APT-TRANSPORT-HTTP(1) APT APT-TRANSPORT-HTTP(1)
apt-transport-http - APT transport for downloading via the Hypertext
Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
This APT transport allows the use of repositories accessed via the
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). It is available by default and
probably the most used of all transports. Note that a transport is
never called directly by a user but used by APT tools based on user
HTTP is an unencrypted transport protocol meaning that the whole
communication with the remote server (or proxy) can be observed by a
sufficiently capable attacker commonly referred to as a "man in the
middle" (MITM). However, such an attacker can not modify the
communication to compromise the security of your system, as APT's data
security model is independent of the chosen transport method. This is
explained in detail in apt-secure(8). An overview of available
transport methods is given in sources.list(5).
Various options can be set in an apt.conf(5) file to modify its
behavior, ranging from proxy configuration to workarounds for specific
The environment variable http_proxy is supported for system wide
configuration. Proxies specific to APT can be configured via the option
Acquire::http::Proxy. Proxies which should be used only for certain
hosts can be specified via Acquire::http::Proxy::host. Even more
finegrained control can be achieved via proxy autodetection, detailed
further below. All these options use the URI format
scheme://[[user][:pass]@]host[:port]/. Supported URI schemes are
socks5h (SOCKS5 with remote DNS resolution), http and https.
Authentication details can be supplied via apt_auth.conf(5) instead of
including it in the URI directly.
The various APT configuration options support the special value DIRECT
meaning that no proxy should be used. The environment variable no_proxy
is also supported for the same purpose.
Furthermore, there are three settings provided for cache control with
HTTP/1.1 compliant proxy caches: Acquire::http::No-Cache tells the
proxy not to use its cached response under any circumstances.
Acquire::http::Max-Age sets the allowed maximum age (in seconds) of an
index file in the cache of the proxy. Acquire::http::No-Store
specifies that the proxy should not store the requested archive files
in its cache, which can be used to prevent the proxy from polluting its
cache with (big) .deb files.
Automatic Proxy Configuration
Acquire::http::Proxy-Auto-Detect can be used to specify an external
command to discover the HTTP proxy to use. The first and only parameter
is a URI denoting the host to be contacted, to allow for host-specific
configuration. APT expects the command to output the proxy on stdout as
a single line in the previously specified URI format or the word DIRECT
if no proxy should be used. No output indicates that the generic proxy
settings should be used.
Note that auto-detection will not be used for a host if a host-specific
proxy configuration is already set via Acquire::http::Proxy::host.
See the squid-deb-proxy-client(1) and auto-apt-proxy(1) packages for
This option takes precedence over the legacy option name
The option Acquire::http::Timeout sets the timeout timer used by the
method; this value applies to the connection as well as the data
The used bandwidth can be limited with Acquire::http::Dl-Limit which
accepts integer values in kilobytes per second. The default value is 0
which deactivates the limit and tries to use all available bandwidth.
Note that this option implicitly disables downloading from multiple
servers at the same time.
The setting Acquire::http::Pipeline-Depth can be used to enable HTTP
pipelining (RFC 2616 section 220.127.116.11) which can be beneficial e.g. on
high-latency connections. It specifies how many requests are sent in a
pipeline. APT tries to detect and work around misbehaving webservers
and proxies at runtime, but if you know that yours does not conform to
the HTTP/1.1 specification, pipelining can be disabled by setting the
value to 0. It is enabled by default with the value 10.
Acquire::http::AllowRedirect controls whether APT will follow
redirects, which is enabled by default.
Acquire::http::User-Agent can be used to set a different User-Agent for
the http download method as some proxies allow access for clients only
if the client uses a known identifier.
Acquire::http::SendAccept is enabled by default and sends an Accept:
text/* header field to the server for requests without file extensions
to prevent the server from attempting content negotiation.
User-Agent "My APT-HTTP";
apt.conf(5) apt_auth.conf(5) sources.list(5)
APT bug page. If you wish to report a bug in APT, please see
/usr/share/doc/debian/bug-reporting.txt or the reportbug(1) command.
1. APT bug page
APT 1.6.14 22 November 2017 APT-TRANSPORT-HTTP(1)
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