SCREEN(1)                   General Commands Manual                  SCREEN(1)

       screen - screen manager with VT100/ANSI terminal emulation

       screen [ -options ] [ cmd [ args ] ]
       screen -r [[pid.]tty[.host]]
       screen -r sessionowner/[[pid.]tty[.host]]

       Screen is a full-screen window manager that multiplexes a physical ter-
       minal between several processes (typically interactive  shells).   Each
       virtual terminal provides the functions of a DEC VT100 terminal and, in
       addition, several control functions from the ISO 6429  (ECMA  48,  ANSI
       X3.64)  and ISO 2022 standards (e.g. insert/delete line and support for
       multiple character sets).  There is a  scrollback  history  buffer  for
       each virtual terminal and a copy-and-paste mechanism that allows moving
       text regions between windows.

       When screen is called, it creates a single window with a  shell  in  it
       (or  the  specified  command) and then gets out of your way so that you
       can use the program as you normally would.  Then, at any time, you  can
       create new (full-screen) windows with other programs in them (including
       more shells), kill existing windows, view a list of windows, turn  out-
       put  logging  on and off, copy-and-paste text between windows, view the
       scrollback history, switch between windows in whatever manner you wish,
       etc.  All  windows  run  their  programs completely independent of each
       other. Programs continue to run when their window is currently not vis-
       ible and even when the whole screen session is detached from the user's
       terminal.  When a program terminates, screen (per  default)  kills  the
       window  that  contained  it.  If this window was in the foreground, the
       display switches to the previous  window;  if  none  are  left,  screen
       exits.  Shells  usually  distinguish  between running as login-shell or
       sub-shell.  Screen runs them as sub-shells, unless told otherwise  (See
       "shell" .screenrc command).

       Everything  you type is sent to the program running in the current win-
       dow.  The only exception to this is the one keystroke that is  used  to
       initiate  a  command  to  the window manager.  By default, each command
       begins with a control-a (abbreviated C-a from now on), and is  followed
       by one other keystroke.  The command character and all the key bindings
       can be fully customized to be anything you like, though they are always
       two characters in length.

       Screen  does  not  understand the prefix "C-" to mean control, although
       this notation is used in this manual for readability.  Please  use  the
       caret  notation ("^A" instead of "C-a") as arguments to e.g. the escape
       command or the -e option.  Screen will also print out  control  charac-
       ters in caret notation.

       The  standard way to create a new window is to type "C-a c".  This cre-
       ates a new window running a shell and switches to that  window  immedi-
       ately,  regardless  of  the state of the process running in the current
       window.  Similarly, you can create a new window with a  custom  command
       in  it  by  first binding the command to a keystroke (in your .screenrc
       file or at the "C-a :" command line) and then using it  just  like  the
       "C-a  c" command.  In addition, new windows can be created by running a
       command like:

              screen emacs prog.c

       from a shell prompt within a previously created window.  This will  not
       run  another  copy  of screen, but will instead supply the command name
       and its arguments to the window manager (specified in the $STY environ-
       ment  variable)  who  will  use it to create the new window.  The above
       example would start the emacs editor (editing prog.c) and switch to its
       window. - Note that you cannot transport environment variables from the
       invoking shell to the application (emacs in this case), because  it  is
       forked from the parent screen process, not from the invoking shell.

       If  "/run/utmp"  is  writable  by screen, an appropriate record will be
       written to this file for each window, and removed when  the  window  is
       terminated.   This  is useful for working with "talk", "script", "shut-
       down", "rsend", "sccs" and other similar programs  that  use  the  utmp
       file to determine who you are. As long as screen is active on your ter-
       minal, the terminal's own record is removed from  the  utmp  file.  See
       also "C-a L".

       Before  you  begin to use screen you'll need to make sure you have cor-
       rectly selected your terminal type, just as you  would  for  any  other
       termcap/terminfo program.  (You can do this by using tset for example.)

       If  you're  impatient  and want to get started without doing a lot more
       reading, you should remember this one command:  "C-a ?".  Typing  these
       two characters will display a list of the available screen commands and
       their bindings. Each keystroke is discussed in the section "DEFAULT KEY
       BINDINGS".  The  manual section "CUSTOMIZATION" deals with the contents
       of your .screenrc.

       If your terminal is a "true" auto-margin terminal (it doesn't allow the
       last position on the screen to be updated without scrolling the screen)
       consider using a version of your terminal's termcap that has  automatic
       margins  turned off. This will ensure an accurate and optimal update of
       the screen in all circumstances. Most terminals nowadays  have  "magic"
       margins  (automatic margins plus usable last column). This is the VT100
       style type and perfectly suited for screen.  If all  you've  got  is  a
       "true"  auto-margin  terminal  screen  will  be  content to use it, but
       updating a character put into the last position on the screen  may  not
       be  possible  until the screen scrolls or the character is moved into a
       safe position in some other way. This delay can be shortened by using a
       terminal with insert-character capability.

       Screen has the following command-line options:

       -a   include all capabilities (with some minor exceptions) in each win-
            dow's termcap, even if screen must redraw parts of the display  in
            order to implement a function.

       -A   Adapt  the  sizes of all windows to the size of the current termi-
            nal.  By default, screen tries to restore  its  old  window  sizes
            when  attaching  to  resizable  terminals  (those with "WS" in its
            description, e.g. suncmd or some xterm).

       -c file
            override the default configuration file from "$HOME/.screenrc"  to

       -d|-D []
            does  not  start screen, but detaches the elsewhere running screen
            session. It has the same effect as typing "C-a  d"  from  screen's
            controlling  terminal.  -D  is  the equivalent to the power detach
            key.  If no session can be detached, this option  is  ignored.  In
            combination  with  the  -r/-R  option more powerful effects can be

       -d -r   Reattach a session and if necessary detach it first.

       -d -R   Reattach a session and if necessary detach or  even  create  it

       -d -RR  Reattach  a  session  and if necessary detach or create it. Use
               the first session if more than one session is available.

       -D -r   Reattach a session. If necessary  detach  and  logout  remotely

       -D -R   Attach here and now. In detail this means: If a session is run-
               ning, then reattach. If necessary detach  and  logout  remotely
               first.   If  it  was not running create it and notify the user.
               This is the author's favorite.

       -D -RR  Attach here and now. Whatever that means, just do it.

            Note: It is always a good idea to check the status  of  your  ses-
            sions by means of "screen -list".

       -e xy
            specifies the command character to be x and the character generat-
            ing a literal command character to y (when typed after the command
            character).   The default is "C-a" and `a', which can be specified
            as "-e^Aa".  When creating a screen session, this option sets  the
            default  command character. In a multiuser session all users added
            will start off with this command character. But when attaching  to
            an  already  running session, this option changes only the command
            character of the attaching user.  This  option  is  equivalent  to
            either the commands "defescape" or "escape" respectively.

       -f, -fn, and -fa
            turns  flow-control  on, off, or "automatic switching mode".  This
            can also be defined through the "defflow" .screenrc command.

       -h num
            Specifies the history scrollback buffer to be num lines high.

       -i   will cause the interrupt key (usually C-c) to interrupt  the  dis-
            play  immediately  when  flow-control  is  on.   See the "defflow"
            .screenrc command for details.  The use of this option is discour-

       -l and -ln
            turns  login  mode  on  or off (for /run/utmp updating).  This can
            also be defined through the "deflogin" .screenrc command.

       -ls [match]
       -list [match]
            does not start screen, but prints a list of  strings
            and  creation  timestamps  identifying your screen sessions.  Ses-
            sions marked `detached' can be resumed  with  "screen  -r".  Those
            marked  `attached' are running and have a controlling terminal. If
            the session runs in multiuser mode, it is marked `multi'. Sessions
            marked  as  `unreachable'  either  live on a different host or are
            `dead'.  An unreachable session is considered dead, when its  name
            matches either the name of the local host, or the specified param-
            eter, if any.  See the -r flag for a description how to  construct
            matches.   Sessions  marked as `dead' should be thoroughly checked
            and removed.  Ask your system administrator if you are  not  sure.
            Remove sessions with the -wipe option.

       -L   tells screen to turn on automatic output logging for the windows.

       -Logfile file
            By  default logfile name is "screenlog.0". You can set new logfile
            name with the "-Logfile" option.

       -m   causes screen  to  ignore  the  $STY  environment  variable.  With
            "screen  -m"  creation  of  a  new session is enforced, regardless
            whether screen is called from within  another  screen  session  or
            not.  This  flag has a special meaning in connection with the `-d'

       -d -m   Start screen in "detached" mode. This creates a new session but
               doesn't  attach  to  it.  This  is  useful  for  system startup

       -D -m   This also starts screen in "detached" mode, but doesn't fork  a
               new process. The command exits if the session terminates.

       -O   selects  a  more optimal output mode for your terminal rather than
            true VT100 emulation (only affects auto-margin  terminals  without
            `LP').   This can also be set in your .screenrc by specifying `OP'
            in a "termcap" command.

       -p number_or_name|-|=|+
            Preselect a window. This is useful when you want to reattach to  a
            specific  window or you want to send a command via the "-X" option
            to a specific window. As with screen's select command, "-" selects
            the  blank  window.  As a special case for reattach, "=" brings up
            the windowlist on the blank window, while a "+" will create a  new
            window.  The  command will not be executed if the specified window
            could not be found.

       -q   Suppress printing of error messages. In combination with "-ls" the
            exit  value  is  as  follows: 9 indicates a directory without ses-
            sions. 10 indicates a directory with running  but  not  attachable
            sessions.  11 (or more) indicates 1 (or more) usable sessions.  In
            combination with "-r" the exit value is as follows:  10  indicates
            that  there  is  no session to resume. 12 (or more) indicates that
            there are 2 (or more) sessions to resume and  you  should  specify
            which one to choose.  In all other cases "-q" has no effect.

       -Q   Some  commands now can be queried from a remote session using this
            flag, e.g.  "screen  -Q  windows".  The  commands  will  send  the
            response  to  the  stdout of the querying process. If there was an
            error in the command, then the querying process will exit  with  a
            non-zero status.

            The commands that can be queried now are:

       -r []
       -r sessionowner/[]
            resumes  a detached screen session.  No other options (except com-
            binations with -d/-D) may be specified, though an optional  prefix
            of  [pid.]  may  be needed to distinguish between multiple
            detached screen sessions.  The second form is used to  connect  to
            another  user's  screen session which runs in multiuser mode. This
            indicates that screen should look for sessions in  another  user's
            directory. This requires setuid-root.

       -R   resumes  screen  only  when  it's unambiguous which one to attach,
            usually when only one screen is detached. Otherwise  lists  avail-
            able  sessions.   -RR attempts to resume the youngest (in terms of
            creation time) detached screen session it finds.   If  successful,
            all  other  command-line options are ignored.  If no detached ses-
            sion exists, starts a new session  using  the  specified  options,
            just as if -R had not been specified. The option is set by default
            if screen is run as a login-shell (actually screen uses "-xRR"  in
            that  case).   For  combinations  with the -d/-D option see there.
            Note: Time-based session selection is a Debian addition.

       -s program
            sets the default shell to the program specified,  instead  of  the
            value  in  the  environment  variable  $SHELL (or "/bin/sh" if not
            defined).  This can also be defined through the "shell"  .screenrc
            command.  See also there.

       -S sessionname
            When  creating a new session, this option can be used to specify a
            meaningful name for the session. This name identifies the  session
            for  "screen  -list"  and  "screen -r" actions. It substitutes the
            default [] suffix.

       -t name
            sets the title (a.k.a.) for the default shell  or  specified  pro-
            gram.  See also the "shelltitle" .screenrc command.

       -T term
            Set  the  $TERM  environment  variable using the specified term as
            opposed to the default setting of screen.

       -U   Run screen in UTF-8 mode. This option tells screen that your  ter-
            minal sends and understands UTF-8 encoded characters. It also sets
            the default encoding for new windows to `utf8'.

       -v   Print version number.

       -wipe [match]
            does the same as "screen  -ls",  but  removes  destroyed  sessions
            instead of marking them as `dead'.  An unreachable session is con-
            sidered dead, when its name matches either the name of  the  local
            host,  or the explicitly given parameter, if any.  See the -r flag
            for a description how to construct matches.

       -x   Attach to a not detached screen  session.  (Multi  display  mode).
            Screen  refuses  to attach from within itself.  But when cascading
            multiple screens, loops are not detected; take care.

       -X   Send the specified command to a running screen  session.  You  may
            use  the  -S option to specify the screen session if you have sev-
            eral screen sessions running. You can use the -d or -r  option  to
            tell screen to look only for attached or detached screen sessions.
            Note that this command doesn't work if  the  session  is  password

       -4   Resolve hostnames only to IPv4 addresses.

       -6   Resolve hostnames only to IPv6 addresses.

       As  mentioned,  each screen command consists of a "C-a" followed by one
       other character.  For your convenience, all commands that are bound  to
       lower-case  letters  are also bound to their control character counter-
       parts (with the exception of "C-a a"; see below), thus, "C-a c" as well
       as  "C-a  C-c"  can be used to create a window. See section "CUSTOMIZA-
       TION" for a description of the command.

       The following table shows the default key bindings. The trailiing  com-
       mas  in  boxes with multiple keystroke entries are separators, not part
       of the bindings.

       |C-a '            | (select)        | Prompt for a window |
       |                 |                 | name  or  number to |
       |                 |                 | switch to.          |
       |C-a "            | (windowlist -b) | Present a  list  of |
       |                 |                 | all   windows   for |
       |                 |                 | selection.          |
       |C-a digit        | (select 0-9)    | Switch  to   window |
       |                 |                 | number 0 - 9        |
       |C-a -            | (select -)      | Switch   to  window |
       |                 |                 | number 0 - 9, or to |
       |                 |                 | the blank window.   |
       |C-a tab          | (focus)         | Switch   the  input |
       |                 |                 | focus to  the  next |
       |                 |                 | region.   See  also |
       |                 |                 | split,      remove, |
       |                 |                 | only.               |
       |C-a C-a          | (other)         | Toggle  to the win- |
       |                 |                 | dow displayed  pre- |
       |                 |                 | viously.  Note that |
       |                 |                 | this        binding |
       |                 |                 | defaults   to   the |
       |                 |                 | command   character |
       |                 |                 | typed twice, unless |
       |                 |                 | overridden.     For |
       |                 |                 | instance,   if  you |
       |                 |                 | use   the    option |
       |                 |                 | "-e]x",  this  com- |
       |                 |                 | mand becomes "]]".  |
       |C-a a            | (meta)          | Send  the   command |
       |                 |                 | character  (C-a) to |
       |                 |                 | window. See  escape |
       |                 |                 | command.            |
       |C-a A            | (title)         | Allow  the  user to |
       |                 |                 | enter  a  name  for |
       |                 |                 | the current window. |
       |C-a b,           | (break)         | Send   a  break  to |
       |C-a C-b          |                 | window.             |
       |C-a B            | (pow_break)     | Reopen the terminal |
       |                 |                 | line   and  send  a |
       |                 |                 | break.              |
       |C-a c,           | (screen)        | Create a new window |
       |C-a C-c          |                 | with  a  shell  and |
       |                 |                 | switch to that win- |
       |                 |                 | dow.                |
       |C-a C            | (clear)         | Clear the screen.   |
       |C-a d,           | (detach)        | Detach  screen from |
       |C-a C-d          |                 | this terminal.      |
       |C-a D D          | (pow_detach)    | Detach and logout.  |
       |C-a f,           | (flow)          | Toggle flow on, off |
       |C-a C-f          |                 | or auto.            |
       |C-a F            | (fit)           | Resize  the  window |
       |                 |                 | to   the    current |
       |                 |                 | region size.        |
       |C-a C-g          | (vbell)         | Toggles    screen's |
       |                 |                 | visual bell mode.   |
       |C-a h            | (hardcopy)      | Write a hardcopy of |
       |                 |                 | the  current window |
       |                 |                 | to the file  "hard- |
       |                 |                 | copy.n".            |
       |C-a H            | (log)           | Begins/ends logging |
       |                 |                 | of the current win- |
       |                 |                 | dow   to  the  file |
       |                 |                 | "screenlog.n".      |
       |C-a i,           | (info)          | Show   info   about |
       |C-a C-i          |                 | this window.        |
       |C-a k,           | (kill)          | Destroy     current |
       |C-a C-k          |                 | window.             |
       |C-a l,           | (redisplay)     | Fully refresh  cur- |
       |C-a C-l          |                 | rent window.        |
       |C-a L            | (login)         | Toggle this windows |
       |                 |                 | login slot.  Avail- |
       |                 |                 | able only if screen |
       |                 |                 | is  configured   to |
       |                 |                 | update   the   utmp |
       |                 |                 | database.   T{  C-a |
       |                 |                 | m,                  |
       |                 |                 | C-a C-m             |
       |C-a M            | (monitor)       | Toggles  monitoring |
       |                 |                 | of the current win- |
       |                 |                 | dow.                |
       |C-a space,       | (next)          | Switch  to the next |
       |C-a n,           |                 | window.             |
       |C-a C-n          |                 |                     |
       |C-a N            | (number)        | Show   the   number |
       |                 |                 | (and  title) of the |
       |                 |                 | current window.     |
       |C-a backspace,   | (prev)          | Switch to the  pre- |
       |C-a C-h,         |                 | vious window (oppo- |
       |C-a p,           |                 | site of C-a n).     |
       |C-a C-p          |                 |                     |
       |C-a q,           | (xon)           | Send a control-q to |
       |C-a C-q          |                 | the current window. |
       |C-a Q            | (only)          | Delete  all regions |
       |                 |                 | but   the   current |
       |                 |                 | one.     See   also |
       |                 |                 | split,      remove, |
       |                 |                 | focus.              |
       |C-a r,           | (wrap)          | Toggle  the current |
       |C-a C-r          |                 | window's  line-wrap |
       |                 |                 | setting  (turn  the |
       |                 |                 | current    window's |
       |                 |                 | automatic   margins |
       |                 |                 | on and off).        |
       |C-a s,           | (xoff)          | Send a control-s to |
       |C-a C-s;         |                 | the current window. |
       |C-a S            | (split)         | Split  the  current |
       |                 |                 | region horizontally |
       |                 |                 | into  two new ones. |
       |                 |                 | See   also    only, |
       |                 |                 | remove, focus.      |
       |C-a t,           | (time)          | Show  system infor- |
       |C-a C-t          |                 | mation.             |
       |C-a v            | (version)       | Display the version |
       |                 |                 | and     compilation |
       |                 |                 | date.               |
       |C-a C-v          | (digraph)       | Enter digraph.      |
       |C-a w,           | (windows)       | Show a list of win- |
       |C-a C-w          |                 | dow.                |
       |C-a W            | (width)         | Toggle  80/132 col- |
       |                 |                 | umns.               |
       |C-a x or C-a C-x | (lockscreen)    | Lock this terminal. |
       |C-a X            | (remove)        | Kill  the   current |
       |                 |                 | region.   See  also |
       |                 |                 | split, only, focus. |
       |C-a z,           | (suspend)       | Suspend     screen. |
       |C-a C-z          |                 | Your   system  must |
       |                 |                 | support   BSD-style |
       |                 |                 | job-control.        |
       |C-a Z            | (reset)         | Reset  the  virtual |
       |                 |                 | terminal   to   its |
       |                 |                 | "power-on" values.  |
       |C-a .            | (dumptermcap)   | Write out a ".term- |
       |                 |                 | cap" file.          |
       |C-a ?            | (help)          | Show key bindings.  |
       |C-a \            | (quit)          | Kill  all   windows |
       |                 |                 | and       terminate |
       |                 |                 | screen.             |
       |C-a :            | (colon)         | Enter command  line |
       |                 |                 | mode.               |
       |C-a [,           | (copy)          | Enter  copy/scroll- |
       |C-a C-[,         |                 | back mode.          |
       |C-a esc          |                 |                     |
       |C-a C-],         | (paste .)       | Write the  contents |
       |C-a ]            |                 | of the paste buffer |
       |                 |                 | to the stdin  queue |
       |                 |                 | of the current win- |
       |                 |                 | dow.                |
       |C-a {,           | (history)       | Copy  and  paste  a |
       |C-a }            |                 | previous  (command) |
       |                 |                 | line.               |
       |C-a >            | (writebuf)      | Write paste  buffer |
       |                 |                 | to a file.          |
       |C-a <            | (readbuf)       | Reads  the  screen- |
       |                 |                 | exchange file  into |
       |                 |                 | the paste buffer.   |
       |C-a =            | (removebuf)     | Removes   the  file |
       |                 |                 | used by C-a  <  and |
       |                 |                 | C-a >.              |
       |C-a ,            | (license)       | Shows  where screen |
       |                 |                 | comes  from,  where |
       |                 |                 | it  went to and why |
       |                 |                 | you can use it.     |
       |C-a _            | (silence)       | Start/stop monitor- |
       |                 |                 | ing   the   current |
       |                 |                 | window for inactiv- |
       |                 |                 | ity.                |
       |C-a |            | (split -v)      | Split  the  current |
       |                 |                 | region   vertically |
       |                 |                 | into two new ones.  |
       |C-a *            | (displays)      | Show  a  listing of |
       |                 |                 | all       currently |
       |                 |                 | attached displays.  |

       The  "socket  directory"  defaults either to $HOME/.screen or simply to
       /tmp/screens or preferably to /run/screen chosen  at  compile-time.  If
       screen  is installed setuid-root, then the administrator should compile
       screen with an adequate (not NFS mounted) socket directory.  If  screen
       is not running setuid-root, the user can specify any mode 700 directory
       in the environment variable $SCREENDIR.

       When screen is invoked, it executes initialization  commands  from  the
       files  "/etc/screenrc"  and  ".screenrc"  in the user's home directory.
       These are the "programmer's defaults" that can  be  overridden  in  the
       following  ways:  for  the global screenrc file screen searches for the
       environment variable $SYSSCREENRC (this override feature  may  be  dis-
       abled  at compile-time). The user specific screenrc file is searched in
       $SCREENRC, then $HOME/.screenrc.  The  command  line  option  -c  takes
       precedence over the above user screenrc files.

       Commands  in  these  files  are  used to set options, bind functions to
       keys, and to automatically establish one or more windows at the  begin-
       ning  of  your  screen session.  Commands are listed one per line, with
       empty lines being ignored.  A command's arguments are separated by tabs
       or  spaces,  and  may  be surrounded by single or double quotes.  A `#'
       turns the rest of the line into a comment, except in quotes.   Unintel-
       ligible  lines are warned about and ignored.  Commands may contain ref-
       erences to environment variables. The syntax is the shell-like "$VAR  "
       or "${VAR}". Note that this causes incompatibility with previous screen
       versions, as now the '$'-character has to be protected with '\'  if  no
       variable  substitution shall be performed. A string in single-quotes is
       also protected from variable substitution.

       Two configuration files are shipped as examples with your  screen  dis-
       tribution:  "etc/screenrc" and "etc/etcscreenrc". They contain a number
       of useful examples for various commands.

       Customization can also be done 'on-line'. To  enter  the  command  mode
       type  `C-a  :'.  Note  that commands starting with "def" change default
       values, while others change current settings.

       The following commands are available:

       acladd usernames [crypted-pw]

       addacl usernames

       Enable users to fully access this screen session. Usernames can be  one
       user or a comma separated list of users. This command enables to attach
       to the screen session and performs the equivalent of `aclchg  usernames
       +rwx  "#?"'.   executed.  To add a user with restricted access, use the
       `aclchg' command below.  If an optional second parameter  is  supplied,
       it  should  be  a crypted password for the named user(s). `Addacl' is a
       synonym to `acladd'.  Multi user mode only.

       aclchg usernames permbits list

       chacl usernames permbits list

       Change permissions for a comma separated list of users. Permission bits
       are  represented  as `r', `w' and `x'. Prefixing `+' grants the permis-
       sion, `-' removes it. The third parameter is a comma separated list  of
       commands and/or windows (specified either by number or title). The spe-
       cial list `#' refers to all windows, `?' to all commands. if  usernames
       consists of a single `*', all known users are affected.

       A  command  can  be executed when the user has the `x' bit for it.  The
       user can type input to a window when he has its  `w'  bit  set  and  no
       other  user  obtains  a writelock for this window.  Other bits are cur-
       rently ignored.  To withdraw the writelock from another user in  window
       2: `aclchg username -w+w 2'.  To allow read-only access to the session:
       `aclchg username -w "#"'. As soon as a user's name is known  to  screen
       he can attach to the session and (per default) has full permissions for
       all command and windows. Execution permission  for  the  acl  commands,
       `at'  and  others  should  also  be  removed or the user may be able to
       regain write permission.  Rights of the special username nobody  cannot
       be  changed  (see the "su" command).  `Chacl' is a synonym to `aclchg'.
       Multi user mode only.

       acldel username

       Remove a user from screen's access control list. If currently attached,
       all the user's displays are detached from the session. He cannot attach
       again.  Multi user mode only.

       aclgrp username [groupname]

       Creates groups of users that share common access rights.  The  name  of
       the group is the username of the group leader. Each member of the group
       inherits the permissions that are granted to  the  group  leader.  That
       means,  if  a user fails an access check, another check is made for the
       group leader.  A user is removed from  all  groups  the  special  value
       "none"  is  used for groupname.  If the second parameter is omitted all
       groups the user is in are listed.

       aclumask [[ users ] +bits | [ users ] -bits... ]

       umask [[ users ] +bits | [ users ] -bits... ]

       This specifies the access other users have to windows that will be cre-
       ated  by  the  caller  of the command.  Users may be no, one or a comma
       separated list of known usernames. If no users are specified, a list of
       all  currently  known  users  is  assumed.   Bits is any combination of
       access control bits allowed defined with the "aclchg" command. The spe-
       cial  username  "?" predefines the access that not yet known users will
       be granted to any window initially.  The special username  "??"  prede-
       fines  the  access that not yet known users are granted to any command.
       Rights of the special username nobody cannot be changed (see  the  "su"
       command).  `Umask' is a synonym to `aclumask'.

       activity message

       When  any  activity  occurs  in a background window that is being moni-
       tored, screen displays a notification in the message line.  The notifi-
       cation  message  can  be re-defined by means of the "activity" command.
       Each occurrence of `%' in message is replaced by the number of the win-
       dow  in  which  activity  has  occurred, and each occurrence of `^G' is
       replaced by the definition for bell in your termcap (usually an audible
       bell).  The default message is

                        'Activity in window %n'

       Note  that  monitoring  is  off  for all windows by default, but can be
       altered by use of the "monitor" command (C-a M).

       allpartial on|off

       If set to on, only the current  cursor  line  is  refreshed  on  window
       change.   This  affects  all  windows  and  is useful for slow terminal
       lines. The previous setting of full/partial refresh for each window  is
       restored with "allpartial off".  This is a global flag that immediately
       takes effect on all windows overriding the "partial" settings. It  does
       not change the default redraw behavior of newly created windows.

       altscreen on|off

       If  set  to on, "alternate screen" support is enabled in virtual termi-
       nals, just like in xterm.  Initial setting is `off'.

       at [identifier][#|*|%] command [args  ]

       Execute a command at other displays  or  windows  as  if  it  had  been
       entered there.  "At" changes the context (the `current window' or `cur-
       rent display' setting) of the command. If the first parameter describes
       a  non-unique  context, the command will be executed multiple times. If
       the first parameter is of the form  `identifier*'  then  identifier  is
       matched against user names.  The command is executed once for each dis-
       play of the selected user(s). If the first parameter  is  of  the  form
       `identifier%'  identifier  is  matched  against  displays. Displays are
       named after the ttys they attach. The prefix `/dev/' or `/dev/tty'  may
       be  omitted  from  the  identifier.  If identifier has a `#' or nothing
       appended it is matched against window numbers and titles.  Omitting  an
       identifier in front of the `#', `*' or `%'-character selects all users,
       displays or windows because a prefix-match is performed. Note  that  on
       the  affected  display(s)  a short message will describe what happened.
       Permission is checked for initiator of the "at" command,  not  for  the
       owners  of  the affected display(s).  Note that the '#' character works
       as a comment introducer when it is preceded by whitespace. This can  be
       escaped by prefixing a '\'.  Permission is checked for the initiator of
       the "at" command, not for the owners of the affected display(s).

       Caveat: When matching against windows, the command is executed at least
       once  per window. Commands that change the internal arrangement of win-
       dows (like "other") may be called again. In shared windows the  command
       will be repeated for each attached display. Beware, when issuing toggle
       commands like "login"!  Some commands (e.g. "process") require  that  a
       display  is associated with the target windows.  These commands may not
       work correctly under "at" looping over windows.

       attrcolor attrib [attribute/color-modifier]

       This command can be used to highlight attributes by changing the  color
       of  the  text.  If  the  attribute  attrib  is  in  use,  the specified
       attribute/color modifier is also applied. If no modifier is given,  the
       current one is deleted. See the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter for the syntax
       of the modifier. Screen understands two pseudo-attributes,  "i"  stands
       for  high-intensity  foreground  color and "I" for high-intensity back-
       ground color.


              attrcolor b "R"

       Change the color to bright red if bold text is to be printed.

              attrcolor u "-u b"

       Use blue text instead of underline.

              attrcolor b ".I"

       Use bright colors for  bold  text.  Most  terminal  emulators  do  this

              attrcolor i "+b"

       Make bright colored text also bold.

       autodetach on|off

       Sets  whether screen will automatically detach upon hangup, which saves
       all your running programs until they are resumed with a screen -r  com-
       mand.   When  turned off, a hangup signal will terminate screen and all
       the processes it contains. Autodetach is on by default.

       autonuke on|off

       Sets whether a clear screen sequence should nuke all  the  output  that
       has not been written to the terminal. See also "obuflimit".

       backtick id lifespan autorefresh cmd args

       backtick id

       Program  the  backtick command with the numerical id id.  The output of
       such a command is used for substitution of the "%`" string escape.  The
       specified  lifespan  is  the number of seconds the output is considered
       valid. After this time, the command is run  again  if  a  corresponding
       string  escape  is  encountered.  The autorefresh parameter triggers an
       automatic refresh for caption and hardstatus strings after  the  speci-
       fied  number  of seconds. Only the last line of output is used for sub-

       If both the lifespan and the autorefresh parameters are zero, the back-
       tick  program is expected to stay in the background and generate output
       once in a while.  In this case, the command is executed right away  and
       screen  stores  the  last  line  of  output. If a new line gets printed
       screen will automatically refresh the hardstatus or the captions.

       The second form of the command deletes the backtick  command  with  the
       numerical id id.

       bce [on|off]

       Change background-color-erase setting. If "bce" is set to on, all char-
       acters cleared by an erase/insert/scroll/clear operation will  be  dis-
       played  in  the  current  background color. Otherwise the default back-
       ground color is used.

       bell_msg [message]

       When a bell character is sent to a background window, screen displays a
       notification  in the message line.  The notification message can be re-
       defined by this command.  Each occurrence of `%' in message is replaced
       by  the  number  of  the window to which a bell has been sent, and each
       occurrence of `^G' is replaced by the definition for bell in your term-
       cap (usually an audible bell).  The default message is

                               'Bell in window %n'

       An  empty message can be supplied to the "bell_msg" command to suppress
       output of a message line (bell_msg "").  Without parameter, the current
       message is shown.

       bind [class] key [command [args]]

       Bind  a command to a key.  By default, most of the commands provided by
       screen are bound to one or more keys as indicated in the  "DEFAULT  KEY
       BINDINGS"  section, e.g. the command to create a new window is bound to
       "C-c" and "c".  The "bind" command can be  used  to  redefine  the  key
       bindings and to define new bindings.  The key argument is either a sin-
       gle character, a two-character sequence of the form "^x"  (meaning  "C-
       x"), a backslash followed by an octal number (specifying the ASCII code
       of the character), or a backslash followed by a second character,  such
       as  "\^" or "\\".  The argument can also be quoted, if you like.  If no
       further argument is given, any previously established binding for  this
       key is removed.  The command argument can be any command listed in this

       If a command class is specified via the "-c" option, the key  is  bound
       for the specified class. Use the "command" command to activate a class.
       Command classes can be used to create multiple command keys  or  multi-
       character bindings.

       Some examples:

                        bind ' ' windows
                        bind ^k
                        bind k
                        bind K kill
                        bind ^f screen telnet foobar
                        bind \033 screen -ln -t root -h 1000 9 su

       would bind the space key to the command that displays a list of windows
       (so that the command usually invoked by "C-a C-w" would also be  avail-
       able  as  "C-a  space").  The  next three lines remove the default kill
       binding from "C-a C-k" and "C-a k".  "C-a K" is then bound to the  kill
       command.  Then  it  binds  "C-f" to the command "create a window with a
       TELNET connection to foobar", and bind "escape"  to  the  command  that
       creates an non-login window with a.k.a. "root" in slot #9, with a supe-
       ruser shell and a scrollback buffer of 1000 lines.

                        bind -c demo1 0 select 10
                        bind -c demo1 1 select 11
                        bind -c demo1 2 select 12
                        bindkey "^B" command -c demo1

       makes "C-b 0" select window 10, "C-b 1" window 11, etc.

                        bind -c demo2 0 select 10
                        bind -c demo2 1 select 11
                        bind -c demo2 2 select 12
                        bind - command -c demo2

       makes "C-a - 0" select window 10, "C-a - 1" window 11, etc.

       bindkey [-d] [-m] [-a] [[-k|-t] string [cmd-args]]

       This command manages screen's input translation tables. Every entry  in
       one  of  the  tables tells screen how to react if a certain sequence of
       characters is encountered. There are three tables: one that should con-
       tain  actions  programmed by the user, one for the default actions used
       for terminal emulation and one for screen's  copy  mode  to  do  cursor
       movement.  See  section  "INPUT  TRANSLATION" for a list of default key

       If the -d option is given,  bindkey  modifies  the  default  table,  -m
       changes  the  copy mode table and with neither option the user table is
       selected.  The argument string is the sequence of characters  to  which
       an action is bound. This can either be a fixed string or a termcap key-
       board capability name (selectable with the -k option).

       Some keys on a VT100 terminal can send a different string  if  applica-
       tion  mode  is  turned  on  (e.g  the cursor keys).  Such keys have two
       entries in the translation table. You can select the  application  mode
       entry by specifying the -a option.

       The -t option tells screen not to do inter-character timing. One cannot
       turn off the timing if a termcap capability is used.

       Cmd can be any of screen's commands with an arbitrary number  of  args.
       If cmd is omitted the key-binding is removed from the table.

       Here are some examples of keyboard bindings:

               bindkey -d
       Show  all of the default key bindings. The application mode entries are
       marked with [A].

               bindkey -k k1 select 1
       Make the "F1" key switch to window one.

               bindkey -t foo stuff barfoo
       Make "foo" an abbreviation of the word "barfoo". Timeout is disabled so
       that users can type slowly.

               bindkey "\024" mapdefault
       This  key-binding  makes  "^T" an escape character for key-bindings. If
       you did the above "stuff barfoo" binding, you can enter the word  "foo"
       by  typing  "^Tfoo". If you want to insert a "^T" you have to press the
       key twice (i.e., escape the escape binding).

               bindkey -k F1 command
       Make the F11 (not F1!) key an alternative screen escape (besides ^A).


       Send a break signal for duration*0.25 seconds to this window.  For non-
       Posix  systems  the  time  interval  may be rounded up to full seconds.
       Most useful if a character device is attached to the window rather than
       a shell process (See also chapter "WINDOW TYPES"). The maximum duration
       of a break signal is limited to 15 seconds.


       Activate the screen blanker. First the screen is cleared. If no blanker
       program is defined, the cursor is turned off, otherwise, the program is
       started and it's output is written to the screen.  The  screen  blanker
       is killed with the first keypress, the read key is discarded.

       This command is normally used together with the "idle" command.

       blankerprg [program-args]

       Defines  a  blanker  program.  Disables the blanker program if an empty
       argument is given. Shows the currently set blanker program if no  argu-
       ments are given.

       breaktype [tcsendbreak|TIOCSBRK|TCSBRK]

       Choose  one  of  the available methods of generating a break signal for
       terminal devices. This command should affect the current  window  only.
       But  it still behaves identical to "defbreaktype". This will be changed
       in the future.  Calling "breaktype"  with  no  parameter  displays  the
       break method for the current window.

       bufferfile [exchange-file]

       Change the filename used for reading and writing with the paste buffer.
       If the optional argument to the "bufferfile" command  is  omitted,  the
       default setting ("/tmp/screen-exchange") is reactivated.  The following
       example will paste the system's password file into  the  screen  window
       (using the paste buffer, where a copy remains):

                        C-a : bufferfile /etc/passwd
                        C-a < C-a ]
                        C-a : bufferfile


       Swaps window with previous one on window list.


       Swaps window with next one on window list.

       c1 [on|off]

       Change  c1  code  processing.  "C1  on" tells screen to treat the input
       characters between 128 and 159 as control  functions.   Such  an  8-bit
       code  is  normally  the same as ESC followed by the corresponding 7-bit
       code. The default setting is to process c1 codes  and  can  be  changed
       with the "defc1" command.  Users with fonts that have usable characters
       in the c1 positions may want to turn this off.

       caption [ top | bottom ] always|splitonly[string]

       caption string [string]

       This command controls the display of the window  captions.  Normally  a
       caption  is  only  used if more than one window is shown on the display
       (split screen mode). But if the type is set to always  screen  shows  a
       caption even if only one window is displayed. The default is splitonly.

       The  second form changes the text used for the caption. You can use all
       escapes from the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter. Screen  uses  a  default  of
       `%3n %t'.

       You can mix both forms by providing a string as an additional argument.

       You  can  have the caption displayed either at the top or bottom of the
       window.  The default is bottom.

       charset set

       Change the current character set slot designation and charset  mapping.
       The  first  four  character  of  set are treated as charset designators
       while the fifth and sixth character must be in range '0' to '3' and set
       the GL/GR charset mapping. On every position a '.' may be used to indi-
       cate that the corresponding charset/mapping should not be changed  (set
       is  padded  to  six characters internally by appending '.'  chars). New
       windows have "BBBB02" as default charset, unless a  "encoding"  command
       is active.
       The current setting can be viewed with the "info" command.

       chdir [directory]

       Change  the  current directory of screen to the specified directory or,
       if called without an argument, to your home directory (the value of the
       environment  variable $HOME).  All windows that are created by means of
       the "screen" command from within ".screenrc" or  by  means  of  "C-a  :
       screen  "  or  "C-a  c" use this as their default directory.  Without a
       chdir command, this would  be  the  directory  from  which  screen  was

       Hardcopy  and  log  files  are  always  written to the window's default
       directory, not the current directory of the process running in the win-
       dow.   You  can  use  this  command multiple times in your .screenrc to
       start various windows in different default directories,  but  the  last
       chdir value will affect all the windows you create interactively.

       cjkwidth [ on | off ]

       Treat ambiguous width characters as full/half width.


       Clears the current window and saves its image to the scrollback buffer.


       Reorders window on window list, removing number gaps between them.

       colon [prefix]

       Allows  you  to  enter ".screenrc" command lines. Useful for on-the-fly
       modification of key bindings, specific  window  creation  and  changing
       settings.  Note  that  the "set" keyword no longer exists! Usually com-
       mands affect the current window rather than default settings for future
       windows. Change defaults with commands starting with 'def'.

       If you consider this as the `Ex command mode' of screen, you may regard
       "C-a esc" (copy mode) as its `Vi command mode'.

       command [-c class]

       This command has the same effect as typing the screen escape  character
       (^A).  It is probably only useful for key bindings.  If the "-c" option
       is given, select the specified command  class.   See  also  "bind"  and

       compacthist [on|off]

       This  tells  screen  whether  to  suppress  trailing  blank  lines when
       scrolling up text into the history buffer.

       console [on|off]

       Grabs or un-grabs the machines console output to a window.  Note:  Only
       the owner of /dev/console can grab the console output.  This command is
       only available if the machine supports the ioctl TIOCCONS.


       Enter copy/scrollback mode. This allows you to copy text from the  cur-
       rent  window  and its history into the paste buffer. In this mode a vi-
       like `full screen editor' is active:
       The editor's movement keys are:

       |h, C-h,      | move the cursor left.                            |
       |left arrow   |                                                  |
       |j, C-n,      | move the cursor down.                            |
       |down arrow   |                                                  |
       |k, C-p,      | move the cursor up.                              |
       |up arrow     |                                                  |
       |l ('el'),    | move the cursor right.                           |
       |right arrow  |                                                  |
       |0 (zero) C-a | move to the leftmost column.                     |
       |+ and -      | positions one line up and down.                  |
       |H, M and L   | move the cursor to the leftmost  column  of  the |
       |             | top, center or bottom line of the window.        |
       ||            | moves to the specified absolute column.          |
       |g or home    | moves to the beginning of the buffer.            |
       |G or end     | moves  to  the specified absolute line (default: |
       |             | end of buffer).                                  |
       |%            | jumps to the specified percentage of the buffer. |
       |^ or $       | move to the leftmost column,  to  the  first  or |
       |             | last non-whitespace character on the line.       |
       |w, b, and e  | move the cursor word by word.                    |
       |B, E         | move the cursor WORD by WORD (as in vi).         |
       |f/F, t/T     | move  the  cursor  forward/backward  to the next |
       |             | occurrence of the target. (eg, '3fy'  will  move |
       |             | the cursor to the 3rd 'y' to the right.)         |
       |; and ,      | Repeat   the   last   f/F/t/T   command  in  the |
       |             | same/opposite direction.                         |
       |C-e and C-y  | scroll the display up/down  by  one  line  while |
       |             | preserving the cursor position.                  |
       |C-u and C-d  | scroll  the  display  up/down  by  the specified |
       |             | amount of  lines  while  preserving  the  cursor |
       |             | position. (Default: half screen-full).           |
       |C-b and C-f  | scroll the display up/down a full screen.        |

       Note:  Emacs  style movement keys can be customized by a .screenrc com-
       mand.  (E.g. markkeys "h=^B:l=^F:$=^E") There is no simple method for a
       full emacs-style keymap, as this involves multi-character codes.

       Some keys are defined to do mark and replace operations.

       The  copy  range  is  specified  by setting two marks. The text between
       these marks will be highlighted. Press:

              space or enter to set the first or second mark respectively.  If
              mousetrack  is  set  to  `on',  marks can also be set using left
              mouse click.

              Y and y used to mark one whole line or to  mark  from  start  of

              W marks exactly one word.

       Any  of  these  commands  can be prefixed with a repeat count number by
       pressing digits

              0..9 which is taken as a repeat count.

       Example: "C-a C-[ H 10 j 5 Y" will copy lines 11 to 15 into  the  paste

       The following search keys are defined:

              / Vi-like search forward.

              ? Vi-like search backward.

              C-a s Emacs style incremental search forward.

              C-r Emacs style reverse i-search.

              n Find next search pattern.

              N Find previous search pattern.

       There  are  however some keys that act differently than in vi.  Vi does
       not allow one to yank rectangular blocks  of  text,  but  screen  does.
       Press:  c  or  C  to  set  the left or right margin respectively. If no
       repeat count is given, both default to the current cursor position.

       Example: Try this on a rather full text screen:

              "C-a [ M 20 l SPACE c 10 l 5 j C SPACE".

       This moves one to the middle line of the screen, moves  in  20  columns
       left,  marks  the  beginning of the paste buffer, sets the left column,
       moves 5 columns down, sets the right column, and then marks the end  of
       the paste buffer. Now try:

              "C-a [ M 20 l SPACE 10 l 5 j SPACE"

       and notice the difference in the amount of text copied.

       J joins lines. It toggles between 4 modes: lines separated by a newline
       character (012), lines glued seamless,  lines  separated  by  a  single
       whitespace  and  comma  separated  lines. Note that you can prepend the
       newline character with a carriage return character, by issuing a  "crlf

       v  or  V  is  for all the vi users with ":set numbers" - it toggles the
       left margin between column 9 and 1. Press

       a before the final space key to toggle in append mode.  Thus  the  con-
       tents of the paste buffer will not be overwritten, but is appended to.

       A toggles in append mode and sets a (second) mark.

       > sets the (second) mark and writes the contents of the paste buffer to
       the screen-exchange file (/tmp/screen-exchange per default) once  copy-
       mode is finished.

       This  example  demonstrates  how to dump the whole scrollback buffer to
       that file: "C-A [ g SPACE G $ >".

       C-g gives information about the current line and column.

       x or o exchanges the first mark and the current  cursor  position.  You
       can use this to adjust an already placed mark.

       C-l ('el') will redraw the screen.

       @ does nothing. Does not even exit copy mode.

       All keys not described here exit copy mode.

       copy_reg [key]

       No longer exists, use "readreg" instead.

       crlf [on|off]

       This  affects  the copying of text regions with the `C-a [' command. If
       it is set to `on',  lines  will  be  separated  by  the  two  character
       sequence  `CR' - `LF'.  Otherwise (default) only `LF' is used.  When no
       parameter is given, the state is toggled.

       debug on|off

       Turns runtime debugging on or off. If screen  has  been  compiled  with
       option  -DDEBUG  debugging available and is turned on per default. Note
       that this command only affects debugging output from the main  "SCREEN"
       process  correctly.  Debug  output  from attacher processes can only be
       turned off once and forever.

       defc1 on|off

       Same as the c1 command except that the default setting for new  windows
       is changed. Initial setting is `on'.

       defautonuke on|off

       Same  as  the  autonuke command except that the default setting for new
       displays is changed. Initial setting is `off'.  Note that you  can  use
       the  special  `AN' terminal capability if you want to have a dependency
       on the terminal type.

       defbce on|off

       Same as the bce command except that the default setting for new windows
       is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defbreaktype [tcsendbreak|TIOCSBRK|TCSBRK]

       Choose  one  of  the available methods of generating a break signal for
       terminal devices. The preferred methods are tcsendbreak  and  TIOCSBRK.
       The  third, TCSBRK, blocks the complete screen session for the duration
       of the break, but it may be the  only  way  to  generate  long  breaks.
       Tcsendbreak and TIOCSBRK may or may not produce long breaks with spikes
       (e.g. 4 per second). This is not only system-dependent, this also  dif-
       fers  between  serial  board  drivers.   Calling "defbreaktype" with no
       parameter displays the current setting.

       defcharset [set]

       Like the charset command except that the default setting for  new  win-
       dows is changed. Shows current default if called without argument.

       defdynamictitle on|off

       Set default behaviour for new windows regarding if screen should change
       window title when seeing proper escape sequence. See also "TITLES (nam-
       ing windows)" section.

       defescape xy

       Set  the default command characters. This is equivalent to the "escape"
       except that it is useful multiuser sessions only. In a  multiuser  ses-
       sion  "escape" changes the command character of the calling user, where
       "defescape" changes the default command characters for users that  will
       be added later.

       defflow on|off|auto [interrupt]

       Same  as  the flow command except that the default setting for new win-
       dows is changed. Initial setting is `auto'.  Specifying  "defflow  auto
       interrupt" is the same as the command-line options -fa and -i.

       defgr on|off

       Same  as the gr command except that the default setting for new windows
       is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defhstatus [status]

       The hardstatus line that all new windows will get  is  set  to  status.
       This  command  is useful to make the hardstatus of every window display
       the window number or title or the like.  Status may  contain  the  same
       directives  as in the window messages, but the directive escape charac-
       ter is '^E' (octal 005) instead of '%'.  This was done to make a misin-
       terpretation  of program generated hardstatus lines impossible.  If the
       parameter status is omitted, the current default string  is  displayed.
       Per default the hardstatus line of new windows is empty.

       defencoding enc

       Same  as  the  encoding command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is the encoding taken from the ter-

       deflog on|off

       Same as the log command except that the default setting for new windows
       is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       deflogin on|off

       Same as the login command except that the default setting for new  win-
       dows is changed. This is initialized with `on' as distributed (see con-

       defmode mode

       The mode of each newly allocated pseudo-tty is set to mode.  Mode is an
       octal number.  When no "defmode" command is given, mode 0622 is used.

       defmonitor on|off

       Same  as  the  monitor  command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defmousetrack on|off

       Same as the mousetrack command except that the default setting for  new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defnonblock on|off|numsecs

       Same  as  the nonblock command except that the default setting for dis-
       plays is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defobuflimit limit

       Same as the obuflimit command except that the default setting  for  new
       displays  is  changed. Initial setting is 256 bytes.  Note that you can
       use the special 'OL' terminal capability if you want to have  a  depen-
       dency on the terminal type.

       defscrollback num

       Same  as the scrollback command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is 100.

       defshell command

       Synonym to the shell .screenrc command. See there.

       defsilence on|off

       Same as the silence command except that the  default  setting  for  new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defslowpaste msec

       Same  as  the slowpaste command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is 0 milliseconds, meaning `off'.

       defutf8 on|off

       Same as the utf8 command except that the default setting for  new  win-
       dows  is  changed.  Initial  setting is `on' if screen was started with
       "-U", otherwise `off'.

       defwrap on|off

       Same as the wrap command except that the default setting for  new  win-
       dows  is changed. Initially line-wrap is on and can be toggled with the
       "wrap" command ("C-a r") or by means of "C-a : wrap on|off".

       defwritelock on|off|auto

       Same as the writelock command except that the default setting  for  new
       windows is changed. Initially writelocks will off.

       detach [-h]

       Detach  the  screen session (disconnect it from the terminal and put it
       into the background).  This returns you to the shell where you  invoked
       screen.   A  detached screen can be resumed by invoking screen with the
       -r option (see also section  "COMMAND-LINE  OPTIONS").  The  -h  option
       tells  screen  to  immediately  close  the  connection  to the terminal


       Show what screen thinks about your terminal. Useful if you want to know
       why features like color or the alternate charset don't work.


       Shows  a  tabular  listing  of  all currently connected user front-ends
       (displays).  This is most useful for multiuser sessions.  The following
       keys can be used in displays list:

       |k, C-p, or up         | Move up one line.              |
       |j, C-n, or down       | Move down one line.            |
       |C-a or home           | Move to the first line.        |
       |C-e or end            | Move to the last line.         |
       |C-u or C-d            | Move one half page up or down. |
       |C-b or C-f            | Move one full page up or down. |
       |mouseclick            | Move  to  the  selected  line. |
       |                      | Available when "mousetrack" is |
       |                      | set to on.                     |
       |space                 | Refresh the list               |
       |d                     | Detach that display            |
       |D                     | Power detach that display      |
       |C-g, enter, or escape | Exit the list                  |
       The following is an example of what "displays" could look like:
              xterm 80x42 jnweiger@/dev/ttyp4     0(m11)   &rWx
              facit 80x24 mlschroe@/dev/ttyhf nb 11(tcsh)   rwx
              xterm 80x42 jnhollma@/dev/ttyp5     0(m11)   &R.x
               (A)   (B)     (C)     (D)     (E) (F)(G)   (H)(I)

       The legend is as follows:

              (A) The terminal type known by screen for this display.

       (B) Displays geometry as width x height.

       (C) Username who is logged in at the display.

       (D) Device name of the display or the attached device

       (E)  Display  is  in blocking or nonblocking mode.  The available modes
       are "nb", "NB", "Z<", "Z>", and "BL".

       (F) Number of the window

       (G) Name/title of window

       (H) Whether the window is shared

       (I) Window permissions. Made up of three characters:

                    (1st character)
                       '-' : no read
                       'r' : read
                       'R' : read only due to foreign wlock

                    (2nd character)
                       '-' : no write
                       '.' : write suppressed by foreign wlock
                       'w' : write
                       'W' : own wlock
                    (3rd character)
                       '-' : no execute
                       'x' : execute
                     "Displays" needs a region size of at least 10  characters
                     wide and 5 characters high in order to display.

              digraph [preset[unicode-value]]

              This  command  prompts the user for a digraph sequence. The next
              two characters typed are looked up in a builtin  table  and  the
              resulting  character  is inserted in the input stream. For exam-
              ple, if the user enters 'a"', an a-umlaut will be  inserted.  If
              the first character entered is a 0 (zero), screen will treat the
              following characters (up to three) as an octal  number  instead.
              The  optional argument preset is treated as user input, thus one
              can create an "umlaut" key.  For example the command "bindkey ^K
              digraph  '"'" enables the user to generate an a-umlaut by typing
              CTRL-K a.  When a non-zero unicode-value  is  specified,  a  new
              digraph  is  created  with  the specified preset. The digraph is
              unset if a zero value is provided for the unicode-value.


              Write the termcap entry for the virtual terminal  optimized  for
              the currently active window to the file ".termcap" in the user's
              "$HOME/.screen" directory (or wherever screen stores  its  sock-
              ets.  See  the  "FILES"  section  below).  This termcap entry is
              identical to the value of the environment variable $TERMCAP that
              is  set up by screen for each window. For terminfo based systems
              you will need to run a converter like captoinfo and then compile
              the entry with tic.

              dynamictitle on|off

              Change  behaviour  for windows regarding if screen should change
              window title  when  seeing  proper  escape  sequence.  See  also
              "TITLES (naming windows)" section.

              echo [-n] message

              The  echo command may be used to annoy screen users with a 'mes-
              sage of the day'. Typically installed in a global /etc/screenrc.
              The option "-n" may be used to suppress the line feed.  See also
              "sleep".  Echo is also useful for online checking of environment

              encoding enc [enc]

              Tell  screen  how to interpret the input/output. The first argu-
              ment sets the encoding of the current window.  Each  window  can
              emulate  a  different  encoding.  The  optional second parameter
              overwrites the encoding of the  connected  terminal.  It  should
              never  be needed as screen uses the locale setting to detect the
              encoding.  There is also a way to  select  a  terminal  encoding
              depending on the terminal type by using the "KJ" termcap entry.

              Supported  encodings  are  eucJP, SJIS, eucKR, eucCN, Big5, GBK,
              KOI8-R, KOI8-U, CP1251, UTF-8, ISO8859-2, ISO8859-3,  ISO8859-4,
              ISO8859-5,    ISO8859-6,    ISO8859-7,   ISO8859-8,   ISO8859-9,
              ISO8859-10, ISO8859-15, jis.

              See also "defencoding", which changes the default setting  of  a
              new window.

              escape xy

              Set  the  command  character to x and the character generating a
              literal command character (by triggering the "meta" command)  to
              y  (similar to the -e option).  Each argument is either a single
              character, a two-character sequence of the  form  "^x"  (meaning
              "C-x"),  a backslash followed by an octal number (specifying the
              ASCII code of the character), or a backslash followed by a  sec-
              ond character, such as "\^" or "\\".  The default is "^Aa".

              eval command1[command2 ]

              Parses and executes each argument as separate command.

              exec [[fdpat]newcommand [args ]]

              Run  a  unix subprocess (specified by an executable path newcom-
              mand and its optional arguments) in the current window. The flow
              of  data  between  newcommands  stdin/stdout/stderr, the process
              originally started in the window (let us call  it  "application-
              process")  and  screen itself (window) is controlled by the file
              descriptor pattern fdpat.  This pattern  is  basically  a  three
              character sequence representing stdin, stdout and stderr of new-
              command. A dot (.) connects the file descriptor to  screen.   An
              exclamation  mark (!) causes the file descriptor to be connected
              to the application-process. A colon  (:)  combines  both.   User
              input  will  go  to  newcommand  unless  newcommand receives the
              application-process' output (fdpats first character  is  `!'  or
              `:')  or  a  pipe symbol (|) is added (as a fourth character) to
              the end of fdpat.

              Invoking `exec' without arguments shows name  and  arguments  of
              the  currently  running subprocess in this window. Only one sub-
              process a time can be running in each window.

              When a subprocess is running the `kill' command will  affect  it
              instead of the windows process.

              Refer  to  the  postscript  file  `doc/' for a confusing
              illustration of all 21 possible combinations. Each drawing shows
              the digits 2,1,0 representing the three file descriptors of new-
              command. The box marked `W' is the usual pty that has the appli-
              cation-process  on  its  slave  side.  The box marked `P' is the
              secondary pty that now has screen at its master side.

              Abbreviations: Whitespace between the word `exec' and fdpat  and
              the command can be omitted. Trailing dots and a fdpat consisting
              only of dots can be omitted. A simple `|' is synonymous for  the
              pattern `!..|'; the word exec can be omitted here and can always
              be replaced by `!'.


                     exec  /bin/sh

                     exec /bin/sh


                            Creates another shell in the  same  window,  while
                            the  original  shell  is  still running. Output of
                            both shells is displayed and user input is sent to
                            the new /bin/sh.

                     exec !.. stty 19200

                     exec ! stty 19200

                     !!stty 19200

                            Set  the  speed  of the window's tty. If your stty
                            command operates on stdout, then add another `!'.

                     exec !..| less


                            This adds a pager to the window output.  The  spe-
                            cial character `|' is needed to give the user con-
                            trol over the pager although  it  gets  its  input
                            from  the  window's  process.  This works, because
                            less listens on stderr  (a  behavior  that  screen
                            would  not  expect without the `|') when its stdin
                            is not a tty.  Less versions newer than  177  fail
                            miserably here; good old pg still works.

                     !:sed -n s/.*Error.*/\007/p

                            Sends  window output to both, the user and the sed
                            command. The sed inserts an additional bell  char-
                            acter  (oct.  007)  to  the  window output seen by
                            screen.  This will cause "Bell in window  x"  mes-
                            sages,  whenever the string "Error" appears in the


              Change the window size to the size of the current  region.  This
              command  is  needed because screen doesn't adapt the window size
              automatically if the window is displayed more than once.

              flow   [on|off|auto]

              Sets the flow-control mode for this window.  Without  parameters
              it  cycles the current window's flow-control setting from "auto-
              matic" to "on" to "off".  See the discussion  on  "FLOW-CONTROL"
              later  on  in this document for full details and note, that this
              is subject to change in future  releases.   Default  is  set  by

              focus [next|prev|up|down|left|right|top|bottom]

              Move  the  input  focus  to  the  next region. This is done in a
              cyclic way so that the top left region  is  selected  after  the
              bottom  right  one. If no option is given it defaults to `next'.
              The next region to be selected is determined by how the  regions
              are  layered.  Normally, the next region in the same layer would
              be selected.  However, if that next region contains one or  more
              layers, the first region in the highest layer is selected first.
              If you are at the last region of the current layer, `next'  will
              move  the  focus to the next region in the lower layer (if there
              is a lower layer).  `Prev' cycles in  the  opposite  order.  See
              "split" for more information about layers.

              The  rest  of the options (`up', `down', `left', `right', `top',
              and `bottom') are more indifferent to layers.  The  option  `up'
              will  move  the  focus upward to the region that is touching the
              upper left corner of the current region.  `Down' will move down-
              ward to the region that is touching the lower left corner of the
              current region. The option `left' will move the  focus  leftward
              to the region that is touching the upper left corner of the cur-
              rent region, while `right' will move  rightward  to  the  region
              that  is  touching the upper right corner of the current region.
              Moving left from a left most region or moving right from a right
              most region will result in no action.

              The option `top' will move the focus to the very first region in
              the upper list corner of the screen, and `bottom' will  move  to
              the  region  in the bottom right corner of the screen. Moving up
              from a top most region or moving down from a bottom most  region
              will result in no action.

              Useful bindings are (h, j, k, and l as in vi)
                  bind h focus left
                  bind j focus down
                  bind k focus up
                  bind l focus right
                  bind t focus top
                  bind b focus bottom
              Note that k is traditionally bound to the kill command.

              focusminsize [ ( width|max|_ ) ( height|max|_ ) ]

              This  forces  any  currently selected region to be automatically
              resized at least a certain width and height. All other surround-
              ing  regions will be resized in order to accommodate.  This con-
              straint follows everytime  the  "focus"  command  is  used.  The
              "resize"  command  can be used to increase either dimension of a
              region, but never below what is  set  with  "focusminsize".  The
              underscore  `_' is a synonym for max. Setting a width and height
              of `0 0' (zero zero) will undo any  constraints  and  allow  for
              manual  resizing.  Without any parameters, the minimum width and
              height is shown.

              gr [on|off]

              Turn GR charset switching on/off. Whenever screen sees an  input
              character  with  the 8th bit set, it will use the charset stored
              in the GR  slot  and  print  the  character  with  the  8th  bit
              stripped.  The  default  (see also "defgr") is not to process GR
              switching because otherwise the ISO88591 charset would not work.

              group [grouptitle]

              Change or show the group the current window belongs to.  Windows
              can  be  moved around between different groups by specifying the
              name of the destination group. Without specifying a  group,  the
              title of the current group is displayed.

              hardcopy [-h] [file]

              Writes  out  the currently displayed image to the file file, or,
              if no filename is specified, to hardcopy.n in the default direc-
              tory,  where n is the number of the current window.  This either
              appends or overwrites the file if it exists. See below.  If  the
              option -h is specified, dump also the contents of the scrollback

              hardcopy_append on|off

              If set to "on", screen will append  to  the  "hardcopy.n"  files
              created  by the command "C-a h", otherwise these files are over-
              written each time.  Default is `off'.

              hardcopydir directory

              Defines a directory where hardcopy  files  will  be  placed.  If
              unset,  hardcopys  are dumped in screen's current working direc-

              hardstatus [on|off]

              hardstatus [always]firstline|lastline|message|ignore[string]

              hardstatus string[string]

              This command configures the use and emulation of the  terminal's
              hardstatus  line. The first form toggles whether screen will use
              the hardware status line to display messages. If the flag is set
              to  `off',  these messages are overlaid in reverse video mode at
              the display line. The default setting is `on'.

              The second form tells screen what to do if the terminal  doesn't
              have  a  hardstatus line (i.e. the termcap/terminfo capabilities
              "hs", "ts", "fs" and "ds" are not set).   When  "firstline/last-
              line"  is  used,  screen will reserve the first/last line of the
              display for the  hardstatus.  "message"  uses  screen's  message
              mechanism  and  "ignore" tells screen never to display the hard-
              status.  If you prepend the word "always"  to  the  type  (e.g.,
              "alwayslastline"), screen will use the type even if the terminal
              supports a hardstatus.

              The third form specifies the contents of  the  hardstatus  line.
              '%h'  is  used as default string, i.e., the stored hardstatus of
              the  current  window   (settable   via   "ESC]0;<string>^G"   or
              "ESC_<string>ESC\") is displayed.  You can customize this to any
              string you like including the escapes from the "STRING  ESCAPES"
              chapter.  If  you  leave  out  the  argument string, the current
              string is displayed.

              You can mix the second and third form by providing the string as
              additional argument.

              height [-w|-d] [lines [cols]]

              Set  the  display height to a specified number of lines. When no
              argument is given it toggles between 24 and  42  lines  display.
              You  can also specify a width if you want to change both values.
              The -w option tells screen to leave the display  size  unchanged
              and just set the window size, -d vice versa.


              Not really a online help, but displays a help screen showing you
              all the key bindings.  The first pages  list  all  the  internal
              commands  followed  by their current bindings.  Subsequent pages
              will display the custom commands, one command  per  key.   Press
              space  when  you're  done  reading  each page, or return to exit
              early.  All other characters are ignored. If the "-c" option  is
              given,  display  all  bound  commands  for the specified command
              class.  See also "DEFAULT KEY BINDINGS" section.


              Usually users work with a shell that allows easy access to  pre-
              vious  commands.  For example csh has the command "!!" to repeat
              the last command executed.  Screen allows you to have  a  primi-
              tive  way  of  re-calling  "the command that started ": You just
              type the first letter of that command,  then  hit  `C-a  {'  and
              screen  tries  to  find  a  previous  line that matches with the
              `prompt character' to the left  of  the  cursor.  This  line  is
              pasted  into  this  window's input queue.  Thus you have a crude
              command history (made up by the visible window and  its  scroll-
              back buffer).

              hstatus status

              Change the window's hardstatus line to the string status.

              idle [timeout[cmd-args]]

              Sets a command that is run after the specified number of seconds
              inactivity  is  reached.  This  command  will  normally  be  the
              "blanker"  command to create a screen blanker, but it can be any
              screen command.  If no command is specified, only the timeout is
              set. A timeout of zero (or the special timeout off) disables the
              timer.  If no arguments are given, the current settings are dis-

              ignorecase [on|off]

              Tell  screen  to  ignore  the  case  of  characters in searches.
              Default is `off'. Without any options, the state  of  ignorecase
              is toggled.


              Uses the message line to display some information about the cur-
              rent window: the cursor  position  in  the  form  "(column,row)"
              starting  with  "(1,1)",  the terminal width and height plus the
              size of the scrollback buffer in lines,  like  in  "(80,24)+50",
              the  current state of window XON/XOFF flow control is shown like
              this (See also section FLOW CONTROL):

                +flow     automatic flow control, currently on.
                -flow     automatic flow control, currently off.
                +(+)flow  flow control enabled. Agrees with automatic control.
                -(+)flow  flow control disabled. Disagrees with automatic control.
                +(-)flow  flow control enabled. Disagrees with automatic control.
                -(-)flow  flow control disabled. Agrees with automatic control.

              The  current  line  wrap  setting  (`+wrap'  indicates  enabled,
              `-wrap'  not)  is  also  shown.  The  flags `ins', `org', `app',
              `log', `mon' or `nored' are displayed  when  the  window  is  in
              insert  mode,  origin  mode, application-keypad mode, has output
              logging, activity monitoring or partial redraw enabled.

              The currently active character set (G0, G1, G2, or  G3)  and  in
              square  brackets  the terminal character sets that are currently
              designated as G0 through G3 is shown. If the window is in  UTF-8
              mode, the string "UTF-8" is shown instead.

              Additional  modes  depending  on the type of the window are dis-
              played at the end of the status line (See also  chapter  "WINDOW

              If  the  state  machine  of  the  terminal emulator is in a non-
              default state, the info line is started with a string  identify-
              ing the current state.

              For system information use the "time" command.

              ins_reg [key]

              No longer exists, use "paste" instead.


              Kill current window.

              If  there is an `exec' command running then it is killed. Other-
              wise the process (shell) running in the window receives a HANGUP
              condition, the window structure is removed and screen (your dis-
              play) switches to another  window.   When  the  last  window  is
              destroyed,  screen  exits.   After a kill screen switches to the
              previously displayed window.

              Note: Emacs users should keep this command in mind, when killing
              a line.  It is recommended not to use "C-a" as the screen escape
              key or to rebind kill to "C-a K".


              Redisplay the last contents of the message/status line.   Useful
              if  you're  typing  when a message appears, because  the message
              goes away when you press a key (unless your terminal has a hard-
              ware status line).  Refer to the commands "msgwait" and "msgmin-
              wait" for fine tuning.

              layout new [title]

              Create a new layout. The screen will change to one whole  region
              and  be  switched  to the blank window. From here, you build the
              regions and the windows they show as you desire. The new  layout
              will  be  numbered with the smallest available integer, starting
              with zero. You can optionally give a title to your  new  layout.
              Otherwise,  it  will  have  a default title of "layout". You can
              always change the title later by using the command layout title.

              layout remove [n|title]

              Remove, or in other words, delete the specified  layout.  Either
              the  number or the title can be specified. Without either speci-
              fication, screen will remove the current layout.

              Removing a layout does not affect your set windows or regions.

              layout next

              Switch to the next layout available

              layout prev

              Switch to the previous layout available

              layout select [n|title]

              Select the desired layout. Either the number or the title can be
              specified.  Without either specification, screen will prompt and
              ask which screen is desired. To see which layouts are available,
              use the layout show command.

              layout show

              List  on  the  message  line  the  number(s) and title(s) of the
              available layout(s). The current layout is flagged.

              layout title [title]

              Change or display the title of  the  current  layout.  A  string
              given  will be used to name the layout. Without any options, the
              current title and number is displayed on the message line.

              layout number [n]

              Change or display the number of the current layout.  An  integer
              given  will  be  used to number the layout. Without any options,
              the current number and title is displayed on the message line.

              layout attach [title|:last]

              Change or display which layout to reattach back to. The  default
              is  :last,  which tells screen to reattach back to the last used
              layout just before detachment. By supplying  a  title,  You  can
              instruct  screen  to  reattach to a particular layout regardless
              which one was used  at  the  time  of  detachment.  Without  any
              options,  the layout to reattach to will be shown in the message

              layout save [n|title]

              Remember the current arrangement of regions. When  used,  screen
              will  remember  the  arrangement  of vertically and horizontally
              split regions. This arrangement is restored when a  screen  ses-
              sion  is reattached or switched back from a different layout. If
              the session ends or the screen process dies, the layout arrange-
              ments are lost. The layout dump command should help in this siu-
              tation. If a number or title is supplied, screen  will  remember
              the  arrangement of that particular layout. Without any options,
              screen will remember the current layout.

              Saving your regions can be done automatically by using the  lay-
              out autosave command.

              layout autosave [on|off]

              Change or display the status of automatcally saving layouts. The
              default is on, meaning when screen is detached or changed  to  a
              different layout, the arrangement of regions and windows will be
              remembered at the time of change and restored upon  return.   If
              autosave  is  set to off, that arrangement will only be restored
              to either to the last manual save, using layout save, or to when
              the  layout  was first created, to a single region with a single
              window. Without either an on or off, the current status is  dis-
              played on the message line.

              layout dump [filename]

              Write  to a file the order of splits made in the current layout.
              This is useful to recreate the order of  your  regions  used  in
              your  current layout. Only the current layout is recorded. While
              the order of the  regions  are  recorded,  the  sizes  of  those
              regions  and  which windows correspond to which regions are not.
              If no filename is specified, the default is  layout-dump,  saved
              in  the directory that the screen process was started in. If the
              file already exists, layout dump will append to that file. As an

                                    C-a : layout dump /home/user/.screenrc

              will save or append the layout to the user's .screenrc file.


              Display  the  disclaimer  page.  This is done whenever screen is
              started without options, which should be often enough. See  also
              the "startup_message" command.


              Lock this display.  Call a screenlock program (/local/bin/lck or
              /usr/bin/lock or a builtin if no  other  is  available).  Screen
              does  not accept any command keys until this program terminates.
              Meanwhile processes in the windows may continue, as the  windows
              are  in  the  `detached'  state.  The  screenlock program may be
              changed through the environment variable $LOCKPRG (which must be
              set  in  the shell from which screen is started) and is executed
              with the user's uid and gid.

              Warning: When you leave other shells unlocked and  you  have  no
              password  set  on screen, the lock is void: One could easily re-
              attach from an unlocked shell. This  feature  should  rather  be
              called `lockterminal'.

              log [on|off]

              Start/stop  writing  output  of  the  current  window  to a file
              "screenlog.n" in the window's default directory, where n is  the
              number  of the current window. This filename can be changed with
              the `logfile' command. If no parameter is given,  the  state  of
              logging  is toggled. The session log is appended to the previous
              contents of the file if it already exists. The current  contents
              and  the  contents of the scrollback history are not included in
              the session log.  Default is `off'.

              logfile filename

              logfile flush secs

              Defines the name the log files will get. The default is "screen-
              log.%n".  The  second  form changes the number of seconds screen
              will wait before flushing the logfile buffer to the file-system.
              The default value is 10 seconds.

              login [on|off]

              Adds or removes the entry in the utmp database file for the cur-
              rent window.  This controls if the window is `logged in'.   When
              no parameter is given, the login state of the window is toggled.
              Additionally to that toggle, it is convenient having a `log  in'
              and  a  `log  out' key. E.g. `bind I login on' and `bind O login
              off' will map these keys to be C-a I and  C-a  O.   The  default
              setting  (in should be "on" for a screen that runs
              under suid-root.  Use  the  "deflogin"  command  to  change  the
              default  login  state  for  new  windows. Both commands are only
              present when screen has been compiled with utmp support.

              logtstamp [on|off]

              logtstamp after [secs]

              logtstamp string

              This command controls logfile time-stamp  mechanism  of  screen.
              If  time-stamps are turned "on", screen adds a string containing
              the current time to the logfile after two minutes of inactivity.
              When  output  continues  and  more than another two minutes have
              passed, a second time-stamp is added to document the restart  of
              the  output. You can change this timeout with the second form of
              the command. The third form is used for  customizing  the  time-
              stamp string (`-- %n:%t -- time-stamp -- %M/%d/%y %c:%s --\n' by


              Tell screen that the next input character should only be  looked
              up in the default bindkey table. See also "bindkey".


              Like  mapdefault, but don't even look in the default bindkey ta-

              maptimeout [timeout]

              Set the inter-character timer for input sequence detection to  a
              timeout  of timeout ms. The default timeout is 300ms. Maptimeout
              with no arguments shows the current setting.   See  also  "bind-

              markkeys string

              This  is  a  method of changing the keymap used for copy/history
              mode.  The string is made up of oldchar=newchar pairs which  are
              separated  by  `:'.  Example: The string "B=^B:F=^F" will change
              the keys `C-b' and `C-f' to the vi style binding (scroll up/down
              fill  page).  This happens to be the default binding for `B' and
              `F'.  The command "markkeys h=^B:l=^F:$=^E" would set  the  mode
              for  an emacs-style binding.  If your terminal sends characters,
              that cause you to abort copy mode, then this command may help by
              binding  these characters to do nothing.  The no-op character is
              `@' and is used like this: "markkeys @=L=H" if you do  not  want
              to  use  the  `H'  or `L' commands any longer.  As shown in this
              example, multiple keys can be assigned to one function in a sin-
              gle statement.

              maxwin num

              Set the maximum window number screen will create. Doesn't affect
              already existing windows. The number can be increased only  when
              there are no existing windows.


              Insert the command character (C-a) in the current window's input

              monitor [on|off]

              Toggles activity monitoring  of  windows.   When  monitoring  is
              turned  on  and  an  affected  window is switched into the back-
              ground, you will receive the activity  notification  message  in
              the  status line at the first sign of output and the window will
              also be marked with an `@' in the window-status display.   Moni-
              toring is initially off for all windows.

              mousetrack [on|off]

              This  command  determines  whether  screen  will watch for mouse
              clicks. When this command is enabled,  regions  that  have  been
              split in various ways can be selected by pointing to them with a
              mouse and left-clicking them. Without specifying on or off,  the
              current  state  is displayed. The default state is determined by
              the "defmousetrack" command.

              msgminwait sec

              Defines the time screen delays a new message when one message is
              currently displayed.  The default is 1 second.

              msgwait sec

              Defines  the  time  a message is displayed if screen is not dis-
              turbed by other activity. The default is 5 seconds.

              multiuser on|off

              Switch between singleuser and multiuser  mode.  Standard  screen
              operation   is   singleuser.  In  multiuser  mode  the  commands
              `acladd', `aclchg', `aclgrp' and `acldel' can be used to  enable
              (and disable) other users accessing this screen session.

              nethack on|off

              Changes the kind of error messages used by screen.  When you are
              familiar with the game "nethack", you  may  enjoy  the  nethack-
              style messages which will often blur the facts a little, but are
              much funnier to read. Anyway, standard messages often tend to be
              unclear as well.
              This  option  is  only available if screen was compiled with the
              NETHACK flag defined. The default setting is then determined  by
              the presence of the environment variable $NETHACKOPTIONS and the
              file ~/.nethackrc - if either one is present, the default is on.


              Switch to the next window.  This command can be used  repeatedly
              to cycle through the list of windows.


              Tell  screen  how  to  deal with user interfaces (displays) that
              cease to accept output. This can happen if a user presses ^S  or
              a  TCP/modem  connection  gets cut but no hangup is received. If
              nonblock is off (this is the default)  screen  waits  until  the
              display restarts to accept the output. If nonblock is on, screen
              waits until the timeout is reached (on is treated as 1s). If the
              display  still  doesn't receive characters, screen will consider
              it "blocked" and stop sending characters to it. If at some  time
              it  restarts  to accept characters, screen will unblock the dis-
              play and redisplay the updated window contents.

              number [[+|-]n]

              Change the current window's number. If the  given  number  n  is
              already used by another window, both windows exchange their num-
              bers. If no argument is specified,  the  current  window  number
              (and  title) is shown. Using `+' or `-' will change the window's
              number by the relative amount specified.

              obuflimit [limit]

              If the output buffer contains  more  bytes  than  the  specified
              limit,  no  more data will be read from the windows. The default
              value is 256. If you have a fast display (like xterm),  you  can
              set  it  to  some higher value. If no argument is specified, the
              current setting is displayed.


              Kill all regions but the current one.


              Switch to the window displayed previously. If this  window  does
              no longer exist, other has the same effect as next.

              partial on|off

              Defines  whether the display should be refreshed (as with redis-
              play) after switching to the current window. This  command  only
              affects  the  current window.  To immediately affect all windows
              use the allpartial command.  Default is `off', of course.   This
              default is fixed, as there is currently no defpartial command.

              password [crypted_pw]

              Present  a  crypted password in your ".screenrc" file and screen
              will ask for it, whenever someone attempts to resume a detached.
              This  is  useful  if  you have privileged programs running under
              screen and you  want  to  protect  your  session  from  reattach
              attempts  by  another  user  masquerading  as your uid (i.e. any
              superuser.)  If no crypted password is specified, screen prompts
              twice  for  typing  a  password and places its encryption in the
              paste buffer.  Default is `none', this disables password  check-

              paste [registers [dest_reg]]

              Write  the (concatenated) contents of the specified registers to
              the stdin queue of the  current  window.  The  register  '.'  is
              treated  as  the paste buffer. If no parameter is given the user
              is prompted for a single register to paste.   The  paste  buffer
              can  be  filled  with  the  copy,  history and readbuf commands.
              Other registers can be filled with  the  register,  readreg  and
              paste  commands.  If paste is called with a second argument, the
              contents of the specified registers is  pasted  into  the  named
              destination  register  rather than the window. If '.' is used as
              the second argument, the displays paste buffer is  the  destina-
              tion.   Note,  that  "paste"  uses  a wide variety of resources:
              Whenever a second argument is specified  no  current  window  is
              needed.  When  the  source specification only contains registers
              (not the paste buffer) then there need not be a current  display
              (terminal attached), as the registers are a global resource. The
              paste buffer exists once for every user.

              pastefont [on|off]

              Tell screen to include font information in the paste buffer. The
              default  is  not to do so. This command is especially useful for
              multi character fonts like kanji.


              Reopen the window's terminal line and send  a  break  condition.
              See `break'.


              Power  detach.   Mainly  the  same  as  detach, but also sends a
              HANGUP signal to the parent process of  screen.   CAUTION:  This
              will  result  in  a  logout,  when  screen was started from your

              pow_detach_msg [message]

              The message specified here is output whenever a  `Power  detach'
              was performed. It may be used as a replacement for a logout mes-
              sage or to reset baud rate, etc.  Without parameter, the current
              message is shown.


              Switch  to  the window with the next lower number.  This command
              can be used repeatedly to cycle through the list of windows.

              printcmd [cmd]

              If cmd is not an empty string, screen will not use the  terminal
              capabilities  "po/pf" if it detects an ansi print sequence ESC [
              5 i, but pipe the output into cmd.  This should  normally  be  a
              command like "lpr" or "'cat > /tmp/scrprint'".  printcmd without
              a command displays the current setting.  The ansi sequence ESC \
              ends printing and closes the pipe.

              Warning:  Be careful with this command! If other user have write
              access to your terminal, they will be able  to  fire  off  print

              process [key]

              Stuff the contents of the specified register into screen's input
              queue. If no argument is given you are prompted for  a  register
              name.  The  text  is  parsed as if it had been typed in from the
              user's keyboard. This command  can  be  used  to  bind  multiple
              actions to a single key.


              Kill all windows and terminate screen.  Note that on VT100-style
              terminals the keys C-4 and C-\ are identical.   This  makes  the
              default  bindings dangerous: Be careful not to type C-a C-4 when
              selecting window no. 4.  Use the empty bind command (as in "bind
              '^\'") to remove a key binding.

              readbuf [encoding] [filename]

              Reads  the contents of the specified file into the paste buffer.
              You can tell screen the encoding of the file via the -e  option.
              If  no  file is specified, the screen-exchange filename is used.
              See also "bufferfile" command.

              readreg [encoding] [register [filename]]

              Does one of two things, dependent on number of  arguments:  with
              zero or one arguments it it duplicates the paste buffer contents
              into the register specified or entered at the prompt.  With  two
              arguments  it reads the contents of the named file into the reg-
              ister, just as readbuf reads the screen-exchange file  into  the
              paste  buffer.  You can tell screen the encoding of the file via
              the -e option.  The following example will  paste  the  system's
              password  file into the screen window (using register p, where a
              copy remains):

                                    C-a : readreg p /etc/passwd
              C-a : paste p


              Redisplay the current window. Needed to  get  a  full  redisplay
              when in partial redraw mode.

              register [-eencoding]key-string

              Save  the specified string to the register key.  The encoding of
              the string can be specified via the -e  option.   See  also  the
              "paste" command.


              Kill  the  current  region. This is a no-op if there is only one


              Unlinks the screen-exchange file used by the commands "writebuf"
              and "readbuf".

              rendition bell | monitor | silence | so  attr  [ color ]

              Change  the  way  screen renders the titles of windows that have
              monitor or bell flags set  in  caption  or  hardstatus  or  win-
              dowlist.  See the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter for the syntax of the
              modifiers.  The default for monitor is currently  "=b  "  (bold,
              active colors), for bell "=ub " (underline, bold and active col-
              ors), and "=u " for silence.


              Reset the virtual terminal to its "power-on" values. Useful when
              strange settings (like scroll regions or graphics character set)
              are left over from an application.

              resize [-h|-v|-b|-l|-p] [[+|-] n[%] |=|max|min|_|0]

              Resize the current region. The space will  be  removed  from  or
              added  to  the surrounding regions depending on the order of the
              splits.  The available options for  resizing  are  `-h'(horizon-
              tal),  `-v'(vertical),  `-b'(both),  `-l'(local  to  layer), and
              `-p'(perpendicular). Horizontal resizes will add or remove width
              to  a  region, vertical will add or remove height, and both will
              add or remove size from both dimensions. Local and perpendicular
              are similar to horizontal and vertical, but they take in account
              of how a region was split.  If a region's last split  was  hori-
              zontal,  a  local  resize will work like a vertical resize. If a
              region's last split was vertical, a local resize will work  like
              a  horizontal  resize. Perpendicular resizes work in opposite of
              local resizes. If no option is specified, local is the default.

              The amount of lines to add or remove can be expressed  a  couple
              of  different  ways.  By  specifying  a  number n by itself will
              resize the region by that absolute amount.  You  can  specify  a
              relative  amount  by  prefixing  a  plus `+' or minus `-' to the
              amount, such as adding +n lines or removing -n  lines.  Resizing
              can  also  be expressed as an absolute or relative percentage by
              postfixing a percent sign `%'. Using zero `0' is a  synonym  for
              `min' and using an underscore `_' is a synonym for `max'.

              Some examples are:

              resize +N
                     increase current region by N

              resize -N
                     decrease current region by N

              resize  N
                     set current region to N

              resize 20%
                     set current region to 20% of original size

              resize +20%
                     increase current region by 20%

              resize -b =
                     make all windows equally

              resize  max
                     maximize current region

              resize  min
                     minimize current region

              Without any arguments, screen will prompt for how you would like
              to resize the current region.

              See "focusminsize" if you want to restrict the  minimum  size  a
              region can have.

       screen [-opts] [n] [cmd [args]|//group]

       Establish  a  new  window.  The flow-control options (-f, -fn and -fa),
       title (a.k.a.) option (-t), login options (-l and -ln) , terminal  type
       option  (-T <term>), the all-capability-flag (-a) and scrollback option
       (-h <num>) may be specified with each command.  The option  (-M)  turns
       monitoring on for this window.  The option (-L) turns output logging on
       for this window.  If an optional number n in the range  0..MAXWIN-1  is
       given, the window number n is assigned to the newly created window (or,
       if this number is already in-use, the next  available  number).   If  a
       command is specified after "screen", this command (with the given argu-
       ments) is started in the window; otherwise, a  shell  is  created.   If
       //group  is supplied, a container-type window is created in which other
       windows may be created inside it.

       Thus, if your ".screenrc" contains the lines

                             # example for .screenrc:
                             screen 1
                             screen -fn -t foobar -L 2 telnet foobar

       screen creates a shell window (in window #1) and a window with a TELNET
       connection  to the machine foobar (with no flow-control using the title
       "foobar" in window #2) and will write a logfile ("screenlog.2") of  the
       telnet session.  Note, that unlike previous versions of screen no addi-
       tional default window is created when "screen" commands are included in
       your  ".screenrc"  file.  When  the initialization is completed, screen
       switches to the last window specified in your  .screenrc  file  or,  if
       none, opens a default window #0.

       Screen  has built in some functionality of "cu" and "telnet".  See also
       chapter "WINDOW TYPES".

       scrollback num

       Set the size of the scrollback buffer for the current  windows  to  num
       lines.  The  default scrollback is 100 lines.  See also the "defscroll-
       back" command and use "info" to view the current setting. To access and
       use the contents in the scrollback buffer, use the "copy" command.

       select [WindowID]

       Switch to the window identified by WindowID.  This can be a prefix of a
       window title (alphanumeric window name) or a window number.  The param-
       eter  is  optional  and if omitted, you get prompted for an identifier.
       When a new  window  is  established,  the  first  available  number  is
       assigned  to  this  window.  Thus, the first window can be activated by
       "select 0".  The number of windows is limited at  compile-time  by  the
       MAXWIN  configuration  parameter (which defaults to 40).  There are two
       special WindowIDs, "-"  selects  the  internal  blank  window  and  "."
       selects  the current window. The latter is useful if used with screen's
       "-X" option.

       sessionname [name]

       Rename the current session. Note, that  for  "screen  -list"  the  name
       shows up with the process-id prepended. If the argument "name" is omit-
       ted, the name of this session is displayed. Caution: The $STY  environ-
       ment  variables will still reflect the old name in pre-existing shells.
       This may result in confusion. Use of this command is generally discour-
       aged.  Use  the "-S" command-line option if you want to name a new ses-
       sion.  The default is constructed from the tty and host names.

       setenv [var [string]]

       Set the environment variable var to value string.  If only var is spec-
       ified,  the  user  will be prompted to enter a value.  If no parameters
       are specified, the user will be prompted for both variable  and  value.
       The environment is inherited by all subsequently forked shells.

       setsid [on|off]

       Normally screen uses different sessions and process groups for the win-
       dows. If setsid is turned off, this is not done anymore and all windows
       will  be  in the same process group as the screen backend process. This
       also breaks job-control, so be careful.  The default is on, of  course.
       This command is probably useful only in rare circumstances.

       shell command

       Set  the  command to be used to create a new shell.  This overrides the
       value of the environment variable $SHELL.  This is useful if you'd like
       to  run a tty-enhancer which is expecting to execute the program speci-
       fied in $SHELL.  If the command begins with a '-' character, the  shell
       will  be  started as a login-shell. Typical shells do only minimal ini-
       tialization when not started as a login-shell.  E.g. Bash will not read
       your "~/.bashrc" unless it is a login-shell.

       shelltitle title

       Set  the  title for all shells created during startup or by the C-A C-c
       command.  For details about what a title is, see the  discussion  enti-
       tled "TITLES (naming windows)".

       silence [on|off|sec]

       Toggles  silence  monitoring of windows.  When silence is turned on and
       an affected window is switched into the background,  you  will  receive
       the  silence  notification message in the status line after a specified
       period of inactivity (silence). The default timeout can be changed with
       the  `silencewait' command or by specifying a number of seconds instead
       of `on' or `off'.  Silence is initially off for all windows.

       silencewait sec

       Define the time that all windows  monitored  for  silence  should  wait
       before displaying a message. Default 30 seconds.

       sleep num

       This  command will pause the execution of a .screenrc file for num sec-
       onds.  Keyboard activity will end the sleep.  It may be  used  to  give
       users a chance to read the messages output by "echo".

       slowpaste msec

       Define  the  speed at which text is inserted into the current window by
       the paste ("C-a ]") command.  If the slowpaste value is nonzero text is
       written  character by character.  screen will make a pause of msec mil-
       liseconds after each single character write to allow the application to
       process its input. Only use slowpaste if your underlying system exposes
       flow control problems while pasting large amounts of text.


       Sort the windows in alphabetical order of the window tiles.

       source file

       Read and execute commands from file file. Source commands may be nested
       to  a  maximum  recursion level of ten. If file is not an absolute path
       and screen is already processing a source command, the parent directory
       of  the  running source command file is used to search for the new com-
       mand file before screen's current directory.

       Note that termcap/terminfo/termcapinfo commands only  work  at  startup
       and  reattach  time,  so  they must be reached via the default screenrc
       files to have an effect.

       sorendition [attr[color]]

       This command is deprecated. See "rendition so" instead.


       Split the current region into two new ones. All regions on the  display
       are  resized  to make room for the new region. The blank window is dis-
       played in the new region. The default is to create a horizontal  split,
       putting the new regions on the top and bottom of each other. Using `-v'
       will create a vertical split, causing the new regions to appear side by
       side  of  each other.  Use the "remove" or the "only" command to delete
       regions.  Use "focus" to toggle between regions.

       When a region is split opposite of how it was  previously  split  (that
       is,  vertical then horizontal or horizontal then vertical), a new layer
       is created. The layer is used to group together the  regions  that  are
       split  the  same.  Normally,  as a user, you should not see nor have to
       worry about layers, but they will affect how some commands ("focus" and
       "resize") behave.

       With  this current implementation of screen, scrolling data will appear
       much slower in a vertically split region than one  that  is  not.  This
       should  be  taken into consideration if you need to use system commands
       such as "cat" or "tail -f".

       startup_message on|off

       Select whether you want to see the  copyright  notice  during  startup.
       Default is `on', as you probably noticed.

       status [top|up|down|bottom]

       The status window by default is in bottom-left corner. This command can
       move status messages to any corner of the screen. top is  the  same  as
       up, down is the same as bottom.

       stuff [string]

       Stuff  the  string  string  in  the input buffer of the current window.
       This is like the "paste" command but with much less overhead.   Without
       a  parameter,  screen  will  prompt  for a string to stuff.  You cannot
       paste large buffers with the "stuff" command. It is most useful for key
       bindings. See also "bindkey".

       su [username [password [password2]]]

       Substitute  the  user of a display. The command prompts for all parame-
       ters that are omitted. If passwords are specified as  parameters,  they
       have  to be specified un-crypted. The first password is matched against
       the systems passwd database, the second password is matched against the
       screen  password as set with the commands "acladd" or "password".  "Su"
       may be useful for the screen administrator to  test  multiuser  setups.
       When  the  identification  fails,  the  user has access to the commands
       available for user nobody.  These are "detach",  "license",  "version",
       "help" and "displays".


       Suspend  screen.  The windows are in the `detached' state, while screen
       is suspended. This feature relies on the shell being  able  to  do  job

       term term

       In each window's environment screen opens, the $TERM variable is set to
       "screen" by default.  But when no description for "screen" is installed
       in  the  local  termcap or terminfo data base, you set $TERM to - say -
       "vt100". This won't do much harm, as screen is  VT100/ANSI  compatible.
       The  use  of the "term" command is discouraged for non-default purpose.
       That is, one may want to specify special $TERM  settings  (e.g.  vt100)
       for  the  next  "screen  rlogin  othermachine" command. Use the command
       "screen -T vt100 rlogin othermachine" rather than setting and resetting
       the default.

       termcap term terminal-tweaks[window-tweaks]

       terminfo term terminal-tweaks[window-tweaks]

       termcapinfo term terminal-tweaks[window-tweaks]

       Use  this command to modify your terminal's termcap entry without going
       through all the hassles involved in creating a  custom  termcap  entry.
       Plus,  you  can optionally customize the termcap generated for the win-
       dows.  You have to place these commands in one of the screenrc  startup
       files, as they are meaningless once the terminal emulator is booted.

       If  your  system  works uses the terminfo database rather than termcap,
       screen will understand the  `terminfo'  command,  which  has  the  same
       effects  as the `termcap' command.  Two separate commands are provided,
       as there are subtle syntactic differences, e.g. when parameter interpo-
       lation (using `%') is required. Note that termcap names of the capabil-
       ities have to be used with the `terminfo' command.

       In many cases, where the arguments are valid in both terminfo and term-
       cap  syntax,  you  can  use  the command `termcapinfo', which is just a
       shorthand for a pair of `termcap' and `terminfo' commands with  identi-
       cal arguments.

       The  first  argument  specifies which terminal(s) should be affected by
       this definition.  You can specify multiple terminal names by separating
       them  with `|'s.  Use `*' to match all terminals and `vt*' to match all
       terminals that begin with "vt".

       Each tweak argument contains one or more termcap defines (separated  by
       `:'s)  to  be  inserted  at the start of the appropriate termcap entry,
       enhancing it or overriding existing values.  The first  tweak  modifies
       your  terminal's  termcap,  and contains definitions that your terminal
       uses to perform certain functions.  Specify a null string to leave this
       unchanged (e.g. '').  The second (optional) tweak modifies all the win-
       dow termcaps, and should contain definitions  that  screen  understands
       (see the "VIRTUAL TERMINAL" section).

       Some examples:

              termcap xterm*  LP:hs@

       Informs  screen  that  all  terminals that begin with `xterm' have firm
       auto-margins that allow the last position on the screen to  be  updated
       (LP), but they don't really have a status line (no 'hs' - append `@' to
       turn entries off).  Note that we assume `LP'  for  all  terminal  names
       that  start  with "vt", but only if you don't specify a termcap command
       for that terminal.
              termcap vt*  LP

       termcap vt102|vt220  Z0=\E[?3h:Z1=\E[?3l

       Specifies the firm-margined `LP'  capability  for  all  terminals  that
       begin with `vt', and the second line will also add the escape-sequences
       to switch into (Z0) and back out of (Z1) 132-character-per-line mode if
       this  is a VT102 or VT220.  (You must specify Z0 and Z1 in your termcap
       to use the width-changing commands.)

              termcap vt100  ""  l0=PF1:l1=PF2:l2=PF3:l3=PF4

       This leaves your vt100 termcap alone and adds the function  key  labels
       to each window's termcap entry.

              termcap h19|z19  am@:im=\E@:ei=\EO  dc=\E[P

       Takes a h19 or z19 termcap and turns off auto-margins (am@) and enables
       the insert mode (im) and end-insert (ei) capabilities (the `@'  in  the
       `im' string is after the `=', so it is part of the string).  Having the
       `im' and `ei' definitions put into your terminal's termcap  will  cause
       screen  to  automatically  advertise the character-insert capability in
       each window's termcap.  Each window will also get the  delete-character
       capability  (dc) added to its termcap, which screen will translate into
       a line-update for the terminal (we're  pretending  it  doesn't  support
       character deletion).

       If  you  would  like  to fully specify each window's termcap entry, you
       should instead set the $SCREENCAP variable  prior  to  running  screen.
       See  the  discussion  on the "VIRTUAL TERMINAL" in this manual, and the
       termcap(5) man page for more information on termcap definitions.

       time   [string]

       Uses the message line to display the time of day, the  host  name,  and
       the  load  averages  over 1, 5, and 15 minutes (if this is available on
       your system).  For window specific information, use "info".

       If a string is specified, it changes the format of the time report like
       it  is described in the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter. Screen uses a default
       of "%c:%s %M %d %H%? %l%?".

       title [windowtitle]

       Set the name of the current window to windowtitle. If no name is speci-
       fied, screen prompts for one. This command was known as `aka' in previ-
       ous releases.

       truecolor [on|off]

       Enables truecolor support. Currently autodetection of truecolor support
       cannot  be  done reliably, as such it's left to user to enable. Default
       is off.  Known terminals that may support it are: iTerm2, Konsole,  st.
       Xterm  includes support for truecolor escapes but converts them back to
       indexed 256 color space.


       Unbind all the bindings. This can be useful when screen is used  solely
       for its detaching abilities, such as when letting a console application
       run as a daemon. If, for some reason, it is necessary to bind  commands
       after this, use 'screen -X'.

       unsetenv var

       Unset an environment variable.

       utf8 [on|off[on|off]]

       Change the encoding used in the current window. If utf8 is enabled, the
       strings sent to the window will be UTF-8 encoded and vice versa.  Omit-
       ting the parameter toggles the setting. If a second parameter is given,
       the display's encoding is also changed (this should rather be done with
       screen's  "-U"  option).  See also "defutf8", which changes the default
       setting of a new window.

       vbell [on|off]

       Sets the visual bell setting for this window.  Omitting  the  parameter
       toggles  the  setting.  If vbell is switched on, but your terminal does
       not support a visual bell, a `vbell-message' is displayed in the status
       line  when the bell character (^G) is received.  Visual bell support of
       a terminal is defined by the termcap variable `vb' (terminfo: 'flash').

       Per default, vbell is off, thus the audible bell  is  used.   See  also

       vbell_msg [message]

       Sets  the visual bell message. message is printed to the status line if
       the window receives a bell character (^G), vbell is set  to  "on",  but
       the  terminal  does  not support a visual bell.  The default message is
       "Wuff, Wuff!!".  Without a parameter, the current message is shown.

       vbellwait sec

       Define a delay in seconds after each display of  screen's  visual  bell
       message. The default is 1 second.

       verbose [on|off]

       If  verbose is switched on, the command name is echoed, whenever a win-
       dow is created (or resurrected from  zombie  state).  Default  is  off.
       Without a parameter, the current setting is shown.


       Print the current version and the compile date in the status line.

       wall message

       Write  a message to all displays. The message will appear in the termi-
       nal's status line.

       width [-w|-d] [cols [lines]]

       Toggle the window width between 80 and 132 columns or set  it  to  cols
       columns  if an argument is specified.  This requires a capable terminal
       and the termcap entries "Z0" and "Z1".  See the "termcap"  command  for
       more  information.  You  can  also  specify a new height if you want to
       change both values.  The -w option tells screen to  leave  the  display
       size unchanged and just set the window size, -d vice versa.

       windowlist [-b] [-m] [-g]

       windowlist string [string]

       windowlist title [title]

       Display  all windows in a table for visual window selection.  If screen
       was in a window group, screen will back out of the group and then  dis-
       play the windows in that group.  If the -b option is given, screen will
       switch to the blank window before presenting the list, so that the cur-
       rent window is also selectable.  The -m option changes the order of the
       windows, instead of sorting by window numbers screen uses its  internal
       most-recently-used  list.   The  -g option will show the windows inside
       any groups in that level and downwards.

       The following keys are used to navigate in "windowlist":

       |k, C-p, or up    | Move up one line.                                 |
       |j, C-n, or down  | Move down one line.                               |
       |C-g or escape    | Exit windowlist.                                  |
       |C-a or home      | Move to the first line.                           |
       |C-e or end       | Move to the last line.                            |
       |C-u or C-d       | Move one half page up or down.                    |
       |C-b or C-f       | Move one full page up or down.                    |
       |0..9             | Using the number keys, move to the selected line. |
       |mouseclick       | Move to the selected line. Available when "mouse- |
       |                 | track" is set to "on"                             |
       |/                | Search.                                           |
       |n                | Repeat search in the forward direction.           |
       |N                | Repeat search in the backward direction.          |
       |m                | Toggle MRU.                                       |
       |g                | Toggle group nesting.                             |
       |a                | All window view.                                  |
       |C-h or backspace | Back out the group.                               |
       |,                | Switch numbers with the previous window.          |
       |.                | Switch numbers with the next window.              |
       |K                | Kill that window.                                 |
       |space or enter   | Select that window.                               |
       The  table  format can be changed with the string and title option, the
       title is displayed as table heading, while the lines are made by  using
       the  string  setting.  The default setting is "Num Name%=Flags" for the
       title and "%3n %t%=%f" for the lines.  See the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter
       for more codes (e.g. color settings).

       "Windowlist"  needs  a region size of at least 10 characters wide and 6
       characters high in order to display.

       windows [ string ]

       Uses the message line to display a list of all the windows.  Each  win-
       dow  is listed by number with the name of process that has been started
       in the window (or its title); the current window is marked with a  `*';
       the  previous  window  is  marked  with a `-'; all the windows that are
       "logged in" are marked  with  a  `$';  a  background  window  that  has
       received a bell is marked with a `!'; a background window that is being
       monitored and has had activity occur is marked with an  `@';  a  window
       which  has output logging turned on is marked with `(L)'; windows occu-
       pied by other users are marked with `&'; windows in  the  zombie  state
       are marked with `Z'.  If this list is too long to fit on the terminal's
       status line only the portion around the current  window  is  displayed.
       The  optional string parameter follows the "STRING ESCAPES" format.  If
       string parameter is passed, the output size is unlimited.  The  default
       command without any parameter is limited to a size of 1024 bytes.

       wrap [on|off]

       Sets  the  line-wrap setting for the current window.  When line-wrap is
       on, the second consecutive printable character output at the last  col-
       umn  of  a  line  will  wrap to the start of the following line.  As an
       added feature, backspace (^H) will also wrap through the left margin to
       the  previous line.  Default is `on'. Without any options, the state of
       wrap is toggled.

       writebuf [-e encoding] [filename]

       Writes the contents of the paste buffer to the specified file,  or  the
       public accessible screen-exchange file if no filename is given. This is
       thought of as a primitive means of communication between  screen  users
       on  the  same  host.  If  an  encoding is specified the paste buffer is
       recoded on the fly to match the encoding.  The filename can be set with
       the bufferfile command and defaults to "/tmp/screen-exchange".

       writelock [on|off|auto]

       In addition to access control lists, not all users may be able to write
       to the same window at once. Per default, writelock is  in  `auto'  mode
       and  grants  exclusive input permission to the user who is the first to
       switch to the particular window. When he leaves the window, other users
       may  obtain the writelock (automatically). The writelock of the current
       window is disabled by the command "writelock off". If the  user  issues
       the  command  "writelock  on"  he  keeps the exclusive write permission
       while switching to other windows.



       Insert a CTRL-s / CTRL-q character to the stdin queue  of  the  current

       zmodem [off|auto|catch|pass]

       zmodem sendcmd [string]

       zmodem recvcmd [string]

       Define  zmodem  support  for  screen.  Screen understands two different
       modes when it detects a zmodem request: "pass"  and  "catch".   If  the
       mode is set to "pass", screen will relay all data to the attacher until
       the end of the transmission is reached.  In "catch" mode screen acts as
       a  zmodem  endpoint and starts the corresponding rz/sz commands. If the
       mode is set to "auto", screen will use "catch" if the window is  a  tty
       (e.g. a serial line), otherwise it will use "pass".

       You can define the templates screen uses in "catch" mode via the second
       and the third form.

       Note also that this is an experimental feature.

       zombie [keys[onerror]]

       Per default screen windows are removed from the window list as soon  as
       the  windows  process  (e.g. shell) exits. When a string of two keys is
       specified to the zombie command, `dead'  windows  will  remain  in  the
       list.   The  kill command may be used to remove such a window. Pressing
       the first key in the dead window has the same effect. When pressing the
       second  key,  screen  will attempt to resurrect the window. The process
       that was initially running in the window will be launched again.  Call-
       ing  zombie without parameters will clear the zombie setting, thus mak-
       ing windows disappear when their process exits.

       As the zombie-setting is manipulated globally  for  all  windows,  this
       command should probably be called defzombie, but it isn't.

       Optionally  you  can  put  the word "onerror" after the keys. This will
       cause screen to monitor exit status of the process running in the  win-
       dow.  If it exits normally ('0'), the window disappears. Any other exit
       value causes the window to become a zombie.


       Per default screen windows are removed from the window list as soon  as
       the  windows  process  (e.g.  shell)  exits. If zombie keys are defined
       (compare with above zombie command), it is possible to also set a time-
       out when screen tries to automatically reconnect a dead screen window.

       Screen  displays informational messages and other diagnostics in a mes-
       sage line.  While this line is distributed to appear at the  bottom  of
       the screen, it can be defined to appear at the top of the screen during
       compilation.  If your terminal has a status line defined in  its  term-
       cap, screen will use this for displaying its messages, otherwise a line
       of the current screen will be temporarily overwritten and  output  will
       be  momentarily  interrupted. The message line is automatically removed
       after a few seconds delay, but it can also be removed early (on  termi-
       nals without a status line) by beginning to type.

       The  message line facility can be used by an application running in the
       current window by means of the ANSI Privacy message  control  sequence.
       For instance, from within the shell, try something like:

              echo '<esc>^Hello world from window '$WINDOW'<esc>\\'

       where  '<esc>'  is an escape, '^' is a literal up-arrow, and '\\' turns
       into a single backslash.

       Screen provides three different window types. New windows  are  created
       with screen's screen command (see also the entry in chapter "CUSTOMIZA-
       TION"). The first parameter to the screen command defines which type of
       window  is created. The different window types are all special cases of
       the normal type. They have been added in order to allow  screen  to  be
       used efficiently as a console multiplexer with 100 or more windows.

       o  The  normal  window  contains  a  shell (default, if no parameter is
          given) or any other system command that could  be  executed  from  a
          shell (e.g.  slogin, etc)

       o  If a tty (character special device) name (e.g. "/dev/ttya") is spec-
          ified as the first parameter, then the window is directly  connected
          to  this  device.   This  window  type  is  similar to "screen cu -l
          /dev/ttya".  Read and write access is required on the  device  node,
          an  exclusive  open  is attempted on the node to mark the connection
          line as busy.  An optional parameter  is  allowed  consisting  of  a
          comma separated list of flags in the notation used by stty(1):

                 Usually 300, 1200, 9600 or 19200. This  affects  transmission
                 as well as receive speed.

          cs8 or cs7
                 Specify the transmission of eight (or seven) bits per byte.

          ixon or -ixon
                 Enables  (or  disables) software flow-control (CTRL-S/CTRL-Q)
                 for sending data.

          ixoff or -ixoff
                 Enables (or disables)  software  flow-control  for  receiving

          istrip or -istrip
                 Clear (or keep) the eight bit in each received byte.

          You  may  want  to  specify  as many of these options as applicable.
          Unspecified options cause the terminal driver to make up the parame-
          ter values of the connection.  These values are system dependent and
          may be in defaults or values saved from a previous connection.

          For tty windows, the info command shows some of  the  modem  control
          lines  in  the  status  line. These may include `RTS', `CTS', 'DTR',
          `DSR', `CD' and more.  This depends on the available  ioctl()'s  and
          system  header  files as well as the on the physical capabilities of
          the serial board.  Signals that  are  logical  low  (inactive)  have
          their name preceded by an exclamation mark (!), otherwise the signal
          is logical high (active).  Signals not supported by the hardware but
          available to the ioctl() interface are usually shown low.

          When  the  CLOCAL status bit is true, the whole set of modem signals
          is placed inside curly braces ({ and }).  When the CRTSCTS or  TIOC-
          SOFTCAR bit is set, the signals `CTS' or `CD' are shown in parenthe-
          sis, respectively.

          For tty windows, the command break causes the Data transmission line
          (TxD)  to go low for a specified period of time. This is expected to
          be interpreted as break signal on the other side.  No data  is  sent
          and no modem control line is changed when a break is issued.

       o  If  the  first  parameter  is  "//telnet",  the  second parameter is
          expected to be a host name, and  an  optional  third  parameter  may
          specify a TCP port number (default decimal 23).  Screen will connect
          to a server listening on the remote host and use the telnet protocol
          to communicate with that server.

       For telnet windows, the command info shows details about the connection
       in square brackets ([ and ]) at the end of the status line.

              b      BINARY. The connection is in binary mode.

              e      ECHO. Local echo is disabled.

              c      SGA. The connection  is  in  `character  mode'  (default:
                     `line mode').

              t      TTYPE. The terminal type has been requested by the remote
                     host.  Screen sends the name "screen"  unless  instructed
                     otherwise (see also the command `term').

              w      NAWS.  The  remote  site  is  notified  about window size

              f      LFLOW. The remote host will send  flow  control  informa-
                     tion.  (Ignored at the moment.)

              Additional  flags for debugging are x, t and n (XDISPLOC, TSPEED
              and NEWENV).

              For telnet windows, the command break sends the telnet code  IAC
              BREAK (decimal 243) to the remote host.

              This  window  type is only available if screen was compiled with
              the ENABLE_TELNET option defined.

       Screen provides an escape mechanism to insert information like the cur-
       rent time into messages or file names. The escape character is '%' with
       one exception: inside of a window's  hardstatus  '^%'  ('^E')  is  used

       Here is the full list of supported escapes:

       %      the escape character itself

       E      sets %? to true if the escape character has been pressed.

       f      flags  of  the window, see "windows" for meanings of the various

       F      sets %? to true if the window has the focus

       h      hardstatus of the window

       H      hostname of the system

       n      window number

       P      sets %? to true if the current region is in copy/paste mode

       S      session name

       s      window size

       t      window title

       u      all other users on this window

       w      all window numbers and names. With '-' qualifier: up to the cur-
              rent  window; with '+' qualifier: starting with the window after
              the current one.

       W      all window numbers and names except the current one

       x      the executed command including arguments running in this windows

       X      the executed command without arguments running in this windows

       ?      the part to the next '%?' is displayed  only  if  a  '%'  escape
              inside the part expands to a non-empty string

       :      else part of '%?'

       =      pad  the  string to the display's width (like TeX's hfill). If a
              number is specified, pad  to  the  percentage  of  the  window's
              width.   A  '0'  qualifier  tells  screen to treat the number as
              absolute position.  You can specify to pad relative to the  last
              absolute  pad position by adding a '+' qualifier or to pad rela-
              tive to the right margin by using '-'. The padding truncates the
              string  if  the specified position lies before the current posi-
              tion. Add the 'L' qualifier to change this.

       <      same as '%=' but just do truncation, do not fill with spaces

       >      mark the current text position for  the  next  truncation.  When
              screen  needs  to do truncation, it tries to do it in a way that
              the marked position gets moved to the  specified  percentage  of
              the  output  area.  (The  area starts from the last absolute pad
              position and ends with the position specified by the  truncation
              operator.)  The 'L' qualifier tells screen to mark the truncated
              parts with ''.

       {      attribute/color modifier string terminated by the next "}"

       `      Substitute with the output of a 'backtick' command.  The  length
              qualifier is misused to identify one of the commands.

       The  'c'  and 'C' escape may be qualified with a '0' to make screen use
       zero instead of space as fill character. The '0' qualifier  also  makes
       the  '='  escape use absolute positions. The 'n' and '=' escapes under-
       stand a length qualifier (e.g. '%3n'), 'D' and 'M' can be prefixed with
       'L'  to  generate long names, 'w' and 'W' also show the window flags if
       'L' is given.

       An attribute/color modifier is is used to change the attributes or  the
       color  settings.  Its  format  is "[attribute modifier] [color descrip-
       tion]". The attribute modifier must be prefixed by a change type  indi-
       cator  if  it  can  be confused with a color description. The following
       change types are known:

       +      add the specified set to the current attributes

       -      remove the set from the current attributes

       !      invert the set in the current attributes

       =      change the current attributes to the specified set

       The attribute set can either be specified as a hexadecimal number or  a
       combination of the following letters:

       d      dim
       u      underline
       b      bold
       r      reverse
       s      standout
       B      blinking

       Colors are coded either as a hexadecimal number or two letters specify-
       ing the desired background and foreground color (in  that  order).  The
       following colors are known:

       k      black
       r      red
       g      green
       y      yellow
       b      blue
       m      magenta
       c      cyan
       w      white
       d      default color
       .      leave color unchanged

       The  capitalized  versions of the letter specify bright colors. You can
       also use the pseudo-color 'i' to set just the brightness and leave  the
       color unchanged.
       A  one digit/letter color description is treated as foreground or back-
       ground color dependent on the current attributes: if  reverse  mode  is
       set,  the  background color is changed instead of the foreground color.
       If you don't like this, prefix the color with a ".". If  you  want  the
       same  behavior for two-letter color descriptions, also prefix them with
       a ".".
       As a special case, "%{-}" restores the attributes and colors that  were
       set before the last change was made (i.e., pops one level of the color-
       change stack).


       "G"    set color to bright green

       "+b r" use bold red

       "= yd" clear all attributes, write in default  color  on  yellow  back-

       %-Lw%{= BW}%50>%n%f* %t%{-}%+Lw%<
              The  available  windows centered at the current window and trun-
              cated to the available width. The current  window  is  displayed
              white  on  blue.   This can be used with "hardstatus alwayslast-

       %?%F%{.R.}%?%3n %t%? [%h]%?
              The window number and title and the window's hardstatus, if  one
              is  set.  Also use a red background if this is the active focus.
              Useful for "caption string".

       Each window has a flow-control setting that determines how screen deals
       with the XON and XOFF characters (and perhaps the interrupt character).
       When flow-control is turned off, screen ignores the XON and XOFF  char-
       acters,  which  allows  the user to send them to the current program by
       simply typing them (useful for the emacs editor,  for  instance).   The
       trade-off  is  that it will take longer for output from a "normal" pro-
       gram to pause in response to an XOFF.  With flow-control turned on, XON
       and  XOFF  characters  are  used to immediately pause the output of the
       current window.  You can still send these  characters  to  the  current
       program, but you must use the appropriate two-character screen commands
       (typically "C-a q" (xon) and "C-a s" (xoff)).   The  xon/xoff  commands
       are  also useful for typing C-s and C-q past a terminal that intercepts
       these characters.

       Each window has an initial flow-control value set with  either  the  -f
       option  or the "defflow" .screenrc command. Per default the windows are
       set to automatic flow-switching.  It can then be  toggled  between  the
       three states 'fixed on', 'fixed off' and 'automatic' interactively with
       the "flow" command bound to "C-a f".

       The automatic flow-switching mode deals with  flow  control  using  the
       TIOCPKT  mode  (like "rlogin" does). If the tty driver does not support
       TIOCPKT, screen tries to find out the right mode based on  the  current
       setting of the application keypad - when it is enabled, flow-control is
       turned off and visa versa.  Of course, you can still  manipulate  flow-
       control manually when needed.

       If  you're running with flow-control enabled and find that pressing the
       interrupt key (usually  C-c)  does  not  interrupt  the  display  until
       another 6-8 lines have scrolled by, try running screen with the "inter-
       rupt" option (add the "interrupt" flag to the "flow"  command  in  your
       .screenrc,  or use the -i command-line option).  This causes the output
       that screen has accumulated from the interrupted program to be flushed.
       One  disadvantage  is  that  the virtual terminal's memory contains the
       non-flushed version of the output, which in rare cases can cause  minor
       inaccuracies  in  the  output.   For example, if you switch screens and
       return, or update the screen with "C-a l" you would see the version  of
       the  output  you would have gotten without "interrupt" being on.  Also,
       you might need to turn off flow-control (or use auto-flow mode to  turn
       it  off  automatically) when running a program that expects you to type
       the interrupt character as input, as it is possible  to  interrupt  the
       output of the virtual terminal to your physical terminal when flow-con-
       trol is enabled.  If this happens, a simple refresh of the screen  with
       "C-a  l" will restore it.  Give each mode a try, and use whichever mode
       you find more comfortable.

TITLES (naming windows)
       You can customize each window's name in the window display (viewed with
       the "windows" command (C-a w)) by setting it with one of the title com-
       mands.  Normally the name displayed is the actual command name  of  the
       program created in the window.  However, it is sometimes useful to dis-
       tinguish various programs of the same name or to change  the  name  on-
       the-fly to reflect the current state of the window.

       The default name for all shell windows can be set with the "shelltitle"
       command in the .screenrc file, while all other windows are created with
       a "screen" command and thus can have their name set with the -t option.
       Interactively,    there    is    the    title-string    escape-sequence
       (<esc>kname<esc>\)  and the "title" command (C-a A).  The former can be
       output from an application to control the window's name under  software
       control,  and  the  latter  will prompt for a name when typed.  You can
       also bind pre-defined names to keys with the  "title"  command  to  set
       things quickly without prompting. Changing title bythis escape sequence
       can be controlled by defdynamictitle and dynamictitle commands.

       Finally, screen has a shell-specific heuristic that is enabled by  set-
       ting  the  window's  name to "search|name" and arranging to have a null
       title escape-sequence output as a part of your prompt.  The search por-
       tion  specifies  an end-of-prompt search string, while the name portion
       specifies the default shell name for the window.  If the name ends in a
       `:'  screen will add what it believes to be the current command running
       in the window to the end of the window's shell name (e.g.  "name:cmd").
       Otherwise  the  current command name supersedes the shell name while it
       is running.

       Here's how it works:  you must modify your shell  prompt  to  output  a
       null  title-escape-sequence  (<esc>k<esc>\)  as  a part of your prompt.
       The last part of your prompt must be the same as the string you  speci-
       fied  for the search portion of the title.  Once this is set up, screen
       will use the title-escape-sequence to clear the previous  command  name
       and  get  ready for the next command.  Then, when a newline is received
       from the shell, a search is made for the end of the prompt.  If  found,
       it  will grab the first word after the matched string and use it as the
       command name.  If the command name begins with either '!', '%', or  '^'
       screen  will  use  the  first  word on the following line (if found) in
       preference to the just-found name.  This helps  csh  users  get  better
       command names when using job control or history recall commands.

       Here's some .screenrc examples:

              screen -t top 2 nice top

       Adding  this line to your .screenrc would start a nice-d version of the
       "top" command in window 2 named "top" rather than "nice".

                        shelltitle '> |csh'
                        screen 1

       These commands would start a shell  with  the  given  shelltitle.   The
       title  specified  is an auto-title that would expect the prompt and the
       typed command to look something like the following:

              /usr/joe/src/dir> trn

       (it looks after the '> ' for the  command  name).   The  window  status
       would  show the name "trn" while the command was running, and revert to
       "csh" upon completion.

              bind R screen -t '% |root:' su

       Having this command in your .screenrc would bind the key sequence  "C-a
       R"  to the "su" command and give it an auto-title name of "root:".  For
       this auto-title to work, the screen could look something like this:

                        % !em
                        emacs file.c

       Here the user typed the csh history command "!em" which ran the  previ-
       ously   entered   "emacs"   command.   The  window  status  would  show
       "root:emacs" during the execution of the command, and revert to  simply
       "root:" at its completion.

                        bind o title
                        bind E title ""
                        bind u title (unknown)

       The  first  binding  doesn't have any arguments, so it would prompt you
       for a title. when you type "C-a o".  The second binding would clear  an
       auto-title's  current setting (C-a E).  The third binding would set the
       current window's title to "(unknown)" (C-a u).

       One thing to keep in mind when adding a null  title-escape-sequence  to
       your  prompt  is that some shells (like the csh) count all the non-con-
       trol characters as part of the prompt's  length.   If  these  invisible
       characters  aren't  a  multiple  of  8 then backspacing over a tab will
       result in an incorrect display.  One way to get around this is to use a
       prompt like this:

              set prompt='^[[0000m^[k^[\% '

       The  escape-sequence  "<esc>[0000m"  not  only normalizes the character
       attributes, but all the zeros round the length of the invisible charac-
       ters  up  to  8.   Bash  users  will  probably  want to echo the escape
       sequence in the PROMPT_COMMAND:

              PROMPT_COMMAND='printf "\033k\033\134"'

       (I used "\134" to output a `\' because of a bug in bash v1.04).

       Each window in a screen session emulates a VT100  terminal,  with  some
       extra  functions added. The VT100 emulator is hard-coded, no other ter-
       minal types can be emulated.
       Usually screen tries to emulate as much of the VT100/ANSI  standard  as
       possible.  But  if your terminal lacks certain capabilities, the emula-
       tion may not be complete. In these cases screen has to tell the  appli-
       cations  that  some  of the features are missing. This is no problem on
       machines using termcap, because screen can use the $TERMCAP variable to
       customize the standard screen termcap.

       But if you do a rlogin on another machine or your machine supports only
       terminfo this method fails. Because of this, screen  offers  a  way  to
       deal with these cases.  Here is how it works:

       When  screen  tries  to figure out a terminal name for itself, it first
       looks for an entry named "screen.<term>", where <term> is the  contents
       of your $TERM variable.  If no such entry exists, screen tries "screen"
       (or "screen-w" if the terminal is wide (132 cols or  more)).   If  even
       this entry cannot be found, "vt100" is used as a substitute.

       The idea is that if you have a terminal which doesn't support an impor-
       tant feature (e.g. delete char or clear to EOS) you  can  build  a  new
       termcap/terminfo  entry for screen (named "screen.<dumbterm>") in which
       this capability has been disabled. If this entry is installed  on  your
       machines  you  are able to do a rlogin and still keep the correct term-
       cap/terminfo entry.  The terminal name is put in the $TERM variable  of
       all new windows.  Screen also sets the $TERMCAP variable reflecting the
       capabilities of the virtual terminal emulated. Notice that, however, on
       machines using the terminfo database this variable has no effect.  Fur-
       thermore, the variable $WINDOW is set to the window number of each win-

       The  actual  set  of  capabilities  supported  by  the virtual terminal
       depends on the capabilities supported by the  physical  terminal.   If,
       for  instance,  the physical terminal does not support underscore mode,
       screen does not put the `us' and `ue' capabilities  into  the  window's
       $TERMCAP variable, accordingly.  However, a minimum number of capabili-
       ties must be supported by a terminal in order  to  run  screen;  namely
       scrolling,  clear  screen,  and  direct cursor addressing (in addition,
       screen does not run on hardcopy terminals or on  terminals  that  over-

       Also,  you can customize the $TERMCAP value used by screen by using the
       "termcap" .screenrc command, or by  defining  the  variable  $SCREENCAP
       prior to startup.  When the is latter defined, its value will be copied
       verbatim into each window's $TERMCAP variable.  This can either be  the
       full  terminal  definition,  or  a filename where the terminal "screen"
       (and/or "screen-w") is defined.

       Note that screen honors the "terminfo" .screenrc command if the  system
       uses the terminfo database rather than termcap.

       When  the  boolean  `G0' capability is present in the termcap entry for
       the terminal on which screen has been called, the terminal emulation of
       screen supports multiple character sets.  This allows an application to
       make use of, for instance, the VT100 graphics character set or national
       character sets.  The following control functions from ISO 2022 are sup-
       ported: lock shift G0 (SI), lock shift G1 (SO),  lock  shift  G2,  lock
       shift  G3, single shift G2, and single shift G3.  When a virtual termi-
       nal is created or reset, the ASCII character set is  designated  as  G0
       through  G3.  When the `G0' capability is present, screen evaluates the
       capabilities `S0', `E0', and `C0' if present. `S0' is the sequence  the
       terminal  uses  to  enable  and start the graphics character set rather
       than SI.  `E0' is the corresponding replacement for SO.  `C0'  gives  a
       character  by  character  translation  string that is used during semi-
       graphics mode. This string is built like the `acsc'  terminfo  capabil-

       When the `po' and `pf' capabilities are present in the terminal's term-
       cap entry, applications running in a screen window can send  output  to
       the printer port of the terminal.  This allows a user to have an appli-
       cation in one window sending output to a printer connected to the  ter-
       minal,  while  all  other windows are still active (the printer port is
       enabled and disabled again for each  chunk  of  output).   As  a  side-
       effect,  programs  running  in different windows can send output to the
       printer simultaneously.  Data sent to the printer is not  displayed  in
       the window.  The info command displays a line starting `PRIN' while the
       printer is active.

       Screen maintains a hardstatus line for every window. If a  window  gets
       selected,  the  display's  hardstatus will be updated to match the win-
       dow's hardstatus line. If the display has no hardstatus the  line  will
       be  displayed as a standard screen message.  The hardstatus line can be
       changed   with   the   ANSI   Application   Program   Command    (APC):
       "ESC_<string>ESC\".  As  a  convenience  for  xterm  users the sequence
       "ESC]0..2;<string>^G" is also accepted.

       Some capabilities are only put into the $TERMCAP variable of  the  vir-
       tual  terminal  if  they can be efficiently implemented by the physical
       terminal.  For instance, `dl' (delete line) is only put into the $TERM-
       CAP  variable  if  the  terminal  supports either delete line itself or
       scrolling regions. Note that this may provoke confusion, when the  ses-
       sion  is  reattached  on a different terminal, as the value of $TERMCAP
       cannot be modified by parent processes.

       The "alternate screen" capability is not enabled by default.   Set  the
       altscreen .screenrc command to enable it.

       The  following  is  a  list  of control sequences recognized by screen.
       "(V)" and "(A)" indicate VT100-specific and ANSI- or ISO-specific func-
       tions, respectively.

       ESC E                      Next Line

       ESC D                      Index

       ESC M                      Reverse Index

       ESC H                      Horizontal Tab Set

       ESC Z                      Send VT100 Identification String

       ESC 7                 (V)  Save Cursor and Attributes

       ESC 8                 (V)  Restore Cursor and Attributes

       ESC [s                (A)  Save Cursor and Attributes

       ESC [u                (A)  Restore Cursor and Attributes

       ESC c                      Reset to Initial State

       ESC g                      Visual Bell

       ESC Pn p                   Cursor Visibility (97801)

                                  Pn = 6                     Invisible

                                  Pn = 7                     Visible

       ESC =                 (V)  Application Keypad Mode

       ESC >                 (V)  Numeric Keypad Mode

       ESC # 8               (V)  Fill Screen with E's

       ESC \                 (A)  String Terminator

       ESC ^                 (A)  Privacy Message String (Message Line)

       ESC !                      Global Message String (Message Line)

       ESC k                      A.k.a. Definition String

       ESC P                 (A)  Device  Control  String.   Outputs  a string
                                  directly to the host terminal without inter-

       ESC _                 (A)  Application Program Command (Hardstatus)

       ESC ] 0 ; string ^G   (A)  Operating  System Command (Hardstatus, xterm
                                  title hack)

       ESC ] 83 ; cmd ^G     (A)  Execute screen command. This only  works  if
                                  multi-user  support is compiled into screen.
                                  The pseudo-user ":window:" is used to  check
                                  the  access  control list. Use "addacl :win-
                                  dow: -rwx #?"  to  create  a  user  with  no
                                  rights and allow only the needed commands.

       Control-N             (A)  Lock Shift G1 (SO)

       Control-O             (A)  Lock Shift G0 (SI)

       ESC n                 (A)  Lock Shift G2

       ESC o                 (A)  Lock Shift G3

       ESC N                 (A)  Single Shift G2

       ESC O                 (A)  Single Shift G3

       ESC ( Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G0

       ESC ) Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G1

       ESC * Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G2

       ESC + Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G3

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn H            Direct Cursor Addressing

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn f            same as above

       ESC [ Pn J                 Erase in Display

                                  Pn = None or 0             From   Cursor  to
                                                             End of Screen

                                  Pn = 1                     From Beginning of
                                                             Screen to Cursor

                                  Pn = 2                     Entire Screen

       ESC [ Pn K                 Erase in Line

                                  Pn = None or 0             From   Cursor  to
                                                             End of Line

                                  Pn = 1                     From Beginning of
                                                             Line to Cursor

                                  Pn = 2                     Entire Line

       ESC [ Pn X                 Erase character

       ESC [ Pn A                 Cursor Up

       ESC [ Pn B                 Cursor Down

       ESC [ Pn C                 Cursor Right

       ESC [ Pn D                 Cursor Left

       ESC [ Pn E                 Cursor next line

       ESC [ Pn F                 Cursor previous line

       ESC [ Pn G                 Cursor horizontal position

       ESC [ Pn `                 same as above

       ESC [ Pn d                 Cursor vertical position

       ESC [ Ps ;; Ps m           Select Graphic Rendition

                                  Ps = None or 0             Default Rendition

                                  Ps = 1                     Bold

                                  Ps = 2                (A)  Faint

                                  Ps = 3                (A)  Standout     Mode
                                                             (ANSI:     Itali-

                                  Ps = 4                     Underlined

                                  Ps = 5                     Blinking

                                  Ps = 7                     Negative Image

                                  Ps = 22               (A)  Normal Intensity

                                  Ps = 23               (A)  Standout Mode off
                                                             (ANSI: Italicized

                                  Ps = 24               (A)  Not Underlined

                                  Ps = 25               (A)  Not Blinking

                                  Ps = 27               (A)  Positive Image

                                  Ps = 30               (A)  Foreground Black

                                  Ps = 31               (A)  Foreground Red

                                  Ps = 32               (A)  Foreground Green

                                  Ps = 33               (A)  Foreground Yellow

                                  Ps = 34               (A)  Foreground Blue

                                  Ps = 35               (A)  Foreground

                                  Ps = 36               (A)  Foreground Cyan

                                  Ps = 37               (A)  Foreground White

                                  Ps = 39               (A)  Foreground

                                  Ps = 40               (A)  Background Black

                                  Ps =

                                  Ps = 49               (A)  Background

       ESC [ Pn g                 Tab Clear

                                  Pn = None or 0             Clear Tab at Cur-
                                                             rent Position

                                  Pn = 3                     Clear All Tabs

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn r       (V)  Set Scrolling Region

       ESC [ Pn I            (A)  Horizontal Tab

       ESC [ Pn Z            (A)  Backward Tab

       ESC [ Pn L            (A)  Insert Line

       ESC [ Pn M            (A)  Delete Line

       ESC [ Pn @            (A)  Insert Character

       ESC [ Pn P            (A)  Delete Character

       ESC [ Pn S                 Scroll Scrolling Region Up

       ESC [ Pn T                 Scroll Scrolling Region Down

       ESC [ Pn ^                 same as above

       ESC [ Ps ;; Ps h           Set Mode

       ESC [ Ps ;; Ps l           Reset Mode

                                  Ps = 4                (A)  Insert Mode

                                  Ps = 20               (A)  Automatic   Line-
                                                             feed Mode

                                  Ps = 34                    Normal     Cursor

                                  Ps = ?1               (V)  Application  Cur-
                                                             sor Keys

                                  Ps = ?3               (V)  Change   Terminal
                                                             Width to 132 col-

                                  Ps = ?5               (V)  Reverse Video

                                  Ps = ?6               (V)  Origin Mode

                                  Ps = ?7               (V)  Wrap Mode

                                  Ps = ?9                    X10 mouse  track-

                                  Ps = ?25              (V)  Visible Cursor

                                  Ps = ?47                   Alternate  Screen
                                                             (old xterm code)

                                  Ps = ?1000            (V)  VT200       mouse

                                  Ps = ?1047                 Alternate  Screen
                                                             (new xterm code)

                                  Ps = ?1049                 Alternate  Screen
                                                             (new xterm code)

       ESC [ 5 i             (A)  Start relay to printer (ANSI Media Copy)

       ESC [ 4 i             (A)  Stop relay to printer (ANSI Media Copy)

       ESC [ 8 ; Ph ; Pw t        Resize  the  window  to  `Ph' lines and `Pw'
                                  columns (SunView special)

       ESC [ c                    Send VT100 Identification String

       ESC [ x                    Send Terminal Parameter Report

       ESC [ > c                  Send  VT220  Secondary   Device   Attributes

       ESC [ 6 n                  Send Cursor Position Report

       In  order  to  do  a  full  VT100 emulation screen has to detect that a
       sequence of characters in the input stream was generated by a  keypress
       on  the  user's  keyboard  and  insert the VT100 style escape sequence.
       Screen has a very flexible way of doing this by making it  possible  to
       map  arbitrary commands on arbitrary sequences of characters. For stan-
       dard VT100 emulation the command will always insert  a  string  in  the
       input  buffer  of the window (see also command stuff in the command ta-
       ble).  Because the sequences generated by a keypress can change after a
       reattach  from  a  different terminal type, it is possible to bind com-
       mands to the termcap name of the keys.  Screen will insert the  correct
       binding  after  each  reattach.  See  the  bindkey  command for further
       details on the syntax and examples.

       Here is the table of the default key bindings. The fourth is what  com-
       mand is executed if the keyboard is switched into application mode.

       |Key name        | Termcap name | Command  | App mode |
       |Cursor up       | ku           | \033[A   | \033OA   |
       |Cursor down     | kd           | \033[B   | \033OB   |
       |Cursor right    | kr           | \033[C   | \033OC   |
       |Cursor left     | kl           | \033[D   | \033OD   |
       |Function key 0  | k0           | \033[10~ |          |
       |Function key 1  | k1           | \033OP   |          |
       |Function key 2  | k2           | \033OQ   |          |
       |Function key 3  | k3           | \033OR   |          |
       |Function key 4  | k4           | \033OS   |          |
       |Function key 5  | k5           | \033[15~ |          |
       |Function key 6  | k6           | \033[17~ |          |
       |Function key 7  | k7           | \033[18~ |          |
       |Function key 8  | k8           | \033[19~ |          |
       |Function key 9  | k9           | \033[20~ |          |
       |Function key 10 | k;           | \033[21~ |          |
       |Function key 11 | F1           | \033[23~ |          |
       |Function key 12 | F2           | \033[24~ |          |
       |Home            | kh           | \033[1~  |          |
       |End             | kH           | \033[4~  |          |
       |Insert          | kI           | \033[2~  |          |
       |Delete          | kD           | \033[3~  |          |
       |Page up         | kP           | \033[5~  |          |
       |Page down       | kN           | \033[6~  |          |
       |Keypad 0        | f0           | 0        | \033Op   |
       |Keypad 1        | f1           | 1        | \033Oq   |
       |Keypad 2        | f2           | 2        | \033Or   |
       |Keypad 3        | f3           | 3        | \033Os   |
       |Keypad 4        | f4           | 4        | \033Ot   |
       |Keypad 5        | f5           | 5        | \033Ou   |
       |Keypad 6        | f6           | 6        | \033Ov   |
       |Keypad 7        | f7           | 7        | \033Ow   |
       |Keypad 8        | f8           | 8        | \033Ox   |
       |Keypad 9        | f9           | 9        | \033Oy   |
       |Keypad +        | f+           | +        | \033Ok   |
       |Keypad -        | f-           | -        | \033Om   |
       |Keypad *        | f*           | *        | \033Oj   |
       |Keypad /        | f/           | /        | \033Oo   |
       |Keypad =        | fq           +----------+ \033OX   |
       |Keypad .        | f.           | .        | \033On   |
       |Keypad ,        | f,           | ,        | \033Ol   |
       |Keypad enter    | fe           | \015     | \033OM   |

       The following table describes all terminal capabilities that are recog-
       nized by screen and are not in the termcap(5) manual.   You  can  place
       these  capabilities  in your termcap entries (in `/etc/termcap') or use
       them with the commands `termcap', `terminfo' and `termcapinfo' in  your
       screenrc files. It is often not possible to place these capabilities in
       the terminfo database.

       LP   (bool)  Terminal has VT100 style margins (`magic  margins').  Note
                    that  this  capability is obsolete because screen uses the
                    standard 'xn' instead.

       Z0   (str)   Change width to 132 columns.

       Z1   (str)   Change width to 80 columns.

       WS   (str)   Resize display. This capability has the desired width  and
                    height as arguments. SunView(tm) example: '\E[8;%d;%dt'.

       NF   (bool)  Terminal  doesn't need flow control. Send ^S and ^Q direct
                    to the application. Same as 'flow off'.  The  opposite  of
                    this capability is 'nx'.

       G0   (bool)  Terminal can deal with ISO 2022 font selection sequences.

       S0   (str)   Switch  charset  'G0' to the specified charset. Default is

       E0   (str)   Switch charset 'G0' back to standard charset.  Default  is

       C0   (str)   Use the string as a conversion table for font '0'. See the
                    'ac' capability for more details.

       CS   (str)   Switch cursor-keys to application mode.

       CE   (str)   Switch cursor-keys back to normal mode.

       AN   (bool)  Turn on autonuke. See  the  'autonuke'  command  for  more

       OL   (num)   Set  the  output buffer limit. See the 'obuflimit' command
                    for more details.

       KJ   (str)   Set the encoding of the terminal. See the 'encoding'  com-
                    mand for valid encodings.

       AF   (str)   Change  character foreground color in an ANSI conform way.
                    This capability will almost always  be  set  to  '\E[3%dm'
                    ('\E[3%p1%dm' on terminfo machines).

       AB   (str)   Same as 'AF', but change background color.

       AX   (bool)  Does  understand  ANSI  set  default fg/bg color (\E[39m /

       XC   (str)   Describe a translation of characters to strings  depending
                    on  the current font. More details follow in the next sec-

       XT   (bool)  Terminal understands special xterm sequences  (OSC,  mouse

       C8   (bool)  Terminal needs bold to display high-intensity colors (e.g.

       TF   (bool)  Add missing capabilities to the termcap/info  entry.  (Set
                    by default).

       Screen  has  a  powerful mechanism to translate characters to arbitrary
       strings depending on the current font and terminal type.  Use this fea-
       ture  if  you  want  to  work with a common standard character set (say
       ISO8851-latin1) even on terminals that scatter the more unusual charac-
       ters over several national language font pages.

           <charset-mapping> := <designator><template>{,<mapping>}
           <mapping> := <char-to-be-mapped><template-arg>

       The things in braces may be repeated any number of times.

       A  <charset-mapping> tells screen how to map characters in font <desig-
       nator> ('B': Ascii, 'A': UK, 'K':  German,  etc.)   to  strings.  Every
       <mapping>  describes  to  what string a single character will be trans-
       lated. A template mechanism is used, as most of the time the codes have
       a  lot  in  common  (for  example strings to switch to and from another
       charset). Each occurrence of '%' in <template>  gets  substituted  with
       the  <template-arg>  specified  together  with  the  character. If your
       strings are not similar at all, then use '%' as a  template  and  place
       the  full  string  in  <template-arg>. A quoting mechanism was added to
       make it possible to use a real '%'. The '\' character quotes  the  spe-
       cial characters '\', '%', and ','.

       Here is an example:

           termcap hp700 'XC=B\E(K%\E(B,\304[,\326\\\\,\334]'

       This  tells  screen how to translate ISOlatin1 (charset 'B') upper case
       umlaut characters on a hp700 terminal that has a German charset. '\304'
       gets  translated  to  '\E(K[\E(B'  and so on.  Note that this line gets
       parsed *three* times before the internal lookup table is built,  there-
       fore a lot of quoting is needed to create a single '\'.

       Another  extension  was  added  to  allow  more emulation: If a mapping
       translates the unquoted '%' char, it will be sent to the terminal when-
       ever screen switches to the corresponding <designator>. In this special
       case the template is assumed to be just '%' because the charset  switch
       sequence and the character mappings normally haven't much in common.

       This example shows one use of the extension:

           termcap xterm 'XC=K%,%\E(B,[\304,\\\\\326,]\334'

       Here,  a  part of the German ('K') charset is emulated on an xterm.  If
       screen has to change to the 'K' charset, '\E(B' will  be  sent  to  the
       terminal,  i.e. the ASCII charset is used instead. The template is just
       '%', so the mapping is straightforward: '[' to '\304', '\'  to  '\326',
       and ']' to '\334'.

       COLUMNS        Number  of  columns  on  the terminal (overrides termcap
       HOME           Directory in which to look for .screenrc.
       LINES          Number of  lines  on  the  terminal  (overrides  termcap
       LOCKPRG        Screen lock program.
       NETHACKOPTIONS Turns on nethack option.
       PATH           Used for locating programs to run.
       SCREENCAP      For customizing a terminal's TERMCAP value.
       SCREENDIR      Alternate socket directory.
       SCREENRC       Alternate user screenrc file.
       SHELL          Default  shell  program  for  opening  windows  (default
                      "/bin/sh").  See also "shell" .screenrc command.
       STY            Alternate socket name.
       SYSSCREENRC    Alternate system screenrc file.
       TERM           Terminal name.
       TERMCAP        Terminal description.
       WINDOW         Window number of a window (at creation time).

       /screen-4.?.??/etc/etcscreenrc    Examples in the  screen  distribution
                                         package  for  private and global ini-
                                         tialization files.
       /etc/screenrc                     screen initialization commands
       $HOME/.screenrc                   Read in after /etc/screenrc
       /run/screen/S-<login>             Socket directories (default)
       /usr/tmp/screens/S-<login>        Alternate socket directories.
       <socket directory>/.termcap       Written by the "termcap" output func-
       /usr/tmp/screens/screen-exchange  or
       /tmp/screen-exchange              screen   `interprocess  communication
       hardcopy.[0-9]                    Screen images created by the hardcopy
       screenlog.[0-9]                   Output  log  files created by the log
       /usr/lib/terminfo/?/*             or
       /etc/termcap                      Terminal capability databases
       /run/utmp                         Login records
       $LOCKPRG                          Program that locks a terminal.

       termcap(5), utmp(5), vi(1), captoinfo(1), tic(1)

       Originally created by Oliver Laumann. For a long  time  maintained  and
       developed by Juergen Weigert, Michael Schroeder, Micah Cowan and Sadrul
       Habib Chowdhury. This latest version was produced by Amadeusz Slawinski
       <>   and   Alexander   Naumov   <alexander_naumov@open->.

       Copyright (c) 2015-2017
            Juergen Weigert <>
            Alexander Naumov <>
            Amadeusz Slawinski <>
       Copyright (c) 2010-2015
            Juergen Weigert <>
            Sadrul Habib Chowdhury <>
       Copyright (c) 2008, 2009
            Juergen Weigert <>
            Michael Schroeder <>
            Micah Cowan <>
            Sadrul Habib Chowdhury <>
       Copyright (C) 1993-2003
            Juergen Weigert <>
            Michael Schroeder <>
       Copyright (C) 1987 Oliver Laumann
       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
       under  the  terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the
       Free Software Foundation; either version 3, or  (at  your  option)  any
       later version.
       This  program  is  distributed  in the hope that it will be useful, but
       WITHOUT ANY  WARRANTY;  without  even  the  implied  warranty  of  MER-
       Public License for more details.
       You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along
       with  this  program  (see  the file COPYING); if not, write to the Free
       Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place  -  Suite  330,  Boston,  MA
       02111-1307, USA

       Eric S. Raymond <>,
       Thomas Renninger <>,
       Axel Beckert <>,
       Ken Beal <>,
       Rudolf Koenig <>,
       Toerless Eckert <>,
       Wayne Davison <>,
       Patrick Wolfe <, kailand!pat>,
       Bart Schaefer <>,
       Nathan Glasser <>,
       Larry W. Virden <>,
       Howard Chu <>,
       Tim MacKenzie <>,
       Markku Jarvinen <mta@{cc,cs,ee}>,
       Marc Boucher <marc@CAM.ORG>,
       Doug Siebert <>,
       Ken Stillson <>,
       Ian Frechett <frechett@spot.Colorado.EDU>,
       Brian Koehmstedt <>,
       Don Smith <>,
       Frank van der Linden <>,
       Martin Schweikert <>,
       David Vrona <>,
       E. Tye McQueen <>,
       Matthew Green <>,
       Christopher Williams <>,
       Matt Mosley <>,
       Gregory Neil Shapiro <gshapiro@wpi.WPI.EDU>,
       Johannes Zellner <>,
       Pablo Averbuj <>.

       The  latest official release of screen available via anonymous ftp from or any other GNU distribution  site.  The  home
       site  of  screen  is If you want to
       help, send a note to

       o  `dm' (delete mode) and `xs' are  not  handled  correctly  (they  are
          ignored). `xn' is treated as a magic-margin indicator.

       o  Screen has no clue about double-high or double-wide characters.  But
          this is the only area where vttest is allowed to fail.

       o  It is not possible to change the environment variable $TERMCAP  when
          reattaching under a different terminal type.

       o  The  support of terminfo based systems is very limited. Adding extra
          capabilities to $TERMCAP may not have any effects.

       o  Screen does not make use of hardware tabs.

       o  Screen must be installed as set-uid with owner root on most  systems
          in  order to be able to correctly change the owner of the tty device
          file for each window.  Special permission may also  be  required  to
          write the file "/run/utmp".

       o  Entries  in  "/run/utmp"  are not removed when screen is killed with
          SIGKILL.  This will cause some programs  (like  "w"  or  "rwho")  to
          advertise that a user is logged on who really isn't.

       o  Screen may give a strange warning when your tty has no utmp entry.

       o  When the modem line was hung up, screen may not automatically detach
          (or quit) unless the device driver is configured to  send  a  HANGUP
          signal.   To  detach  a screen session use the -D or -d command line

       o  If a password is set, the command  line  options  -d  and  -D  still
          detach a session without asking.

       o  Both  "breaktype"  and  "defbreaktype"  change  the break generating
          method used by all terminal devices. The first should change a  win-
          dow  specific  setting,  where  the  latter  should  change only the
          default for new windows.

       o  When attaching to a multiuser session, the user's .screenrc file  is
          not  sourced.  Each  user's personal settings have to be included in
          the .screenrc file from which the session is booted, or have  to  be
          changed manually.

       o  A weird imagination is most useful to gain full advantage of all the

       o  Send bug-reports, fixes, enhancements, t-shirts, money, beer & pizza

4th Berkeley Distribution          Oct 2017                          SCREEN(1)
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