N bytes at a time
                   obs=N           Write N bytes at a time
                   count=N         Copy only N input blocks
                   skip=N          Skip N input blocks
                   seek=N          Skip N output blocks
                   conv=notrunc    Don't truncate output file
                   conv=noerror    Continue after read errors
                   conv=sync       Pad blocks with zeros
                   conv=fsync      Physically write data out before finishing

           Numbers may be suffixed by c (x1), w (x2), b (x512), kD (x1000), k
           (x1024), MD (x1000000), M (x1048576), GD (x1000000000) or G
           (x1073741824)

       deallocvt
           deallocvt [N]

           Deallocate unused virtual terminal /dev/ttyN

       depmod
           depmod [-n] [-b BASE] [VERSION] [MODFILES]...

           Generate modules.dep, alias, and symbols files

                   -b BASE Use BASE/lib/modules/VERSION
                   -n      Dry run: print files to stdout

       df  df [-Pkmhai] [-B SIZE] [FILESYSTEM]...

           Print filesystem usage statistics

           This implementation supports unified diffs only.

                   -a      Treat all files as text
                   -b      Ignore changes in the amount of whitespace
                   -B      Ignore changes whose lines are all blank
                   -d      Try hard to find a smaller set of changes
                   -i      Ignore case differences
                   -L      Use LABEL instead of the filename in the unified header
                   -N      Treat absent files as empty
                   -q      Output only whether files differ
                   -r      Recurse
                   -S      Start with FILE when comparing directories
                   -T      Make tabs line up by prefixing a tab when necessary
                   -s      Report when two files are the same
                   -t      Expand tabs to spaces in output
                   -U      Output LINES lines of context
                   -w      Ignore all whitespace

       dirname
           dirname FILENAME

           Strip non-directory suffix from FILENAME

       dmesg
           dmesg [-c] [-n LEVEL] [-s SIZE]

           Print or control the kernel ring buffer

                   -c              Clear ring buffer after printing
                   -n LEVEL        Set console logging level
                   -s SIZE         Buffer size

       dos2unix
           dos2unix [-ud] [FILE]

           Convert FILE in-place from DOS to Unix format.  When no file is
           given, use stdin/stdout.

                   -u      dos2unix
                   -d      unix2dos

       dpkg
           dpkg [-ilCPru] [-F OPT] PACKAGE

           Install, remove and manage Debian packages

                   -i,--install    Install the package
                   -l,--list       List of installed packages
                   --configure     Configure an unpackaged package
                   -P,--purge      Purge all files of a package
                   -r,--remove     Remove all but the configuration files for a package
                   --unpack        Unpack a package, but don't configure it
                   --force-depends Ignore dependency problems
                   --force-confnew Overwrite existing config files when installing

       du  du [-aHLdclsxhmk] [FILE]...

           Summarize disk space used for each FILE and/or directory

                   -a      Show file sizes too
                   -L      Follow all symlinks
                   -H      Follow symlinks on command line
                   -d N    Limit output to directories (and files with -a) of depth < N
                   -c      Show grand total
                   -l      Count sizes many times if hard linked
                   -s      Display only a total for each argument
                   -x      Skip directories on different filesystems
                   -h      Sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 243M 2G)
                   -m      Sizes in megabytes
                   -k      Sizes in kilobytes (default)

       dumpkmap
           dumpkmap > keymap

           Print a binary keyboard translation table to stdout

       dumpleases
           dumpleases [-r|-a] [-f LEASEFILE]

           Display DHCP leases granted by udhcpd

                   -f,--file=FILE  Lease file
                   -r,--remaining  Show remaining time
                   -a,--absolute   Show expiration time

       echo
           echo [-neE] [ARG]...

           Print the specified ARGs to stdout

                   -n      Suppress trailing newline
                   -e      Interpret backslash escapes (i.e., \t=tab)
                   -E      Don't interpret backslash escapes (default)

       ed  ed

       env env [-iu] [-] [name=value]... [PROG ARGS]

           Print the current environment or run PROG after setting up the
           specified environment

                   -, -i   Start with an empty environment
                   -u      Remove variable from the environment

       expand
           expand [-i] [-t N] [FILE]...

           Convert tabs to spaces, writing to stdout
                   ARG1 & ARG2     ARG1 if neither argument is null or 0, otherwise 0
                   ARG1 < ARG2     1 if ARG1 is less than ARG2, else 0. Similarly:
                   ARG1 <= ARG2
                   ARG1 = ARG2
                   ARG1 != ARG2
                   ARG1 >= ARG2
                   ARG1 > ARG2
                   ARG1 + ARG2     Sum of ARG1 and ARG2. Similarly:
                   ARG1 - ARG2
                   ARG1 * ARG2
                   ARG1 / ARG2
                   ARG1 % ARG2
                   STRING : REGEXP         Anchored pattern match of REGEXP in STRING
                   match STRING REGEXP     Same as STRING : REGEXP
                   substr STRING POS LENGTH Substring of STRING, POS counted from 1
                   index STRING CHARS      Index in STRING where any CHARS is found, or 0
                   length STRING           Length of STRING
                   quote TOKEN             Interpret TOKEN as a string, even if
                                           it is a keyword like 'match' or an
                                           operator like '/'
                   (EXPRESSION)            Value of EXPRESSION

           Beware that many operators need to be escaped or quoted for shells.
           Comparisons are arithmetic if both ARGs are numbers, else
           lexicographical. Pattern matches return the string matched between
           \( and \) or null; if \( and \) are not used, they return the
           number of characters matched or 0.

       false
           false

           Return an exit code of FALSE \fIs0(1)

       fdisk
           fdisk [-ul] [-C CYLINDERS] [-H HEADS] [-S SECTORS] [-b SSZ] DISK

           Change partition table

                   -u              Start and End are in sectors (instead of cylinders)
                   -l              Show partition table for each DISK, then exit
                   -b 2048         (for certain MO disks) use 2048-byte sectors
                   -C CYLINDERS    Set number of cylinders/heads/sectors
                   -H HEADS
                   -S SECTORS

       find
           find [PATH]... [OPTIONS] [ACTIONS]

           Search for files and perform actions on them.  First failed action
           stops processing of current file.  Defaults: PATH is current
           directory, action is '-print'

                   -follow         Follow symlinks
                   -xdev           Don't descend directories on other filesystems
                   -name PATTERN   Match file name (w/o directory name) to PATTERN
                   -iname PATTERN  Case insensitive -name
                   -path PATTERN   Match path to PATTERN
                   -ipath PATTERN  Case insensitive -path
                   -regex PATTERN  Match path to regex PATTERN
                   -type X         File type is X (one of: f,d,l,b,c,...)
                   -perm MASK      At least one mask bit (+MASK), all bits (-MASK),
                                   or exactly MASK bits are set in file's mode
                   -mtime DAYS     mtime is greater than (+N), less than (-N),
                                   or exactly N days in the past
                   -mmin MINS      mtime is greater than (+N), less than (-N),
                                   or exactly N minutes in the past
                   -newer FILE     mtime is more recent than FILE's
                   -inum N         File has inode number N
                   -user NAME/ID   File is owned by given user
                   -group NAME/ID  File is owned by given group
                   -size N[bck]    File size is N (c:bytes,k:kbytes,b:512 bytes(def.))
                                   +/-N: file size is bigger/smaller than N
                   -links N        Number of links is greater than (+N), less than (-N),
                                   or exactly N
                   -prune          If current file is directory, don't descend into it
           If none of the following actions is specified, -print is assumed
                   -print          Print file name
                   -print0         Print file name, NUL terminated
                   -exec CMD ARG ; Run CMD with all instances of {} replaced by
                                   file name. Fails if CMD exits with nonzero

       fold
           fold [-bs] [-w WIDTH] [FILE]...

           Wrap input lines in each FILE (or stdin), writing to stdout

                   -b      Count bytes rather than columns
                   -s      Break at spaces
                   -w      Use WIDTH columns instead of 80

       free
           free [-b/k/m/g]

           Display the amount of free and used system memory

       freeramdisk
           freeramdisk DEVICE

           Free all memory used by the specified ramdisk

       ftpget
           ftpget [OPTIONS] HOST [LOCAL_FILE] REMOTE_FILE

           Download a file via FTP

                   -c,--continue           Continue previous transfer
                   -v,--verbose            Verbose
                   -u,--username USER      Username

       getopt
           getopt [OPTIONS] [--] OPTSTRING PARAMS

                   -a,--alternative                Allow long options starting with single -
                   -l,--longoptions=LOPT[,...]     Long options to be recognized
                   -n,--name=PROGNAME              The name under which errors are reported
                   -o,--options=OPTSTRING          Short options to be recognized
                   -q,--quiet                      Disable error reporting by getopt(3)
                   -Q,--quiet-output               No normal output
                   -s,--shell=SHELL                Set shell quoting conventions
                   -T,--test                       Test for getopt(1) version
                   -u,--unquoted                   Don't quote the output

           Example:

           O=`getopt -l bb: -- ab:c:: "$@"` || exit 1 eval set -- "$O" while
           true; do      case "$1" in      -a)  echo A; shift;;      -b|--bb)
           echo "B:'$2'"; shift 2;;      -c)  case "$2" in           "")  echo
           C; shift 2;;           *)   echo "C:'$2'"; shift 2;;
                     esac;;      --)  shift; break;;      *)   echo Error;
           exit 1;;      esac done

       getty
           getty [OPTIONS] BAUD_RATE[,BAUD_RATE]... TTY [TERMTYPE]

           Open TTY, prompt for login name, then invoke /bin/login

                   -h              Enable hardware RTS/CTS flow control
                   -L              Set CLOCAL (ignore Carrier Detect state)
                   -m              Get baud rate from modem's CONNECT status message
                   -n              Don't prompt for login name
                   -w              Wait for CR or LF before sending /etc/issue
                   -i              Don't display /etc/issue
                   -f ISSUE_FILE   Display ISSUE_FILE instead of /etc/issue
                   -l LOGIN        Invoke LOGIN instead of /bin/login
                   -t SEC          Terminate after SEC if no login name is read
                   -I INITSTR      Send INITSTR before anything else
                   -H HOST         Log HOST into the utmp file as the hostname

           BAUD_RATE of 0 leaves it unchanged

       grep
           grep [-HhnlLoqvsriwFEz] [-m N] [-A/B/C N] PATTERN/-e PATTERN.../-f
           FILE [FILE]...

           Search for PATTERN in FILEs (or stdin)

                   -H      Add 'filename:' prefix
                   -h      Do not add 'filename:' prefix
                   -n      Add 'line_no:' prefix
                   -l      Show only names of files that match
                   -L      Show only names of files that don't match
                   -c      Show only count of matching lines
                   -A N    Print N lines of trailing context
                   -B N    Print N lines of leading context
                   -C N    Same as '-A N -B N'
                   -e PTRN Pattern to match
                   -f FILE Read pattern from file

       groups
           groups [USER]

           Print the group memberships of USER or for the current process

       gunzip
           gunzip [-cft] [FILE]...

           Decompress FILEs (or stdin)

                   -c      Write to stdout
                   -f      Force
                   -t      Test file integrity

       gzip
           gzip [-cfd] [FILE]...

           Compress FILEs (or stdin)

                   -d      Decompress
                   -c      Write to stdout
                   -f      Force

       halt
           halt [-d DELAY] [-n] [-f] [-w]

           Halt the system

                   -d SEC  Delay interval
                   -n      Do not sync
                   -f      Force (don't go through init)
                   -w      Only write a wtmp record

       head
           head [OPTIONS] [FILE]...

           Print first 10 lines of each FILE (or stdin) to stdout.  With more
           than one FILE, precede each with a filename header.

                   -n N[kbm]       Print first N lines
                   -c N[kbm]       Print first N bytes
                   -q              Never print headers
                   -v              Always print headers

           N may be suffixed by k (x1024), b (x512), or m (x1024^2).

       hexdump
           hexdump [-bcCdefnosvx] [FILE]...
                   -v              Display all input data
                   -x              Two-byte hexadecimal display

       hostid
           hostid

           Print out a unique 32-bit identifier for the machine

       hostname
           hostname [OPTIONS] [HOSTNAME | -F FILE]

           Get or set hostname or DNS domain name

                   -s      Short
                   -i      Addresses for the hostname
                   -d      DNS domain name
                   -f      Fully qualified domain name
                   -F FILE Use FILE's content as hostname

       httpd
           httpd [-ifv[v]] [-c CONFFILE] [-p [IP:]PORT] [-u USER[:GRP]] [-r
           REALM] [-h HOME] or httpd -d/-e/-m STRING

           Listen for incoming HTTP requests

                   -i              Inetd mode
                   -f              Don't daemonize
                   -v[v]           Verbose
                   -p [IP:]PORT    Bind to IP:PORT (default *:80)
                   -u USER[:GRP]   Set uid/gid after binding to port
                   -r REALM        Authentication Realm for Basic Authentication
                   -h HOME         Home directory (default .)
                   -c FILE         Configuration file (default {/etc,HOME}/httpd.conf)
                   -m STRING       MD5 crypt STRING
                   -e STRING       HTML encode STRING
                   -d STRING       URL decode STRING

       hwclock
           hwclock [-r|--show] [-s|--hctosys] [-w|--systohc] [-t|--systz]
           [-l|--localtime] [-u|--utc] [-f|--rtc FILE]

           Query and set hardware clock (RTC)

                   -r      Show hardware clock time
                   -s      Set system time from hardware clock
                   -w      Set hardware clock from system time
                   -t      Set in-kernel timezone, correct system time
                           if hardware clock is in local time
                   -u      Assume hardware clock is kept in UTC
                   -l      Assume hardware clock is kept in local time
                   -f FILE Use specified device (e.g. /dev/rtc2)

       id  id [OPTIONS] [USER]


                   [add ADDRESS[/PREFIXLEN]]
                   [del ADDRESS[/PREFIXLEN]]
                   [[-]broadcast [ADDRESS]] [[-]pointopoint [ADDRESS]]
                   [netmask ADDRESS] [dstaddr ADDRESS]
                   [outfill NN] [keepalive NN]
                   [hw ether|infiniband ADDRESS] [metric NN] [mtu NN]
                   [[-]trailers] [[-]arp] [[-]allmulti]
                   [multicast] [[-]promisc] [txqueuelen NN] [[-]dynamic]
                   [mem_start NN] [io_addr NN] [irq NN]
                   [up|down] ...

       ifdown
           ifdown [-anmvf] [-i FILE] IFACE...

                   -a      De/configure all interfaces automatically
                   -i FILE Use FILE for interface definitions
                   -n      Print out what would happen, but don't do it
                           (note: doesn't disable mappings)
                   -m      Don't run any mappings
                   -v      Print out what would happen before doing it
                   -f      Force de/configuration

       ifup
           ifup [-anmvf] [-i FILE] IFACE...

                   -a      De/configure all interfaces automatically
                   -i FILE Use FILE for interface definitions
                   -n      Print out what would happen, but don't do it
                           (note: doesn't disable mappings)
                   -m      Don't run any mappings
                   -v      Print out what would happen before doing it
                   -f      Force de/configuration

       init
           init

           Init is the parent of all processes

       insmod
           insmod FILE [SYMBOL=VALUE]...

           Load the specified kernel modules into the kernel

       ionice
           ionice [-c 1-3] [-n 0-7] [-p PID] [PROG]

           Change I/O priority and class

                   -c      Class. 1:realtime 2:best-effort 3:idle
                   -n      Priority

       ip  ip [OPTIONS] {address | route | link | tunnel | rule} {COMMAND}

                   -p,--prefix     Display the prefix for IP/NETMASK
                   -h,--hostname   Display first resolved host name
                   -s,--silent     Don't ever display error messages

       kill
           kill [-l] [-SIG] PID...

           Send a signal (default: TERM) to given PIDs

                   -l      List all signal names and numbers

       killall
           killall [-l] [-q] [-SIG] PROCESS_NAME...

           Send a signal (default: TERM) to given processes

                   -l      List all signal names and numbers
                   -q      Don't complain if no processes were killed

       klogd
           klogd [-c N] [-n]

           Kernel logger

                   -c N    Print to console messages more urgent than prio N (1-8)
                   -n      Run in foreground

       last
           last

           Show listing of the last users that logged into the system

       less
           less [-EMmNh~I?] [FILE]...

           View FILE (or stdin) one screenful at a time

                   -E      Quit once the end of a file is reached
                   -M,-m   Display status line with line numbers
                           and percentage through the file
                   -N      Prefix line number to each line
                   -I      Ignore case in all searches
                   -~      Suppress ~s displayed past EOF

       ln  ln [OPTIONS] TARGET... LINK|DIR

           Create a link LINK or DIR/TARGET to the specified TARGET(s)

                   -s      Make symlinks instead of hardlinks
                   -f      Remove existing destinations
                   -n      Don't dereference symlinks - treat like normal file
                   -b      Make a backup of the target (if exists) before link operation
                   -S suf  Use suffix instead of ~ when making backup files
                   -T      2nd arg must be a DIR

       logger
           logger [OPTIONS] [MESSAGE]

           Write MESSAGE (or stdin) to syslog

                   -s      Log to stderr as well as the system log
                   -t TAG  Log using the specified tag (defaults to user name)
                   -p PRIO Priority (numeric or facility.level pair)

       login
           login [-p] [-h HOST] [[-f] USER]

           Begin a new session on the system

                   -f      Don't authenticate (user already authenticated)
                   -h      Name of the remote host
                   -p      Preserve environment

       logname
           logname

           Print the name of the current user

       logread
           logread [-f]

           Show messages in syslogd's circular buffer

                   -f      Output data as log grows

       losetup
           losetup [-r] [-o OFS] LOOPDEV FILE - associate loop devices
                losetup -d LOOPDEV - disassociate      losetup [-f] - show

                   -o OFS  Start OFS bytes into FILE
                   -r      Read-only
                   -f      Show first free loop device

       ls  ls [-1AaCxdLHRFplinsehrSXvctu] [-w WIDTH] [FILE]...

           List directory contents

                   -1      One column output
                   -a      Include entries which start with .
                   -A      Like -a, but exclude . and ..
                   -C      List by columns
                   -x      List by lines
                   -d      List directory entries instead of contents
                   -L      Follow symlinks
                   -H      Follow symlinks on command line
                   -R      Recurse
                   -p      Append / to dir entries
                   -F      Append indicator (one of */=@|) to entries
                   -l      Long listing format
                   -w N    Assume the terminal is N columns wide
                   --color[={always,never,auto}]   Control coloring

       lsmod
           lsmod

           List the currently loaded kernel modules

       lzcat
           lzcat FILE

           Decompress to stdout

       lzma
           lzma -d [-cf] [FILE]...

           Decompress FILE (or stdin)

                   -d      Decompress
                   -c      Write to stdout
                   -f      Force

       md5sum
           md5sum [-c[sw]] [FILE]...

           Print or check MD5 checksums

                   -c      Check sums against list in FILEs
                   -s      Don't output anything, status code shows success
                   -w      Warn about improperly formatted checksum lines

       mdev
           mdev [-s]

           mdev -s is to be run during boot to scan /sys and populate /dev.

           Bare mdev is a kernel hotplug helper. To activate it:      echo
           /sbin/mdev >/proc/sys/kernel/hotplug

           It uses /etc/mdev.conf with lines      [-][ENV=regex;]...DEVNAME
           UID:GID PERM [>|=PATH]|[!] [@|$|*PROG] where DEVNAME is device name
           regex, @major,minor[-minor2], or environment variable regex. A
           common use of the latter is to load modules for hotplugged devices:

                   $MODALIAS=.* 0:0 660 @modprobe "$MODALIAS"

           If /dev/mdev.seq file exists, mdev will wait for its value to match
           $SEQNUM variable. This prevents plug/unplug races.  To activate
           this feature, create empty /dev/mdev.seq at boot.

           If /dev/mdev.log file exists, debug log will be appended to it.

       microcom
           microcom [-d DELAY] [-t TIMEOUT] [-s SPEED] [-X] TTY
           Create DIRECTORY

                   -m MODE Mode
                   -p      No error if exists; make parent directories as needed

       mkfifo
           mkfifo [-m MODE] NAME

           Create named pipe

                   -m MODE Mode (default a=rw)

       mknod
           mknod [-m MODE] NAME TYPE MAJOR MINOR

           Create a special file (block, character, or pipe)

                   -m MODE Creation mode (default a=rw)
           TYPE:
                   b       Block device
                   c or u  Character device
                   p       Named pipe (MAJOR and MINOR are ignored)

       mkswap
           mkswap [-L LBL] BLOCKDEV [KBYTES]

           Prepare BLOCKDEV to be used as swap partition

                   -L LBL  Label

       mktemp
           mktemp [-dt] [-p DIR] [TEMPLATE]

           Create a temporary file with name based on TEMPLATE and print its
           name.  TEMPLATE must end with XXXXXX (e.g. [/dir/]nameXXXXXX).
           Without TEMPLATE, -t tmp.XXXXXX is assumed.

                   -d      Make directory, not file
                   -q      Fail silently on errors
                   -t      Prepend base directory name to TEMPLATE
                   -p DIR  Use DIR as a base directory (implies -t)
                   -u      Do not create anything; print a name

           Base directory is: -p DIR, else $TMPDIR, else /tmp

       modinfo
           modinfo [-adlp0] [-F keyword] MODULE

                   -a              Shortcut for '-F author'
                   -d              Shortcut for '-F description'
                   -l              Shortcut for '-F license'
                   -p              Shortcut for '-F parm'
                   -F keyword      Keyword to look for
                   -0              Separate output with NULs

       more
           more [FILE]...

           View FILE (or stdin) one screenful at a time

       mount
           mount [OPTIONS] [-o OPTS] DEVICE NODE

           Mount a filesystem. Filesystem autodetection requires /proc.

                   -a              Mount all filesystems in fstab
                   -f              Dry run
                   -i              Don't run mount helper
                   -r              Read-only mount
                   -w              Read-write mount (default)
                   -t FSTYPE[,...] Filesystem type(s)
                   -O OPT          Mount only filesystems with option OPT (-a only)
           -o OPT:
                   loop            Ignored (loop devices are autodetected)
                   [a]sync         Writes are [a]synchronous
                   [no]atime       Disable/enable updates to inode access times
                   [no]diratime    Disable/enable atime updates to directories
                   [no]relatime    Disable/enable atime updates relative to modification time
                   [no]dev         (Dis)allow use of special device files
                   [no]exec        (Dis)allow use of executable files
                   [no]suid        (Dis)allow set-user-id-root programs
                   [r]shared       Convert [recursively] to a shared subtree
                   [r]slave        Convert [recursively] to a slave subtree
                   [r]private      Convert [recursively] to a private subtree
                   [un]bindable    Make mount point [un]able to be bind mounted
                   [r]bind         Bind a file or directory [recursively] to another location
                   move            Relocate an existing mount point
                   remount         Remount a mounted filesystem, changing flags
                   ro/rw           Same as -r/-w

           There are filesystem-specific -o flags.

       mt  mt [-f device] opcode value

           Control magnetic tape drive operation

           Available Opcodes:

           bsf bsfm bsr bss datacompression drvbuffer eof eom erase fsf fsfm
           fsr fss load lock mkpart nop offline ras1 ras2 ras3 reset retension
           rewind rewoffline seek setblk setdensity setpart tell unload unlock
           weof wset

       mv  mv [-fin] SOURCE DEST or: mv [-fin] SOURCE... DIRECTORY

           Rename SOURCE to DEST, or move SOURCE(s) to DIRECTORY

                   -f      Don't prompt before overwriting

       nc  nc [-iN] [-wN] [-l] [-p PORT] [-f FILE|IPADDR PORT] [-e PROG]

           Open a pipe to IP:PORT or FILE

                   -e PROG Run PROG after connect
                   -l      Listen mode, for inbound connects
                           (use -l twice with -e for persistent server)
                   -p PORT Local port
                   -w SEC  Timeout for connect
                   -i SEC  Delay interval for lines sent
                   -f FILE Use file (ala /dev/ttyS0) instead of network

       netstat
           netstat [-ral] [-tuwx] [-en]

           Display networking information

                   -r      Routing table
                   -a      All sockets
                   -l      Listening sockets
                           Else: connected sockets
                   -t      TCP sockets
                   -u      UDP sockets
                   -w      Raw sockets
                   -x      Unix sockets
                           Else: all socket types
                   -e      Other/more information
                   -n      Don't resolve names

       nslookup
           nslookup [HOST] [SERVER]

           Query the nameserver for the IP address of the given HOST
           optionally using a specified DNS server

       od  od [-abcdfhilovxs] [-t TYPE] [-A RADIX] [-N SIZE] [-j SKIP] [-S
           MINSTR] [-w WIDTH] [FILE]...

           Print FILEs (or stdin) unambiguously, as octal bytes by default

       openvt
           openvt [-c N] [-sw] [PROG ARGS]

           Start PROG on a new virtual terminal

                   -c N    Use specified VT
                   -s      Switch to the VT
                   -w      Wait for PROG to exit

       passwd
           passwd [OPTIONS] [USER]

           Change USER's password (default: current user)

                   -E,--remove-empty-files Remove output files if they become empty

       pidof
           pidof [NAME]...

           List PIDs of all processes with names that match NAMEs

       ping
           ping [OPTIONS] HOST

           Send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packets to network hosts

                   -4,-6           Force IP or IPv6 name resolution
                   -c CNT          Send only CNT pings
                   -s SIZE         Send SIZE data bytes in packets (default:56)
                   -t TTL          Set TTL
                   -I IFACE/IP     Use interface or IP address as source
                   -W SEC          Seconds to wait for the first response (default:10)
                                   (after all -c CNT packets are sent)
                   -w SEC          Seconds until ping exits (default:infinite)
                                   (can exit earlier with -c CNT)
                   -q              Quiet, only displays output at start
                                   and when finished

       ping6
           ping6 [OPTIONS] HOST

           Send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packets to network hosts

                   -c CNT          Send only CNT pings
                   -s SIZE         Send SIZE data bytes in packets (default:56)
                   -I IFACE/IP     Use interface or IP address as source
                   -q              Quiet, only displays output at start
                                   and when finished

       pivot_root
           pivot_root NEW_ROOT PUT_OLD

           Move the current root file system to PUT_OLD and make NEW_ROOT the
           new root file system

       poweroff
           poweroff [-d DELAY] [-n] [-f]

           Halt and shut off power

                   -d SEC  Delay interval
                   -n      Do not sync
                   -f      Force (don't go through init)

       printf
           printf FORMAT [ARG]...

           Format and print ARG(s) according to FORMAT (a-la C printf)

       rdate
           rdate [-sp] HOST

           Get and possibly set the system date/time from a remote HOST

                   -s      Set the system date/time (default)
                   -p      Print the date/time

       readlink
           readlink [-fnv] FILE

           Display the value of a symlink

                   -f      Canonicalize by following all symlinks
                   -n      Don't add newline
                   -v      Verbose

       realpath
           realpath FILE...

           Return the absolute pathnames of given FILE

       reboot
           reboot [-d DELAY] [-n] [-f]

           Reboot the system

                   -d SEC  Delay interval
                   -n      Do not sync
                   -f      Force (don't go through init)

       renice
           renice {{-n INCREMENT} | PRIORITY} [[-p | -g | -u] ID...]

           Change scheduling priority for a running process

                   -n      Adjust current nice value (smaller is faster)
                   -p      Process id(s) (default)
                   -g      Process group id(s)
                   -u      Process user name(s) and/or id(s)

       reset
           reset

           Reset the screen

       rev rev [FILE]...

           Reverse lines of FILE

       rm  rm [-irf] FILE...

           Remove (unlink) FILEs

       rmmod
           rmmod [-wfa] [MODULE]...

           Unload kernel modules

                   -w      Wait until the module is no longer used
                   -f      Force unload
                   -a      Remove all unused modules (recursively)

       route
           route [{add|del|delete}]

           Edit kernel routing tables

                   -n      Don't resolve names
                   -e      Display other/more information
                   -A inet{6}      Select address family

       rpm rpm -i PACKAGE.rpm; rpm -qp[ildc] PACKAGE.rpm

           Manipulate RPM packages

           Commands:

                   -i      Install package
                   -qp     Query package
                   -i      Show information
                   -l      List contents
                   -d      List documents
                   -c      List config files

       rpm2cpio
           rpm2cpio package.rpm

           Output a cpio archive of the rpm file

       run-parts
           run-parts [-t] [-a ARG]... [-u MASK] DIRECTORY

           Run a bunch of scripts in DIRECTORY

                   -t      Dry run
                   -a ARG  Pass ARG as argument to programs
                   -u MASK Set umask to MASK before running programs

       sed sed [-inr] [-f FILE]... [-e CMD]... [FILE]...  or: sed [-inr] CMD
           [FILE]...

                   -e CMD  Add CMD to sed commands to be executed
                   -f FILE Add FILE contents to sed commands to be executed
                   -i[SFX] Edit files in-place (otherwise sends to stdout)
                           Optionally back files up, appending SFX
                   -n      Suppress automatic printing of pattern space
                   -r      Use extended regex syntax

       setkeycodes
           setkeycodes SCANCODE KEYCODE...

           Set entries into the kernel's scancode-to-keycode map, allowing
           unusual keyboards to generate usable keycodes.

           SCANCODE may be either xx or e0xx (hexadecimal), and KEYCODE is
           given in decimal.

       setsid
           setsid PROG ARGS

           Run PROG in a new session. PROG will have no controlling terminal
           and will not be affected by keyboard signals (Ctrl-C etc).  See
           setsid(2) for details.

       sh  sh [-/+OPTIONS] [-/+o OPT]... [-c 'SCRIPT' [ARG0 [ARGS]] / FILE
           [ARGS]]

           Unix shell interpreter

       sha1sum
           sha1sum [-c[sw]] [FILE]...

           Print or check SHA1 checksums

                   -c      Check sums against list in FILEs
                   -s      Don't output anything, status code shows success
                   -w      Warn about improperly formatted checksum lines

       sha256sum
           sha256sum [-c[sw]] [FILE]...

           Print or check SHA256 checksums

                   -c      Check sums against list in FILEs
                   -s      Don't output anything, status code shows success
                   -w      Warn about improperly formatted checksum lines

       sha512sum
           sha512sum [-c[sw]] [FILE]...

           Print or check SHA512 checksums

                   -c      Check sums against list in FILEs
                   -s      Don't output anything, status code shows success
                   -w      Warn about improperly formatted checksum lines

       sleep
           sleep [N]...

           Pause for a time equal to the total of the args given, where each
           arg can have an optional suffix of (s)econds, (m)inutes, (h)ours,
           or (d)ays
                   -i      Ignore unprintable characters
                   -k      Sort key
                   -M      Sort month
                   -n      Sort numbers
                   -o      Output to file
                   -k      Sort by key
                   -t CHAR Key separator
                   -r      Reverse sort order
                   -s      Stable (don't sort ties alphabetically)
                   -u      Suppress duplicate lines
                   -z      Lines are terminated by NUL, not newline
                   -mST    Ignored for GNU compatibility

       start-stop-daemon
           start-stop-daemon [OPTIONS] [-S|-K] ... [-- ARGS...]

           Search for matching processes, and then -K: stop all matching
           processes.  -S: start a process unless a matching process is found.

           Process matching:

                   -u,--user USERNAME|UID  Match only this user's processes
                   -n,--name NAME          Match processes with NAME
                                           in comm field in /proc/PID/stat
                   -x,--exec EXECUTABLE    Match processes with this command
                                           in /proc/PID/{exe,cmdline}
                   -p,--pidfile FILE       Match a process with PID from the file
                   All specified conditions must match
           -S only:
                   -x,--exec EXECUTABLE    Program to run
                   -a,--startas NAME       Zeroth argument
                   -b,--background         Background
                   -N,--nicelevel N        Change nice level
                   -c,--chuid USER[:[GRP]] Change to user/group
                   -m,--make-pidfile       Write PID to the pidfile specified by -p
           -K only:
                   -s,--signal SIG         Signal to send
                   -t,--test               Match only, exit with 0 if a process is found
           Other:

                   -o,--oknodo             Exit with status 0 if nothing is done
                   -v,--verbose            Verbose
                   -q,--quiet              Quiet

       stat
           stat [OPTIONS] FILE...

           Display file (default) or filesystem status

                   -c fmt  Use the specified format
                   -f      Display filesystem status
                   -L      Follow links
                   -t      Display info in terse form

            %h     Number of hard links
            %i     Inode number
            %n     File name
            %N     File name, with -> TARGET if symlink
            %o     I/O block size
            %s     Total size, in bytes
            %t     Major device type in hex
            %T     Minor device type in hex
            %u     User ID of owner
            %U     User name of owner
            %x     Time of last access
            %X     Time of last access as seconds since Epoch
            %y     Time of last modification
            %Y     Time of last modification as seconds since Epoch
            %z     Time of last change
            %Z     Time of last change as seconds since Epoch

           Valid format sequences for file systems:

            %a     Free blocks available to non-superuser
            %b     Total data blocks in file system
            %c     Total file nodes in file system
            %d     Free file nodes in file system
            %f     Free blocks in file system
            %i     File System ID in hex
            %l     Maximum length of filenames
            %n     File name
            %s     Block size (for faster transfer)
            %S     Fundamental block size (for block counts)
            %t     Type in hex
            %T     Type in human readable form

       strings
           strings [-afo] [-n LEN] [FILE]...

           Display printable strings in a binary file

                   -a      Scan whole file (default)
                   -f      Precede strings with filenames
                   -n LEN  At least LEN characters form a string (default 4)
                   -o      Precede strings with decimal offsets

       stty
           stty [-a|g] [-F DEVICE] [SETTING]...

           Without arguments, prints baud rate, line discipline, and
           deviations from stty sane

                   -F DEVICE       Open device instead of stdin
                   -a              Print all current settings in human-readable form
                   -g              Print in stty-readable form
                   [SETTING]       See manpage

       su  su [OPTIONS] [-] [USER]

                   -t N    Timeout

       swapoff
           swapoff [-a] [DEVICE]

           Stop swapping on DEVICE

                   -a      Stop swapping on all swap devices

       swapon
           swapon [-a] [DEVICE]

           Start swapping on DEVICE

                   -a      Start swapping on all swap devices

       switch_root
           switch_root [-c /dev/console] NEW_ROOT NEW_INIT [ARGS]

           Free initramfs and switch to another root fs:

           chroot to NEW_ROOT, delete all in /, move NEW_ROOT to /, execute
           NEW_INIT. PID must be 1. NEW_ROOT must be a mountpoint.

                   -c DEV  Reopen stdio to DEV after switch

       sync
           sync

           Write all buffered blocks to disk

       sysctl
           sysctl [OPTIONS] [KEY[=VALUE]]...

           Show/set kernel parameters

                   -e      Don't warn about unknown keys
                   -n      Don't show key names
                   -a      Show all values
                   -w      Set values
                   -p FILE Set values from FILE (default /etc/sysctl.conf)
                   -q      Set values silently

       syslogd
           syslogd [OPTIONS]

           System logging utility (this version of syslogd ignores
           /etc/syslog.conf)

                   -n              Run in foreground
                   -O FILE         Log to FILE (default:/var/log/messages)
                   -l N            Log only messages more urgent than prio N (1-8)
                   -S              Smaller output

           than one FILE, precede each with a filename header.

                   -f              Print data as file grows
                   -s SECONDS      Wait SECONDS between reads with -f
                   -n N[kbm]       Print last N lines
                   -c N[kbm]       Print last N bytes
                   -q              Never print headers
                   -v              Always print headers

           N may be suffixed by k (x1024), b (x512), or m (x1024^2).  If N
           starts with a '+', output begins with the Nth item from the start
           of each file, not from the end.

       tar tar -[cxtZzJjahmvO] [-f TARFILE] [-C DIR] [FILE]...

           Create, extract, or list files from a tar file

           Operation:

                   c       Create
                   x       Extract
                   t       List
                   f       Name of TARFILE ('-' for stdin/out)
                   C       Change to DIR before operation
                   v       Verbose
                   Z       (De)compress using compress
                   z       (De)compress using gzip
                   J       (De)compress using xz
                   j       (De)compress using bzip2
                   a       (De)compress using lzma
                   O       Extract to stdout
                   h       Follow symlinks
                   m       Don't restore mtime

       taskset
           taskset [-p] [MASK] [PID | PROG ARGS]

           Set or get CPU affinity

                   -p      Operate on an existing PID

       tee tee [-ai] [FILE]...

           Copy stdin to each FILE, and also to stdout

                   -a      Append to the given FILEs, don't overwrite
                   -i      Ignore interrupt signals (SIGINT)

       telnet
           telnet [-a] [-l USER] HOST [PORT]

           Connect to telnet server

                   -a      Automatic login with $USER variable
                   -b ADDR[:PORT]  Address to bind to
                   -F              Run in foreground
                   -i              Inetd mode

       test
           test EXPRESSION ]

           Check file types, compare values etc. Return a 0/1 exit code
           depending on logical value of EXPRESSION

       tftp
           tftp [OPTIONS] HOST [PORT]

           Transfer a file from/to tftp server

                   -l FILE Local FILE
                   -r FILE Remote FILE
                   -g      Get file
                   -p      Put file
                   -b SIZE Transfer blocks of SIZE octets

       time
           time [-v] PROG ARGS

           Run PROG, display resource usage when it exits

                   -v      Verbose

       timeout
           timeout [-t SECS] [-s SIG] PROG ARGS

           Runs PROG. Sends SIG to it if it is not gone in SECS seconds.
           Defaults: SECS: 10, SIG: TERM.

       top top [-b] [-nCOUNT] [-dSECONDS]

           Provide a view of process activity in real time.  Read the status
           of all processes from /proc each SECONDS and display a screenful of
           them.  Keys:

                   N/M/P/T: sort by pid/mem/cpu/time
                   R: reverse sort
                   H: toggle threads
                   Q,^C: exit

           Options:

                   -b      Batch mode
                   -n N    Exit after N iterations
                   -d N    Delay between updates

       touch
           touch [-c] [-d DATE] [-t DATE] [-r FILE] FILE...

                   -c      Take complement of STRING1
                   -d      Delete input characters coded STRING1
                   -s      Squeeze multiple output characters of STRING2 into one character

       traceroute
           traceroute [-46FIldnrv] [-f 1ST_TTL] [-m MAXTTL] [-p PORT] [-q
           PROBES]      [-s SRC_IP] [-t TOS] [-w WAIT_SEC] [-g GATEWAY] [-i
           IFACE]      [-z PAUSE_MSEC] HOST [BYTES]

           Trace the route to HOST

                   -4,-6   Force IP or IPv6 name resolution
                   -F      Set the don't fragment bit
                   -I      Use ICMP ECHO instead of UDP datagrams
                   -l      Display the TTL value of the returned packet
                   -d      Set SO_DEBUG options to socket
                   -n      Print numeric addresses
                   -r      Bypass routing tables, send directly to HOST
                   -v      Verbose
                   -m      Max time-to-live (max number of hops)
                   -p      Base UDP port number used in probes
                           (default 33434)
                   -q      Number of probes per TTL (default 3)
                   -s      IP address to use as the source address
                   -t      Type-of-service in probe packets (default 0)
                   -w      Time in seconds to wait for a response (default 3)
                   -g      Loose source route gateway (8 max)

       traceroute6
           traceroute6 [-dnrv] [-m MAXTTL] [-p PORT] [-q PROBES]      [-s
           SRC_IP] [-t TOS] [-w WAIT_SEC] [-i IFACE]      HOST [BYTES]

           Trace the route to HOST

                   -d      Set SO_DEBUG options to socket
                   -n      Print numeric addresses
                   -r      Bypass routing tables, send directly to HOST
                   -v      Verbose
                   -m      Max time-to-live (max number of hops)
                   -p      Base UDP port number used in probes
                           (default is 33434)
                   -q      Number of probes per TTL (default 3)
                   -s      IP address to use as the source address
                   -t      Type-of-service in probe packets (default 0)
                   -w      Time in seconds to wait for a response (default 3)

       true
           true

           Return an exit code of TRUE \fIs0(0)

       tty tty

           Print file name of stdin's terminal

       udhcpc
           udhcpc [-fbnqoCRB] [-i IFACE] [-r IP] [-s PROG] [-p PIDFILE]
                [-V VENDOR] [-x OPT:VAL]... [-O OPT]...

                   -i,--interface IFACE    Interface to use (default eth0)
                   -p,--pidfile FILE       Create pidfile
                   -s,--script PROG        Run PROG at DHCP events (default /etc/udhcpc/default.script)
                   -B,--broadcast          Request broadcast replies
                   -t,--retries N          Send up to N discover packets
                   -T,--timeout N          Pause between packets (default 3 seconds)
                   -A,--tryagain N         Wait N seconds after failure (default 20)
                   -f,--foreground         Run in foreground
                   -b,--background         Background if lease is not obtained
                   -n,--now                Exit if lease is not obtained
                   -q,--quit               Exit after obtaining lease
                   -R,--release            Release IP on exit
                   -S,--syslog             Log to syslog too
                   -a,--arping             Use arping to validate offered address
                   -O,--request-option OPT Request option OPT from server (cumulative)
                   -o,--no-default-options Don't request any options (unless -O is given)
                   -r,--request IP         Request this IP address
                   -x OPT:VAL              Include option OPT in sent packets (cumulative)
                                           Examples of string, numeric, and hex byte opts:
                                           -x hostname:bbox - option 12
                                           -x lease:3600 - option 51 (lease time)
                                           -x 0x3d:0100BEEFC0FFEE - option 61 (client id)
                   -F,--fqdn NAME          Ask server to update DNS mapping for NAME
                   -V,--vendorclass VENDOR Vendor identifier (default 'udhcp VERSION')
                   -C,--clientid-none      Don't send MAC as client identifier
           Signals:

                   USR1    Renew lease
                   USR2    Release lease

       udhcpd
           udhcpd [-fS] [CONFFILE]

           DHCP server

                   -f      Run in foreground
                   -S      Log to syslog too

       umount
           umount [OPTIONS] FILESYSTEM|DIRECTORY

           Unmount file systems

                   -a      Unmount all file systems
                   -r      Try to remount devices as read-only if mount is busy
                   -l      Lazy umount (detach filesystem)
                   -f      Force umount (i.e., unreachable NFS server)
                   -D      Don't free loop device even if it has been used

       uname
       uncompress
           uncompress [-cf] [FILE]...

           Decompress .Z file[s]

                   -c      Write to stdout
                   -f      Overwrite

       unexpand
           unexpand [-fa][-t N] [FILE]...

           Convert spaces to tabs, writing to stdout

                   -a,--all        Convert all blanks
                   -f,--first-only Convert only leading blanks
                   -t,--tabs=N     Tabstops every N chars

       uniq
           uniq [-cdu][-f,s,w N] [INPUT [OUTPUT]]

           Discard duplicate lines

                   -c      Prefix lines by the number of occurrences
                   -d      Only print duplicate lines
                   -u      Only print unique lines
                   -f N    Skip first N fields
                   -s N    Skip first N chars (after any skipped fields)
                   -w N    Compare N characters in line

       unix2dos
           unix2dos [-ud] [FILE]

           Convert FILE in-place from Unix to DOS format.  When no file is
           given, use stdin/stdout.

                   -u      dos2unix
                   -d      unix2dos

       unlzma
           unlzma [-cf] [FILE]...

           Decompress FILE (or stdin)

                   -c      Write to stdout
                   -f      Force

       unxz
           unxz [-cf] [FILE]...

           Decompress FILE (or stdin)

                   -c      Write to stdout
                   -f      Force


       uptime
           uptime

           Display the time since the last boot

       usleep
           usleep N

           Pause for N microseconds

       uudecode
           uudecode [-o OUTFILE] [INFILE]

           Uudecode a file Finds OUTFILE in uuencoded source unless -o is
           given

       uuencode
           uuencode [-m] [FILE] STORED_FILENAME

           Uuencode FILE (or stdin) to stdout

                   -m      Use base64 encoding per RFC1521

       vconfig
           vconfig COMMAND [OPTIONS]

           Create and remove virtual ethernet devices

                   add             IFACE VLAN_ID
                   rem             VLAN_NAME
                   set_flag        IFACE 0|1 VLAN_QOS
                   set_egress_map  VLAN_NAME SKB_PRIO VLAN_QOS
                   set_ingress_map VLAN_NAME SKB_PRIO VLAN_QOS
                   set_name_type   NAME_TYPE

       vi  vi [OPTIONS] [FILE]...

           Edit FILE

                   -c CMD  Initial command to run ($EXINIT also available)
                   -R      Read-only
                   -H      List available features

       watch
           watch [-n SEC] [-t] PROG ARGS

           Run PROG periodically

                   -n      Loop period in seconds (default 2)
                   -t      Don't print header

       watchdog
           watchdog [-t N[ms]] [-T N[ms]] [-F] DEV

                   -c      Count bytes
                   -m      Count characters
                   -l      Count newlines
                   -w      Count words
                   -L      Print longest line length

       wget
           wget [-c|--continue] [-s|--spider] [-q|--quiet]
           [-O|--output-document FILE]      [--header 'header: value']
           [-Y|--proxy on/off] [-P DIR]      [-U|--user-agent AGENT] URL...

           Retrieve files via HTTP or FTP

                   -s      Spider mode - only check file existence
                   -c      Continue retrieval of aborted transfer
                   -q      Quiet
                   -P DIR  Save to DIR (default .)
                   -O FILE Save to FILE ('-' for stdout)
                   -U STR  Use STR for User-Agent header
                   -Y      Use proxy ('on' or 'off')

       which
           which [COMMAND]...

           Locate a COMMAND

       who who [-a]

           Show who is logged on

                   -a      Show all
                   -H      Print column headers

       whoami
           whoami

           Print the user name associated with the current effective user id

       xargs
           xargs [OPTIONS] [PROG ARGS]

           Run PROG on every item given by stdin

                   -p      Ask user whether to run each command
                   -r      Don't run command if input is empty
                   -0      Input is separated by NUL characters
                   -t      Print the command on stderr before execution
                   -e[STR] STR stops input processing
                   -n N    Pass no more than N args to PROG
                   -s N    Pass command line of no more than N bytes
                   -x      Exit if size is exceeded

       xz  xz -d [-cf] [FILE]...
       yes yes [STRING]

           Repeatedly output a line with STRING, or 'y'

       zcat
           zcat FILE

           Decompress to stdout

LIBC NSS
       GNU Libc (glibc) uses the Name Service Switch (NSS) to configure the
       behavior of the C library for the local environment, and to configure
       how it reads system data, such as passwords and group information.
       This is implemented using an /etc/nsswitch.conf configuration file, and
       using one or more of the /lib/libnss_* libraries.  BusyBox tries to
       avoid using any libc calls that make use of NSS.  Some applets however,
       such as login and su, will use libc functions that require NSS.

       If you enable CONFIG_USE_BB_PWD_GRP, BusyBox will use internal
       functions to directly access the /etc/passwd, /etc/group, and
       /etc/shadow files without using NSS.  This may allow you to run your
       system without the need for installing any of the NSS configuration
       files and libraries.

       When used with glibc, the BusyBox 'networking' applets will similarly
       require that you install at least some of the glibc NSS stuff (in
       particular, /etc/nsswitch.conf, /lib/libnss_dns*, /lib/libnss_files*,
       and /lib/libresolv*).

       Shameless Plug: As an alternative, one could use a C library such as
       uClibc.  In addition to making your system significantly smaller,
       uClibc does not require the use of any NSS support files or libraries.

MAINTAINER
       Denis Vlasenko <vda.linux@googlemail.com>

AUTHORS
       The following people have contributed code to BusyBox whether they know
       it or not.  If you have written code included in BusyBox, you should
       probably be listed here so you can obtain your bit of eternal glory.
       If you should be listed here, or the description of what you have done
       needs more detail, or is incorrect, please send in an update.

       Emanuele Aina <emanuele.aina@tiscali.it>
           run-parts

       Erik Andersen <andersen@codepoet.org>

           Tons of new stuff, major rewrite of most of the
           core apps, tons of new apps as noted in header files.
           Lots of tedious effort writing these boring docs that
           nobody is going to actually read.

       Laurence Anderson <l.d.anderson@warwick.ac.uk>

           du, nslookup, sort

       Brian Candler <B.Candler@pobox.com>

           tiny-ls(ls)

       Randolph Chung <tausq@debian.org>

           fbset, ping, hostname

       Dave Cinege <dcinege@psychosis.com>

           more(v2), makedevs, dutmp, modularization, auto links file,
           various fixes, Linux Router Project maintenance

       Jordan Crouse <jordan@cosmicpenguin.net>

           ipcalc

       Magnus Damm <damm@opensource.se>

           tftp client insmod powerpc support

       Larry Doolittle <ldoolitt@recycle.lbl.gov>

           pristine source directory compilation, lots of patches and fixes.

       Glenn Engel <glenne@engel.org>

           httpd

       Gennady Feldman <gfeldman@gena01.com>

           Sysklogd (single threaded syslogd, IPC Circular buffer support,
           logread), various fixes.

       Karl M. Hegbloom <karlheg@debian.org>

           cp_mv.c, the test suite, various fixes to utility.c, &c.

       Daniel Jacobowitz <dan@debian.org>

           mktemp.c

       Matt Kraai <kraai@alumni.cmu.edu>

           documentation, bugfixes, test suite

       Stephan Linz <linz@li-pro.net>

           ipcalc, Red Hat equivalence

       John Lombardo <john@deltanet.com>
           mesg, vconfig, make_directory, parse_mode, dirname, mode_string,
           get_last_path_component, simplify_path, and a number trivial libbb routines

           also bug fixes, partial rewrites, and size optimizations in
           ash, basename, cal, cmp, cp, df, du, echo, env, ln, logname, md5sum, mkdir,
           mv, realpath, rm, sort, tail, touch, uname, watch, arith, human_readable,
           interface, dutmp, ifconfig, route

       Vladimir Oleynik <dzo@simtreas.ru>

           cmdedit; xargs(current), httpd(current);
           ports: ash, crond, fdisk, inetd, stty, traceroute, top;
           locale, various fixes
           and irreconcilable critic of everything not perfect.

       Bruce Perens <bruce@pixar.com>

           Original author of BusyBox in 1995, 1996. Some of his code can
           still be found hiding here and there...

       Tim Riker <Tim@Rikers.org>

           bug fixes, member of fan club

       Kent Robotti <robotti@metconnect.com>

           reset, tons and tons of bug reports and patches.

       Chip Rosenthal <chip@unicom.com>, <crosenth@covad.com>

           wget - Contributed by permission of Covad Communications

       Pavel Roskin <proski@gnu.org>

           Lots of bugs fixes and patches.

       Gyepi Sam <gyepi@praxis-sw.com>

           Remote logging feature for syslogd

       Linus Torvalds <torvalds@transmeta.com>

           mkswap, fsck.minix, mkfs.minix

       Mark Whitley <markw@codepoet.org>

           grep, sed, cut, xargs(previous),
           style-guide, new-applet-HOWTO, bug fixes, etc.

       Charles P. Wright <cpwright@villagenet.com>

           gzip, mini-netcat(nc)

       Enrique Zanardi <ezanardi@ull.es>

           port: dnsd

       Bernhard Reutner-Fischer <rep.dot.nop@gmail.com>

           misc

       Mike Frysinger <vapier@gentoo.org>

           initial e2fsprogs, printenv, setarch, sum, misc

       Jie Zhang <jie.zhang@analog.com>

           fixed two bugs in msh and hush (exitcode of killed processes)



version 1.21.1                    2013-11-14                        BUSYBOX(1)
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