screen

       screen [ -options ] [ cmd [ args ] ]
       screen -r [[pid.]tty[.host]]
       screen -r sessionowner/[[pid.]tty[.host]]

DESCRIPTION
       Screen is a full-screen window manager that multiplexes a physical ter-
       minal between several processes (typically interactive  shells).   Each
       virtual terminal provides the functions of a DEC VT100 terminal and, in
       addition, several control functions from the ISO 6429  (ECMA  48,  ANSI
       X3.64)  and ISO 2022 standards (e.g. insert/delete line and support for
       multiple character sets).  There is a  scrollback  history  buffer  for
       each virtual terminal and a copy-and-paste mechanism that allows moving
       text regions between windows.

       When screen is called, it creates a single window with a  shell  in  it
       (or  the  specified  command) and then gets out of your way so that you
       can use the program as you normally would.  Then, at any time, you  can
       create new (full-screen) windows with other programs in them (including
       more shells), kill existing windows, view a list of windows, turn  out-
       put  logging  on and off, copy-and-paste text between windows, view the
       scrollback history, switch between windows in whatever manner you wish,
       etc.  All  windows  run  their  programs completely independent of each
       other. Programs continue to run when their window is currently not vis-
       ible and even when the whole screen session is detached from the user's
       terminal.  When a program terminates, screen (per  default)  kills  the
       window  that  contained  it.  If this window was in the foreground, the
       display switches to the previous  window;  if  none  are  left,  screen
       exits.  Shells  usually  distinguish  between running as login-shell or
       sub-shell.  Screen runs them as sub-shells, unless told otherwise  (See
       "shell" .screenrc command).

       Everything  you type is sent to the program running in the current win-
       dow.  The only exception to this is the one keystroke that is  used  to
       initiate  a  command  to  the window manager.  By default, each command
       begins with a control-a (abbreviated C-a from now on), and is  followed
       by one other keystroke.  The command character and all the key bindings
       can be fully customized to be anything you like, though they are always
       two characters in length.

       Screen  does  not  understand the prefix "C-" to mean control, although
       this notation is used in this manual for readability.  Please  use  the
       caret  notation ("^A" instead of "C-a") as arguments to e.g. the escape
       command or the -e option.  Screen will also print out  control  charac-
       ters in caret notation.

       The  standard way to create a new window is to type "C-a c".  This cre-
       ates a new window running a shell and switches to that  window  immedi-
       ately,  regardless  of  the state of the process running in the current
       window.  Similarly, you can create a new window with a  custom  command
       in  it  by  first binding the command to a keystroke (in your .screenrc
       file or at the "C-a :" command line) and then using it  just  like  the
       "C-a  c" command.  In addition, new windows can be created by running a
       command like:

       written to this file for each window, and removed when  the  window  is
       terminated.   This  is useful for working with "talk", "script", "shut-
       down", "rsend", "sccs" and other similar programs  that  use  the  utmp
       file to determine who you are. As long as screen is active on your ter-
       minal, the terminal's own record is removed from  the  utmp  file.  See
       also "C-a L".

GETTING STARTED
       Before  you  begin to use screen you'll need to make sure you have cor-
       rectly selected your terminal type, just as you  would  for  any  other
       termcap/terminfo program.  (You can do this by using tset for example.)

       If  you're  impatient  and want to get started without doing a lot more
       reading, you should remember this one command:  "C-a ?".  Typing  these
       two characters will display a list of the available screen commands and
       their bindings. Each keystroke is discussed in the section "DEFAULT KEY
       BINDINGS".  The  manual section "CUSTOMIZATION" deals with the contents
       of your .screenrc.

       If your terminal is a "true" auto-margin terminal (it doesn't allow the
       last position on the screen to be updated without scrolling the screen)
       consider using a version of your terminal's termcap that has  automatic
       margins  turned off. This will ensure an accurate and optimal update of
       the screen in all circumstances. Most terminals nowadays  have  "magic"
       margins  (automatic margins plus usable last column). This is the VT100
       style type and perfectly suited for screen.  If all  you've  got  is  a
       "true"  auto-margin  terminal  screen  will  be  content to use it, but
       updating a character put into the last position on the screen  may  not
       be  possible  until the screen scrolls or the character is moved into a
       safe position in some other way. This delay can be shortened by using a
       terminal with insert-character capability.

COMMAND-LINE OPTIONS
       Screen has the following command-line options:

       -a   include all capabilities (with some minor exceptions) in each win-
            dow's termcap, even if screen must redraw parts of the display  in
            order to implement a function.

       -A   Adapt  the  sizes of all windows to the size of the current termi-
            nal.  By default, screen tries to restore  its  old  window  sizes
            when  attaching  to  resizable  terminals  (those with "WS" in its
            description, e.g. suncmd or some xterm).

       -c file
            override the default configuration file from "$HOME/.screenrc"  to
            file.

       -d|-D [pid.tty.host]
            does  not  start screen, but detaches the elsewhere running screen
            session. It has the same effect as typing "C-a  d"  from  screen's
            controlling  terminal.  -D  is  the equivalent to the power detach
            key.  If no session can be detached, this option  is  ignored.  In
            combination  with  the  -r/-R  option more powerful effects can be

       -D -R   Attach here and now. In detail this means: If a session is run-
               ning, then reattach. If necessary detach  and  logout  remotely
               first.   If  it  was not running create it and notify the user.
               This is the author's favorite.

       -D -RR  Attach here and now. Whatever that means, just do it.

            Note: It is always a good idea to check the status  of  your  ses-
            sions by means of "screen -list".

       -e xy
            specifies the command character to be x and the character generat-
            ing a literal command character to y (when typed after the command
            character).   The default is "C-a" and `a', which can be specified
            as "-e^Aa".  When creating a screen session, this option sets  the
            default  command character. In a multiuser session all users added
            will start off with this command character. But when attaching  to
            an  already  running session, this option changes only the command
            character of the attaching user.  This  option  is  equivalent  to
            either the commands "defescape" or "escape" respectively.

       -f, -fn, and -fa
            turns  flow-control  on, off, or "automatic switching mode".  This
            can also be defined through the "defflow" .screenrc command.

       -h num
            Specifies the history scrollback buffer to be num lines high.

       -i   will cause the interrupt key (usually C-c) to interrupt  the  dis-
            play  immediately  when  flow-control  is  on.   See the "defflow"
            .screenrc command for details.  The use of this option is discour-
            aged.

       -l and -ln
            turns login mode on or off (for /var/run/utmp updating).  This can
            also be defined through the "deflogin" .screenrc command.

       -ls [match]
       -list [match]
            does not start screen, but prints a list of  pid.tty.host  strings
            and  creation  timestamps  identifying your screen sessions.  Ses-
            sions marked `detached' can be resumed  with  "screen  -r".  Those
            marked  `attached' are running and have a controlling terminal. If
            the session runs in multiuser mode, it is marked `multi'. Sessions
            marked  as  `unreachable'  either  live on a different host or are
            `dead'.  An unreachable session is considered dead, when its  name
            matches either the name of the local host, or the specified param-
            eter, if any.  See the -r flag for a description how to  construct
            matches.   Sessions  marked as `dead' should be thoroughly checked
            and removed.  Ask your system administrator if you are  not  sure.
            Remove sessions with the -wipe option.

       -L   tells screen to turn on automatic output logging for the windows.
               new process. The command exits if the session terminates.

       -O   selects a more optimal output mode for your terminal  rather  than
            true  VT100  emulation (only affects auto-margin terminals without
            `LP').  This can also be set in your .screenrc by specifying  `OP'
            in a "termcap" command.

       -p number_or_name|-|=|+
            Preselect  a window. This is useful when you want to reattach to a
            specific window or you want to send a command via the "-X"  option
            to a specific window. As with screen's select command, "-" selects
            the blank window. As a special case for reattach,  "="  brings  up
            the  windowlist on the blank window, while a "+" will create a new
            window. The command will not be executed if the  specified  window
            could not be found.

       -q   Suppress printing of error messages. In combination with "-ls" the
            exit value is as follows: 9 indicates  a  directory  without  ses-
            sions.  10  indicates  a directory with running but not attachable
            sessions. 11 (or more) indicates 1 (or more) usable sessions.   In
            combination  with  "-r" the exit value is as follows: 10 indicates
            that there is no session to resume. 12 (or  more)  indicates  that
            there  are  2  (or more) sessions to resume and you should specify
            which one to choose.  In all other cases "-q" has no effect.

       -Q   Some commands now can be queried from a remote session using  this
            flag,  e.g.  "screen  -Q  windows".  The  commands  will  send the
            response to the stdout of the querying process. If  there  was  an
            error  in  the command, then the querying process will exit with a
            non-zero status.

            The commands that can be queried now are:
             echo
             info
             lastmsg
             number
             select
             time
             title
             windows

       -r [pid.tty.host]
       -r sessionowner/[pid.tty.host]
            resumes a detached screen session.  No other options (except  com-
            binations  with -d/-D) may be specified, though an optional prefix
            of [pid.]tty.host may be needed to  distinguish  between  multiple
            detached  screen  sessions.  The second form is used to connect to
            another user's screen session which runs in multiuser  mode.  This
            indicates  that  screen should look for sessions in another user's
            directory. This requires setuid-root.

       -R   resumes screen only when it's unambiguous  which  one  to  attach,
            usually  when  only one screen is detached. Otherwise lists avail-
            able sessions.  -RR attempts to resume the youngest (in  terms  of
            command.  See also there.

       -S sessionname
            When creating a new session, this option can be used to specify  a
            meaningful  name for the session. This name identifies the session
            for "screen -list" and "screen -r"  actions.  It  substitutes  the
            default [tty.host] suffix.

       -t name
            sets  the  title  (a.k.a.) for the default shell or specified pro-
            gram.  See also the "shelltitle" .screenrc command.

       -T term
            Set the $TERM environment  varible  using  the  spcified  term  as
            opposed to the defualt setting of screen.

       -U   Run  screen in UTF-8 mode. This option tells screen that your ter-
            minal sends and understands UTF-8 encoded characters. It also sets
            the default encoding for new windows to `utf8'.

       -v   Print version number.

       -wipe [match]
            does  the  same  as  "screen  -ls", but removes destroyed sessions
            instead of marking them as `dead'.  An unreachable session is con-
            sidered  dead,  when its name matches either the name of the local
            host, or the explicitly given parameter, if any.  See the -r  flag
            for a description how to construct matches.

       -x   Attach  to  a  not  detached screen session. (Multi display mode).
            Screen refuses to attach from within itself.  But  when  cascading
            multiple screens, loops are not detected; take care.

       -X   Send  the  specified  command to a running screen session. You may
            use the -S option to specify the screen session if you  have  sev-
            eral  screen  sessions running. You can use the -d or -r option to
            tell screen to look only for attached or detached screen sessions.
            Note  that  this  command  doesn't work if the session is password
            protected.

       -4   Resolve hostnames only to IPv4 addresses.

       -6   Resolve hostnames only to IPv6 addresses.

DEFAULT KEY BINDINGS
       As mentioned, each screen command consists of a "C-a" followed  by  one
       other  character.  For your convenience, all commands that are bound to
       lower-case letters are also bound to their control  character  counter-
       parts (with the exception of "C-a a"; see below), thus, "C-a c" as well
       as "C-a C-c" can be used to create a window.  See  section  "CUSTOMIZA-
       TION" for a description of the command.

       The following table shows the default key bindings:

       C-a tab     (focus)       Switch  the  input  focus to the next region.
                                 See also split, remove, only.

       C-a C-a     (other)       Toggle to the  window  displayed  previously.
                                 Note  that  this binding defaults to the com-
                                 mand character typed twice,  unless  overrid-
                                 den.   For  instance,  if  you use the option
                                 "-e]x", this command becomes "]]".

       C-a a       (meta)        Send the command character (C-a)  to  window.
                                 See escape command.

       C-a A       (title)       Allow  the  user to enter a name for the cur-
                                 rent window.

       C-a b
       C-a C-b     (break)       Send a break to window.

       C-a B       (pow_break)   Reopen the terminal line and send a break.

       C-a c
       C-a C-c     (screen)      Create a new window with a shell  and  switch
                                 to that window.

       C-a C       (clear)       Clear the screen.

       C-a d
       C-a C-d     (detach)      Detach screen from this terminal.

       C-a D D     (pow_detach)  Detach and logout.

       C-a f
       C-a C-f     (flow)        Toggle flow on, off or auto.

       C-a F       (fit)         Resize the window to the current region size.

       C-a C-g     (vbell)       Toggles screen's visual bell mode.

       C-a h       (hardcopy)    Write a hardcopy of the current window to the
                                 file "hardcopy.n".

       C-a H       (log)         Begins/ends logging of the current window  to
                                 the file "screenlog.n".

       C-a i
       C-a C-i     (info)        Show info about this window.

       C-a k
       C-a C-k     (kill)        Destroy current window.

       C-a l
       C-a C-l     (redisplay)   Fully refresh current window.

       C-a L       (login)       Toggle  this  windows  login  slot. Available

       C-a N       (number)      Show the number (and title)  of  the  current
                                 window.

       C-a backspace
       C-a C-h
       C-a p
       C-a C-p     (prev)        Switch to the previous window (opposite of C-
                                 a n).

       C-a q
       C-a C-q     (xon)         Send a control-q to the current window.

       C-a Q       (only)        Delete all regions but the current one.   See
                                 also split, remove, focus.

       C-a r
       C-a C-r     (wrap)        Toggle the current window's line-wrap setting
                                 (turn the current window's automatic  margins
                                 on and off).

       C-a s
       C-a C-s     (xoff)        Send a control-s to the current window.

       C-a S       (split)       Split  the  current  region horizontally into
                                 two new ones.  See also only, remove, focus.

       C-a t
       C-a C-t     (time)        Show system information.

       C-a v       (version)     Display the version and compilation date.

       C-a C-v     (digraph)     Enter digraph.

       C-a w
       C-a C-w     (windows)     Show a list of window.

       C-a W       (width)       Toggle 80/132 columns.

       C-a x
       C-a C-x     (lockscreen)  Lock this terminal.

       C-a X       (remove)      Kill the current  region.   See  also  split,
                                 only, focus.

       C-a z
       C-a C-z     (suspend)     Suspend  screen.   Your  system  must support
                                 BSD-style job-control.

       C-a Z       (reset)       Reset the virtual terminal to its  "power-on"
                                 values.

       C-a .       (dumptermcap) Write out a ".termcap" file.

                                 stdin queue of the current window.

       C-a {
       C-a }       (history)     Copy and paste a previous (command) line.

       C-a >       (writebuf)    Write paste buffer to a file.

       C-a <       (readbuf)     Reads the screen-exchange file into the paste
                                 buffer.

       C-a =       (removebuf)   Removes the file used by C-a < and C-a >.

       C-a ,       (license)     Shows  where screen comes from, where it went
                                 to and why you can use it.

       C-a _       (silence)     Start/stop monitoring the current window  for
                                 inactivity.

       C-a |       (split -v)    Split  the current region vertically into two
                                 new ones.

       C-a *       (displays)    Show a listing of all currently attached dis-
                                 plays.

CUSTOMIZATION
       The  "socket  directory"  defaults either to $HOME/.screen or simply to
       /tmp/screens or preferably to /var/run/screen chosen  at  compile-time.
       If  screen is installed setuid-root, then the administrator should com-
       pile screen with an adequate (not NFS  mounted)  socket  directory.  If
       screen  is  not  running setuid-root, the user can specify any mode 700
       directory in the environment variable $SCREENDIR.

       When screen is invoked, it executes initialization  commands  from  the
       files  "/etc/screenrc"  and  ".screenrc"  in the user's home directory.
       These are the "programmer's defaults" that can  be  overridden  in  the
       following  ways:  for  the global screenrc file screen searches for the
       environment variable $SYSSCREENRC (this override feature  may  be  dis-
       abled  at compile-time). The user specific screenrc file is searched in
       $SCREENRC, then $HOME/.screenrc.  The  command  line  option  -c  takes
       precedence over the above user screenrc files.

       Commands  in  these  files  are  used to set options, bind functions to
       keys, and to automatically establish one or more windows at the  begin-
       ning  of  your  screen session.  Commands are listed one per line, with
       empty lines being ignored.  A command's arguments are separated by tabs
       or  spaces,  and  may  be surrounded by single or double quotes.  A `#'
       turns the rest of the line into a comment, except in quotes.   Unintel-
       ligible  lines are warned about and ignored.  Commands may contain ref-
       erences to environment variables. The syntax is the shell-like "$VAR  "
       or "${VAR}". Note that this causes incompatibility with previous screen
       versions, as now the '$'-character has to be protected with '\'  if  no
       variable  substitution shall be performed. A string in single-quotes is
       also protected from variable substitution.


       Enable users to fully access this screen session. Usernames can be  one
       user or a comma separated list of users. This command enables to attach
       to the screen session and performs the equivalent of `aclchg  usernames
       +rwx  "#?"'.   executed.  To add a user with restricted access, use the
       `aclchg' command below.  If an optional second parameter  is  supplied,
       it  should  be  a crypted password for the named user(s). `Addacl' is a
       synonym to `acladd'.  Multi user mode only.

       aclchg usernames permbits list
       chacl usernames permbits list

       Change permissions for a comma separated list of users. Permission bits
       are  represented  as `r', `w' and `x'. Prefixing `+' grants the permis-
       sion, `-' removes it. The third parameter is a comma separated list  of
       commands and/or windows (specified either by number or title). The spe-
       cial list `#' refers to all windows, `?' to all commands. if  usernames
       consists  of a single `*', all known users are affected.  A command can
       be executed when the user has the `x' bit for it.  The  user  can  type
       input to a window when he has its `w' bit set and no other user obtains
       a writelock for this window.  Other bits  are  currently  ignored.   To
       withdraw  the writelock from another user in window 2: `aclchg username
       -w+w 2'.  To allow read-only access to the session: `aclchg username -w
       "#"'.  As soon as a user's name is known to screen he can attach to the
       session and (per default) has full permissions for all command and win-
       dows. Execution permission for the acl commands, `at' and others should
       also be removed or the user may be able  to  regain  write  permission.
       Rights  of  the special username nobody cannot be changed (see the "su"
       command).  `Chacl' is a synonym to `aclchg'.  Multi user mode only.

       acldel username

       Remove a user from screen's access control list. If currently attached,
       all the user's displays are detached from the session. He cannot attach
       again.  Multi user mode only.

       aclgrp username [groupname]

       Creates groups of users that share common access rights.  The  name  of
       the group is the username of the group leader. Each member of the group
       inherits the permissions that are granted to  the  group  leader.  That
       means,  if  a user fails an access check, another check is made for the
       group leader.  A user is removed from  all  groups  the  special  value
       "none"  is  used for groupname.  If the second parameter is omitted all
       groups the user is in are listed.

       aclumask [[users]+bits |[users]-bits . ]
       umask [[users]+bits |[users]-bits . ]

       This specifies the access other users have to windows that will be cre-
       ated  by  the  caller  of the command.  Users may be no, one or a comma
       separated list of known usernames. If no users are specified, a list of
       all  currently  known  users  is  assumed.   Bits is any combination of
       access control bits allowed defined with the "aclchg" command. The spe-
       dow  in  which  activity  has  occurred, and each occurrence of `^G' is
       replaced by the definition for bell in your termcap (usually an audible
       bell).  The default message is

                   'Activity in window %n'

       Note  that  monitoring  is  off  for all windows by default, but can be
       altered by use of the "monitor" command (C-a M).

       allpartial on|off

       If set to on, only the current  cursor  line  is  refreshed  on  window
       change.   This  affects  all  windows  and  is useful for slow terminal
       lines. The previous setting of full/partial refresh for each window  is
       restored with "allpartial off".  This is a global flag that immediately
       takes effect on all windows overriding the "partial" settings. It  does
       not change the default redraw behavior of newly created windows.

       altscreen on|off

       If  set  to on, "alternate screen" support is enabled in virtual termi-
       nals, just like in xterm.  Initial setting is `off'.

       at [identifier][#|*|%] command [args  ]

       Execute a command at other displays  or  windows  as  if  it  had  been
       entered there.  "At" changes the context (the `current window' or `cur-
       rent display' setting) of the command. If the first parameter describes
       a  non-unique  context, the command will be executed multiple times. If
       the first parameter is of the form  `identifier*'  then  identifier  is
       matched against user names.  The command is executed once for each dis-
       play of the selected user(s). If the first parameter  is  of  the  form
       `identifier%'  identifier  is  matched  against  displays. Displays are
       named after the ttys they attach. The prefix `/dev/' or `/dev/tty'  may
       be  omitted  from  the  identifier.  If identifier has a `#' or nothing
       appended it is matched against window numbers and titles.  Omitting  an
       identifier in front of the `#', `*' or `%'-character selects all users,
       displays or windows because a prefix-match is performed. Note  that  on
       the  affected  display(s)  a short message will describe what happened.
       Permission is checked for initiator of the "at" command,  not  for  the
       owners  of  the affected display(s).  Note that the '#' character works
       as a comment introducer when it is preceded by whitespace. This can  be
       escaped by prefixing a '\'.  Permission is checked for the initiator of
       the "at" command, not for the owners of the affected display(s).
       Caveat: When matching against windows, the command is executed at least
       once  per window. Commands that change the internal arrangement of win-
       dows (like "other") may be called again. In shared windows the  command
       will be repeated for each attached display. Beware, when issuing toggle
       commands like "login"!  Some commands (e.g. "process") require  that  a
       display  is associated with the target windows.  These commands may not
       work correctly under "at" looping over windows.

       attrcolor attrib [attribute/color-modifier]

       Change the color to bright red if bold text is to be printed.

              attrcolor u "-u b"

       Use blue text instead of underline.

              attrcolor b ".I"

       Use bright colors for  bold  text.  Most  terminal  emulators  do  this
       already.

              attrcolor i "+b"

       Make bright colored text also bold.

       autodetach on|off

       Sets  whether screen will automatically detach upon hangup, which saves
       all your running programs until they are resumed with a screen -r  com-
       mand.   When  turned off, a hangup signal will terminate screen and all
       the processes it contains. Autodetach is on by default.

       autonuke on|off

       Sets whether a clear screen sequence should nuke all  the  output  that
       has not been written to the terminal. See also "obuflimit".

       backtick id lifespan autorefresh cmd args
       backtick id

       Program  the  backtick command with the numerical id id.  The output of
       such a command is used for substitution of the "%`" string escape.  The
       specified  lifespan  is  the number of seconds the output is considered
       valid. After this time, the command is run  again  if  a  corresponding
       string  escape  is  encountered.  The autorefresh parameter triggers an
       automatic refresh for caption and hardstatus strings after  the  speci-
       fied  number  of seconds. Only the last line of output is used for sub-
       stitution.
       If both the lifespan and the autorefresh parameters are zero, the back-
       tick  program is expected to stay in the background and generate output
       once in a while.  In this case, the command is executed right away  and
       screen  stores  the  last  line  of  output. If a new line gets printed
       screen will automatically refresh the hardstatus or the captions.
       The second form of the command deletes the backtick  command  with  the
       numerical id id.

       bce [on|off]

       Change background-color-erase setting. If "bce" is set to on, all char-
       acters cleared by an erase/insert/scroll/clear operation will  be  dis-
       played  in  the  current  background color. Otherwise the default back-
       ground color is used.

       bell_msg [message]
       message is shown.

       bind [-c class] key [command [args]]

       Bind  a command to a key.  By default, most of the commands provided by
       screen are bound to one or more keys as indicated in the  "DEFAULT  KEY
       BINDINGS"  section, e.g. the command to create a new window is bound to
       "C-c" and "c".  The "bind" command can be  used  to  redefine  the  key
       bindings and to define new bindings.  The key argument is either a sin-
       gle character, a two-character sequence of the form "^x"  (meaning  "C-
       x"), a backslash followed by an octal number (specifying the ASCII code
       of the character), or a backslash followed by a second character,  such
       as  "\^" or "\\".  The argument can also be quoted, if you like.  If no
       further argument is given, any previously established binding for  this
       key is removed.  The command argument can be any command listed in this
       section.

       If a command class is specified via the "-c" option, the key  is  bound
       for the specified class. Use the "command" command to activate a class.
       Command classes can be used to create multiple command keys  or  multi-
       character bindings.

       Some examples:

                   bind ' ' windows
                   bind ^k
                   bind k
                   bind K kill
                   bind ^f screen telnet foobar
                   bind \033 screen -ln -t root -h 1000 9 su

       would bind the space key to the command that displays a list of windows
       (so that the command usually invoked by "C-a C-w" would also be  avail-
       able  as  "C-a  space").  The  next three lines remove the default kill
       binding from "C-a C-k" and "C-a k".  "C-a K" is then bound to the  kill
       command.  Then  it  binds  "C-f" to the command "create a window with a
       TELNET connection to foobar", and bind "escape"  to  the  command  that
       creates an non-login window with a.k.a. "root" in slot #9, with a supe-
       ruser shell and a scrollback buffer of 1000 lines.

                   bind -c demo1 0 select 10
                   bind -c demo1 1 select 11
                   bind -c demo1 2 select 12
                   bindkey "^B" command -c demo1

       makes "C-b 0" select window 10, "C-b 1" window 11, etc.

                   bind -c demo2 0 select 10
                   bind -c demo2 1 select 11
                   bind -c demo2 2 select 12
                   bind - command -c demo2

       makes "C-a - 0" select window 10, "C-a - 1" window 11, etc.

       an action is bound. This can either be a fixed string or a termcap key-
       board capability name (selectable with the -k option).
       Some keys on a VT100 terminal can send a different string  if  applica-
       tion  mode  is  turned  on  (e.g  the cursor keys).  Such keys have two
       entries in the translation table. You can select the  application  mode
       entry by specifying the -a option.
       The -t option tells screen not to do inter-character timing. One cannot
       turn off the timing if a termcap capability is used.
       Cmd can be any of screen's commands with an arbitrary number  of  args.
       If cmd is omitted the key-binding is removed from the table.
       Here are some examples of keyboard bindings:

               bindkey -d
       Show  all of the default key bindings. The application mode entries are
       marked with [A].

               bindkey -k k1 select 1
       Make the "F1" key switch to window one.

               bindkey -t foo stuff barfoo
       Make "foo" an abbreviation of the word "barfoo". Timeout is disabled so
       that users can type slowly.

               bindkey "\024" mapdefault
       This  key-binding  makes  "^T" an escape character for key-bindings. If
       you did the above "stuff barfoo" binding, you can enter the word  "foo"
       by  typing  "^Tfoo". If you want to insert a "^T" you have to press the
       key twice (i.e., escape the escape binding).

               bindkey -k F1 command
       Make the F11 (not F1!) key an alternative screen escape (besides ^A).

       break [duration]

       Send a break signal for duration*0.25 seconds to this window.  For non-
       Posix  systems  the  time  interval  may be rounded up to full seconds.
       Most useful if a character device is attached to the window rather than
       a shell process (See also chapter "WINDOW TYPES"). The maximum duration
       of a break signal is limited to 15 seconds.

       blanker

       Activate the screen blanker. First the screen is cleared. If no blanker
       program is defined, the cursor is turned off, otherwise, the program is
       started and it's output is written to the screen.  The  screen  blanker
       is killed with the first keypress, the read key is discarded.
       This command is normally used together with the "idle" command.

       blankerprg [program args]

       Defines  a  blanker  program.  Disables the blanker program if an empty
       argument is given. Shows the currently set blanker program if no  argu-
       ments are given.

       default setting ("/tmp/screen-exchange") is reactivated.  The following
       example will paste the system's password file into  the  screen  window
       (using the paste buffer, where a copy remains):

                   C-a : bufferfile /etc/passwd
                   C-a < C-a ]
                   C-a : bufferfile

       bumpleft

       Swaps window with previous one on window list.

       bumpright

       Swaps window with next one on window list.

       c1 [on|off]

       Change  c1  code  processing.  "C1  on" tells screen to treat the input
       characters between 128 and 159 as control  functions.   Such  an  8-bit
       code  is  normally  the same as ESC followed by the corresponding 7-bit
       code. The default setting is to process c1 codes  and  can  be  changed
       with the "defc1" command.  Users with fonts that have usable characters
       in the c1 positions may want to turn this off.

       caption always|splitonly [string]
       caption string [string]

       This command controls the display of the window  captions.  Normally  a
       caption  is  only  used if more than one window is shown on the display
       (split screen mode). But if the type is set to always  screen  shows  a
       caption even if only one window is displayed. The default is splitonly.

       The  second form changes the text used for the caption. You can use all
       escapes from the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter. Screen  uses  a  default  of
       `%3n %t'.

       You can mix both forms by providing a string as an additional argument.

       charset set

       Change  the current character set slot designation and charset mapping.
       The first four character of set  are  treated  as  charset  designators
       while the fifth and sixth character must be in range '0' to '3' and set
       the GL/GR charset mapping. On every position a '.' may be used to indi-
       cate  that the corresponding charset/mapping should not be changed (set
       is padded to six characters internally by appending  '.'   chars).  New
       windows  have  "BBBB02" as default charset, unless a "encoding" command
       is active.
       The current setting can be viewed with the "info" command.

       chdir [directory]

       Change the current directory of screen to the specified  directory  or,

       Treat ambiguous width characters as full/half width.

       clear

       Clears the current window and saves its image to the scrollback buffer.

       collapse

       Reorders window on window list, removing number gaps between them.

       colon [prefix]

       Allows you to enter ".screenrc" command lines.  Useful  for  on-the-fly
       modification  of  key  bindings,  specific window creation and changing
       settings. Note that the "set" keyword no longer  exists!  Usually  com-
       mands affect the current window rather than default settings for future
       windows. Change defaults with commands starting with 'def'.

       If you consider this as the `Ex command mode' of screen, you may regard
       "C-a esc" (copy mode) as its `Vi command mode'.

       command [-c class]

       This  command has the same effect as typing the screen escape character
       (^A). It is probably only useful for key bindings.  If the "-c"  option
       is  given,  select  the  specified  command class.  See also "bind" and
       "bindkey".

       compacthist [on|off]

       This tells  screen  whether  to  suppress  trailing  blank  lines  when
       scrolling up text into the history buffer.

       console [on|off]

       Grabs  or un-grabs the machines console output to a window.  Note: Only
       the owner of /dev/console can grab the console output.  This command is
       only available if the machine supports the ioctl TIOCCONS.

       copy

       Enter  copy/scrollback mode. This allows you to copy text from the cur-
       rent window and its history into the paste buffer. In this mode  a  vi-
       like `full screen editor' is active:
       Movement keys:
         h, C-h, or left arrow move the cursor left.
         j, C-n, or down arrow move the cursor down.
         k, C-p, or up arrow move the cursor up.
         l ('el') or right arrow move the cursor right.
         0 (zero) or C-a move to the leftmost column.
         + and - positions one line up and down.
         H,  M and L move the cursor to the leftmost column of the top, center
           or bottom line of the window.

         ; and , Repeat the last f/F/t/T command in the  same/opposite  direc-
           tion.
         C-e  and  C-y scroll the display up/down by one line while preserving
           the cursor position.
         C-u and C-d scroll the display up/down by  the  specified  amount  of
           lines  while preserving the cursor position. (Default: half screen-
           full).
         C-b and C-f scroll the display up/down a full screen.

       Note:
           Emacs style movement keys can be customized by a .screenrc command.
           (E.g.  markkeys  "h=^B:l=^F:$=^E")  There is no simple method for a
           full emacs-style keymap, as this involves multi-character codes.

       Marking:
           The copy range is specified by setting two marks. The text  between
           these marks will be highlighted. Press:
         space  or  enter  to  set  the  first or second mark respectively. If
           mousetrack is set to `on', marks can also be set using  left  mouse
           click.
         Y and y used to mark one whole line or to mark from start of line.
         W marks exactly one word.
       Repeat count:
           Any of these commands can be prefixed with a repeat count number by
           pressing digits
         0..9 which is taken as a repeat count.
           Example: "C-a C-[ H 10 j 5 Y" will copy lines 11  to  15  into  the
           paste buffer.
       Searching:
         / Vi-like search forward.
         ? Vi-like search backward.
         C-a s Emacs style incremental search forward.
         C-r Emacs style reverse i-search.
         n Find next search pattern.
         N Find previous search pattern.
       Specials:
           There  are  however  some keys that act differently than in vi.  Vi
           does not allow one to yank rectangular blocks of text,  but  screen
           does. Press:
         c  or  C  to  set the left or right margin respectively. If no repeat
           count is given, both default to the current cursor position.
           Example: Try this on a rather full text screen: "C-a [ M 20 l SPACE
           c 10 l 5 j C SPACE".

           This  moves  one to the middle line of the screen, moves in 20 col-
           umns left, marks the beginning of the paste buffer, sets  the  left
           column, moves 5 columns down, sets the right column, and then marks
           the end of the paste buffer. Now try:
           "C-a [ M 20 l SPACE 10 l 5 j SPACE"

           and notice the difference in the amount of text copied.
         J joins lines. It toggles between 4 modes: lines separated by a  new-
           line  character  (012),  lines glued seamless, lines separated by a
           single whitespace and comma separated  lines.  Note  that  you  can
           to that file: "C-A [ g SPACE G $ >".
         C-g gives information about the current line and column.
         x or o exchanges the first mark and the current cursor position.  You
           can use this to adjust an already placed mark.
         C-l ('el') will redraw the screen.
         @ does nothing. Does not even exit copy mode.
         All keys not described here exit copy mode.

       copy_reg [key]

       No longer exists, use "readreg" instead.

       crlf [on|off]

       This  affects  the copying of text regions with the `C-a [' command. If
       it is set to `on',  lines  will  be  separated  by  the  two  character
       sequence  `CR' - `LF'.  Otherwise (default) only `LF' is used.  When no
       parameter is given, the state is toggled.

       debug on|off

       Turns runtime debugging on or off. If screen  has  been  compiled  with
       option  -DDEBUG  debugging available and is turned on per default. Note
       that this command only affects debugging output from the main  "SCREEN"
       process  correctly.  Debug  output  from attacher processes can only be
       turned off once and forever.

       defc1 on|off

       Same as the c1 command except that the default setting for new  windows
       is changed. Initial setting is `on'.

       defautonuke on|off

       Same  as  the  autonuke command except that the default setting for new
       displays is changed. Initial setting is `off'.  Note that you  can  use
       the  special  `AN' terminal capability if you want to have a dependency
       on the terminal type.

       defbce on|off

       Same as the bce command except that the default setting for new windows
       is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defbreaktype [tcsendbreak|TIOCSBRK |TCSBRK]

       Choose  one  of  the available methods of generating a break signal for
       terminal devices. The preferred methods are tcsendbreak  and  TIOCSBRK.
       The  third, TCSBRK, blocks the complete screen session for the duration
       of the break, but it may be the  only  way  to  generate  long  breaks.
       Tcsendbreak and TIOCSBRK may or may not produce long breaks with spikes
       (e.g. 4 per second). This is not only system-dependent, this also  dif-
       fers  between  serial  board  drivers.   Calling "defbreaktype" with no
       parameter displays the current setting.
       be added later.

       defflow on|off|auto [interrupt]

       Same  as  the flow command except that the default setting for new win-
       dows is changed. Initial setting is `auto'.  Specifying  "defflow  auto
       interrupt" is the same as the command-line options -fa and -i.

       defgr on|off

       Same  as the gr command except that the default setting for new windows
       is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defhstatus [status]

       The hardstatus line that all new windows will get  is  set  to  status.
       This  command  is useful to make the hardstatus of every window display
       the window number or title or the like.  Status may  contain  the  same
       directives  as in the window messages, but the directive escape charac-
       ter is '^E' (octal 005) instead of '%'.  This was done to make a misin-
       terpretation  of program generated hardstatus lines impossible.  If the
       parameter status is omitted, the current default string  is  displayed.
       Per default the hardstatus line of new windows is empty.

       defencoding enc

       Same  as  the  encoding command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is the encoding taken from the ter-
       minal.

       deflog on|off

       Same as the log command except that the default setting for new windows
       is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       deflogin on|off

       Same as the login command except that the default setting for new  win-
       dows is changed. This is initialized with `on' as distributed (see con-
       fig.h.in).

       defmode mode

       The mode of each newly allocated pseudo-tty is set to mode.  Mode is an
       octal number.  When no "defmode" command is given, mode 0622 is used.

       defmonitor on|off

       Same  as  the  monitor  command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defmousetrack on|off

       Same as the mousetrack command except that the default setting for  new
       dency on the terminal type.

       defscrollback num

       Same  as the scrollback command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is 100.

       defshell command

       Synonym to the shell .screenrc command. See there.

       defsilence on|off

       Same as the silence command except that the  default  setting  for  new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defslowpaste msec"

       Same  as  the slowpaste command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is 0 milliseconds, meaning `off'.

       defutf8 on|off

       Same as the utf8 command except that the default setting for  new  win-
       dows  is  changed.  Initial  setting is `on' if screen was started with
       "-U", otherwise `off'.

       defwrap on|off

       Same as the wrap command except that the default setting for  new  win-
       dows  is changed. Initially line-wrap is on and can be toggled with the
       "wrap" command ("C-a r") or by means of "C-a : wrap on|off".

       defwritelock on|off|auto

       Same as the writelock command except that the default setting  for  new
       windows is changed. Initially writelocks will off.

       defzombie [keys]

       Synonym  to the zombie command. Both currently change the default.  See
       there.

       detach [-h]

       Detach the screen session (disconnect it from the terminal and  put  it
       into  the background).  This returns you to the shell where you invoked
       screen.  A detached screen can be resumed by invoking screen  with  the
       -r  option  (see  also  section  "COMMAND-LINE OPTIONS"). The -h option
       tells screen to  immediately  close  the  connection  to  the  terminal
       ("hangup").

       dinfo

         C-u or C-d Move one half page up or down.
         C-b or C-f Move one full page up or down.
         mouseclick Move to the selected line. Available when "mousetrack"  is
           set to on.
         space Refresh the list
         d Detach that display
         D Power detach that display
         C-g, enter, or escape Exit the list

       The following is an example of what "displays" could look like:

              xterm 80x42 jnweiger@/dev/ttyp4     0(m11)   &rWx
              facit 80x24 mlschroe@/dev/ttyhf nb 11(tcsh)   rwx
              xterm 80x42 jnhollma@/dev/ttyp5     0(m11)   &R.x
               (A)   (B)     (C)     (D)     (E) (F)(G)   (H)(I)

       The legend is as follows:
       (A) The terminal type known by screen for this display.
       (B) Displays geometry as width x height.
       (C) Username who is logged in at the display.
       (D) Device name of the display or the attached device
       (E) Display is in blocking or nonblocking mode. The available modes are
       "nb", "NB", "Z<", "Z>", and "BL".
       (F) Number of the window
       (G) Name/title of window
       (H) Whether the window is shared
       (I) Window permissions. Made up of three characters:
             (1st character)
                '-' : no read
                'r' : read
                'R' : read only due to foreign wlock
             (2nd character)
                '-' : no write
                '.' : write suppressed by foreign wlock
                'w' : write
                'W' : own wlock
             (3rd character)
                '-' : no execute
                'x' : execute

       "Displays" needs a region size of at least 10  characters  wide  and  5
       characters high in order to display.

       digraph [preset[unicode-value]]

       This  command  prompts  the  user  for a digraph sequence. The next two
       characters typed are looked up in a builtin  table  and  the  resulting
       character  is  inserted  in  the input stream. For example, if the user
       enters 'a"', an a-umlaut will  be  inserted.  If  the  first  character
       entered  is  a 0 (zero), screen will treat the following characters (up
       to three) as an octal number instead.  The optional argument preset  is
       treated  as user input, thus one can create an "umlaut" key.  For exam-
       ple the command "bindkey ^K digraph '"'" enables the user  to  generate
       an a-umlaut by typing CTRL-K a.  When a non-zero unicode-value is spec-

       echo [-n] message

       The  echo  command may be used to annoy screen users with a 'message of
       the day'. Typically installed in a global  /etc/screenrc.   The  option
       "-n" may be used to suppress the line feed.  See also "sleep".  Echo is
       also useful for online checking of environment variables.

       encoding enc [enc]

       Tell screen how to interpret the input/output. The first argument  sets
       the encoding of the current window. Each window can emulate a different
       encoding. The optional second parameter overwrites the encoding of  the
       connected terminal. It should never be needed as screen uses the locale
       setting to detect the encoding.  There is also a way to select a termi-
       nal  encoding  depending on the terminal type by using the "KJ" termcap
       entry.

       Supported encodings are eucJP, SJIS, eucKR, eucCN, Big5,  GBK,  KOI8-R,
       CP1251,  UTF-8,  ISO8859-2, ISO8859-3, ISO8859-4, ISO8859-5, ISO8859-6,
       ISO8859-7, ISO8859-8, ISO8859-9, ISO8859-10, ISO8859-15, jis.

       See also "defencoding", which changes the default setting of a new win-
       dow.

       escape xy

       Set  the  command character to x and the character generating a literal
       command character (by triggering the "meta" command) to y  (similar  to
       the  -e  option).   Each  argument is either a single character, a two-
       character sequence of the form "^x" (meaning "C-x"), a  backslash  fol-
       lowed  by an octal number (specifying the ASCII code of the character),
       or a backslash followed by a second character, such as  "\^"  or  "\\".
       The default is "^Aa".

       eval command1 [command2 ]

       Parses and executes each argument as separate command.

       exec [[fdpat] newcommand [args ]]

       Run  a  unix subprocess (specified by an executable path newcommand and
       its optional arguments) in the current window. The flow of data between
       newcommands  stdin/stdout/stderr, the process originally started in the
       window (let us call it "application-process") and screen  itself  (win-
       dow)  is controlled by the file descriptor pattern fdpat.  This pattern
       is basically a three character sequence representing stdin, stdout  and
       stderr of newcommand. A dot (.) connects the file descriptor to screen.
       An exclamation mark (!) causes the file descriptor to be  connected  to
       the application-process. A colon (:) combines both.  User input will go
       to newcommand unless newcommand receives the application-process'  out-
       put  (fdpats  first  character  is  `!' or `:') or a pipe symbol (|) is
       added (as a fourth character) to the end of fdpat.
       Invoking `exec' without arguments shows name and arguments of the  cur-
       Whitespace between the word `exec' and fdpat and  the  command  can  be
       omitted. Trailing dots and a fdpat consisting only of dots can be omit-
       ted. A simple `|' is synonymous for the pattern `!..|'; the  word  exec
       can be omitted here and can always be replaced by `!'.

       Examples:

              exec  /bin/sh
              exec /bin/sh
              !/bin/sh

       Creates  another  shell in the same window, while the original shell is
       still running. Output of both shells is displayed  and  user  input  is
       sent to the new /bin/sh.

              exec !.. stty 19200
              exec ! stty 19200
              !!stty 19200

       Set  the  speed  of  the window's tty. If your stty command operates on
       stdout, then add another `!'.

              exec !..| less
              |less

       This adds a pager to the window output. The special  character  `|'  is
       needed  to  give  the  user control over the pager although it gets its
       input from the window's process. This works, because  less  listens  on
       stderr  (a  behavior that screen would not expect without the `|') when
       its stdin is not a tty.  Less versions newer than  177  fail  miserably
       here; good old pg still works.

              !:sed -n s/.*Error.*/\007/p

       Sends  window  output  to  both,  the user and the sed command. The sed
       inserts an additional bell character (oct. 007) to  the  window  output
       seen  by screen.  This will cause "Bell in window x" messages, whenever
       the string "Error" appears in the window.

       fit

       Change the window size to the size of the current region. This  command
       is needed because screen doesn't adapt the window size automatically if
       the window is displayed more than once.

       flow [on|off|auto]

       Sets the flow-control mode for  this  window.   Without  parameters  it
       cycles  the  current  window's flow-control setting from "automatic" to
       "on" to "off".  See the discussion on "FLOW-CONTROL" later on  in  this
       document  for  full details and note, that this is subject to change in
       future releases.  Default is set by `defflow'.

       focus [up|down|top|bottom]
       focusminsize [ ( width|max|_ ) ( height|max|_ ) ]

       This forces any currently selected region to be  automatically  resized
       at least a certain width and height. All other surrounding regions will
       be resized in order to accommodate.  This constraint follows  everytime
       the  "focus"  command  is  used.  The  "resize"  command can be used to
       increase either dimension of a region, but never below what is set with
       "focusminsize".  The  underscore  `_'  is  a synonym for max. Setting a
       width and height of `0 0' (zero zero) will  undo  any  constraints  and
       allow  for  manual resizing.  Without any parameters, the minimum width
       and height is shown.

       gr [on|off]

       Turn GR charset switching on/off. Whenever screen sees an input charac-
       ter with the 8th bit set, it will use the charset stored in the GR slot
       and print the character with the 8th bit  stripped.  The  default  (see
       also  "defgr")  is  not  to  process GR switching because otherwise the
       ISO88591 charset would not work.

       group [grouptitle]

       Change or show the group the current window belongs to. Windows can  be
       moved  around  between  different  groups by specifying the name of the
       destination group. Without specifying a group, the title of the current
       group is displayed.

       hardcopy [-h] [file]

       Writes  out  the  currently displayed image to the file file, or, if no
       filename is specified, to hardcopy.n in the default directory, where  n
       is the number of the current window.  This either appends or overwrites
       the file if it exists. See below.  If the option -h is specified,  dump
       also the contents of the scrollback buffer.

       hardcopy_append on|off

       If set to "on", screen will append to the "hardcopy.n" files created by
       the command "C-a h", otherwise these files are overwritten  each  time.
       Default is `off'.

       hardcopydir directory

       Defines  a  directory  where  hardcopy  files will be placed. If unset,
       hardcopys are dumped in screen's current working directory.

       hardstatus [on|off]
       hardstatus [always]firstline|lastline|message|ignore [string]
       hardstatus string [string]

       This command configures the use and emulation of the  terminal's  hard-
       status  line.  The first form toggles whether screen will use the hard-
       ware status line to display messages. If the  flag  is  set  to  `off',
       these  messages are overlaid in reverse video mode at the display line.
       used as default string, i.e., the stored hardstatus of the current win-
       dow  (settable  via  "ESC]0;<string>^G"  or "ESC_<string>ESC\") is dis-
       played.  You can customize this to any string you  like  including  the
       escapes  from  the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter. If you leave out the argu-
       ment string, the current string is displayed.

       You can mix the second and third form by providing the string as  addi-
       tional argument.

       height [-w|-d] [lines [cols]]

       Set the display height to a specified number of lines. When no argument
       is given it toggles between 24 and 42 lines display. You can also spec-
       ify  a  width  if  you want to change both values.  The -w option tells
       screen to leave the display size unchanged  and  just  set  the  window
       size, -d vice versa.

       help [-c class]

       Not  really  a  online help, but displays a help screen showing you all
       the key bindings.  The first pages list all the internal commands  fol-
       lowed  by  their  current  bindings.  Subsequent pages will display the
       custom commands, one command per key.  Press  space  when  you're  done
       reading  each  page, or return to exit early.  All other characters are
       ignored. If the "-c" option is given, display all  bound  commands  for
       the specified command class.  See also "DEFAULT KEY BINDINGS" section.

       history

       Usually  users  work  with  a shell that allows easy access to previous
       commands.  For example csh has the command "!!" to repeat the last com-
       mand executed.  Screen allows you to have a primitive way of re-calling
       "the command that started ": You just type the  first  letter  of  that
       command, then hit `C-a {' and screen tries to find a previous line that
       matches with the `prompt character' to the left  of  the  cursor.  This
       line  is  pasted into this window's input queue.  Thus you have a crude
       command history (made up by the visible window and its scrollback  buf-
       fer).

       hstatus status

       Change the window's hardstatus line to the string status.

       idle [timeout [cmd args]]

       Sets  a command that is run after the specified number of seconds inac-
       tivity is reached. This command will normally be the "blanker"  command
       to  create  a  screen blanker, but it can be any screen command.  If no
       command is specified, only the timeout is set. A timeout  of  zero  (or
       the  special  timeout  off)  disables  the  timer.  If no arguments are
       given, the current settings are displayed.

       ignorecase [on|off]

         +flow     automatic flow control, currently on.
         -flow     automatic flow control, currently off.
         +(+)flow  flow control enabled. Agrees with automatic control.
         -(+)flow  flow control disabled. Disagrees with automatic control.
         +(-)flow  flow control enabled. Disagrees with automatic control.
         -(-)flow  flow control disabled. Agrees with automatic control.

       The current line wrap setting (`+wrap' indicates enabled, `-wrap'  not)
       is  also  shown. The flags `ins', `org', `app', `log', `mon' or `nored'
       are displayed when the window is in insert mode, origin mode,  applica-
       tion-keypad  mode,  has  output logging, activity monitoring or partial
       redraw enabled.

       The currently active character set (G0, G1, G2, or G3)  and  in  square
       brackets  the  terminal character sets that are currently designated as
       G0 through G3 is shown. If the window is  in  UTF-8  mode,  the  string
       "UTF-8" is shown instead.

       Additional  modes  depending on the type of the window are displayed at
       the end of the status line (See also chapter "WINDOW TYPES").
       If the state machine of the  terminal  emulator  is  in  a  non-default
       state,  the  info line is started with a string identifying the current
       state.
       For system information use the "time" command.

       ins_reg [key]

       No longer exists, use "paste" instead.

       kill

       Kill current window.
       If there is an `exec' command running then it is killed. Otherwise  the
       process  (shell) running in the window receives a HANGUP condition, the
       window structure is removed  and  screen  (your  display)  switches  to
       another  window.   When  the  last  window  is destroyed, screen exits.
       After a kill screen switches to the previously displayed window.
       Note: Emacs users should keep this command  in  mind,  when  killing  a
       line.   It  is recommended not to use "C-a" as the screen escape key or
       to rebind kill to "C-a K".

       lastmsg

       Redisplay the last contents of  the  message/status  line.   Useful  if
       you're  typing  when  a message appears, because  the message goes away
       when you press a key (unless your terminal has a hardware status line).
       Refer to the commands "msgwait" and "msgminwait" for fine tuning.

       layout new [title]

       Create  a new layout. The screen will change to one whole region and be
       switched to the blank window. From here, you build the regions and  the
       windows  they  show as you desire. The new layout will be numbered with
       the smallest available integer, starting with zero. You can  optionally
       layout next

       Switch to the next layout available

       layout prev

       Switch to the previous layout available

       layout select [n|title]

       Select the desired layout. Either the number or the title can be speci-
       fied. Without either specification, screen will prompt  and  ask  which
       screen  is  desired. To see which layouts are available, use the layout
       show command.

       layout show

       List on the message line the number(s) and title(s)  of  the  available
       layout(s). The current layout is flagged.

       layout title [title]

       Change  or display the title of the current layout. A string given will
       be used to name the layout. Without any options, the current title  and
       number is displayed on the message line.

       layout number [n]

       Change  or  display  the number of the current layout. An integer given
       will be used to number the layout. Without  any  options,  the  current
       number and title is displayed on the message line.

       layout attach [title|:last]

       Change  or  display  which  layout  to reattach back to. The default is
       :last, which tells screen to reattach back to the last used layout just
       before  detachment.  By  supplying  a title, You can instruct screen to
       reattach to a particular layout regardless which one was  used  at  the
       time of detachment. Without any options, the layout to reattach to will
       be shown in the message line.

       layout save [n|title]

       Remember the current arrangement of regions.  When  used,  screen  will
       remember  the arrangement of vertically and horizontally split regions.
       This arrangement is restored when a screen  session  is  reattached  or
       switched  back  from  a  different  layout.  If the session ends or the
       screen process dies, the layout arrangements are lost. The layout  dump
       command  should  help  in  this siutation. If a number or title is sup-
       plied, screen will remember the arrangement of that particular  layout.
       Without any options, screen will remember the current layout.

       Saving  your  regions  can  be  done  automatically by using the layout
       autosave command.
       layout dump [filename]

       Write to a file the order of splits made in the current layout. This is
       useful to recreate the order of your regions used in your current  lay-
       out.  Only  the  current  layout  is  recorded.  While the order of the
       regions are recorded, the sizes of those regions and which windows cor-
       respond  to  which  regions  are  not. If no filename is specified, the
       default is layout-dump, saved in the directory that the screen  process
       was  started in. If the file already exists, layout dump will append to
       that file. As an example:

                   C-a : layout dump /home/user/.screenrc

       will save or append the layout to the user's .screenrc file.

       license

       Display the disclaimer page. This is done whenever  screen  is  started
       without   options,   which   should  be  often  enough.  See  also  the
       "startup_message" command.

       lockscreen

       Lock this  display.   Call  a  screenlock  program  (/local/bin/lck  or
       /usr/bin/lock  or  a builtin if no other is available). Screen does not
       accept any command keys until this program terminates.  Meanwhile  pro-
       cesses  in  the  windows  may  continue,  as  the  windows  are  in the
       `detached' state. The screenlock program may  be  changed  through  the
       environment  variable  $LOCKPRG  (which  must  be set in the shell from
       which screen is started) and is executed with the user's uid and gid.
       Warning: When you leave other shells unlocked and you have no  password
       set  on  screen,  the  lock is void: One could easily re-attach from an
       unlocked shell. This feature should rather be called `lockterminal'.

       log [on|off]

       Start/stop writing output of the current window to a file "screenlog.n"
       in the window's default directory, where n is the number of the current
       window. This filename can be changed with the `logfile' command. If  no
       parameter is given, the state of logging is toggled. The session log is
       appended to the previous contents of the file if it already exists. The
       current  contents  and  the  contents of the scrollback history are not
       included in the session log.  Default is `off'.

       logfile filename
       logfile flush secs

       Defines the name the log files will get. The default is "screenlog.%n".
       The  second  form changes the number of seconds screen will wait before
       flushing the logfile buffer to the file-system. The default value is 10
       seconds.

       login [on|off]

       logtstamp string [string]

       This command controls logfile time-stamp mechanism of screen.  If time-
       stamps are turned "on", screen adds a  string  containing  the  current
       time  to the logfile after two minutes of inactivity.  When output con-
       tinues and more than another two minutes have passed,  a  second  time-
       stamp  is  added  to document the restart of the output. You can change
       this timeout with the second form of the command.  The  third  form  is
       used  for customizing the time-stamp string (`-- %n:%t -- time-stamp --
       %M/%d/%y %c:%s --\n' by default).

       mapdefault

       Tell screen that the next input character should only be looked  up  in
       the default bindkey table. See also "bindkey".

       mapnotnext

       Like mapdefault, but don't even look in the default bindkey table.

       maptimeout [timeout]

       Set the inter-character timer for input sequence detection to a timeout
       of timeout ms. The default timeout is 300ms. Maptimeout with  no  argu-
       ments shows the current setting.  See also "bindkey".

       markkeys string

       This  is  a  method  of changing the keymap used for copy/history mode.
       The string is made up of oldchar=newchar pairs which are  separated  by
       `:'. Example: The string "B=^B:F=^F" will change the keys `C-b' and `C-
       f' to the vi style binding (scroll up/down fill page).  This happens to
       be  the  default  binding  for  `B'  and  `F'.   The  command "markkeys
       h=^B:l=^F:$=^E" would set the mode for an emacs-style binding.  If your
       terminal sends characters, that cause you to abort copy mode, then this
       command may help by binding these characters to do nothing.  The  no-op
       character  is `@' and is used like this: "markkeys @=L=H" if you do not
       want to use the `H' or `L' commands any longer.  As shown in this exam-
       ple,  multiple  keys can be assigned to one function in a single state-
       ment.

       maxwin num

       Set the maximum  window  number  screen  will  create.  Doesn't  affect
       already  existing  windows. The number can be increased only when there
       are no existing windows.

       meta

       Insert the command  character  (C-a)  in  the  current  window's  input
       stream.

       monitor [on|off]

       them. Without specifying on or off, the current state is displayed. The
       default state is determined by the "defmousetrack" command.

       msgminwait sec

       Defines the time screen delays a new message when one message  is  cur-
       rently displayed.  The default is 1 second.

       msgwait sec

       Defines  the  time a message is displayed if screen is not disturbed by
       other activity. The default is 5 seconds.

       multiuser on|off

       Switch between singleuser and multiuser mode. Standard screen operation
       is  singleuser.  In  multiuser  mode  the  commands `acladd', `aclchg',
       `aclgrp' and `acldel' can be used to enable (and disable)  other  users
       accessing this screen session.

       nethack on|off

       Changes the kind of error messages used by screen.  When you are famil-
       iar with the game "nethack", you may enjoy the  nethack-style  messages
       which will often blur the facts a little, but are much funnier to read.
       Anyway, standard messages often tend to be unclear as well.
       This option is only available if screen was compiled with  the  NETHACK
       flag defined. The default setting is then determined by the presence of
       the environment variable $NETHACKOPTIONS and the file ~/.nethackrc - if
       either one is present, the default is on.

       next

       Switch  to  the  next  window.   This command can be used repeatedly to
       cycle through the list of windows.

       nonblock [on|off|numsecs]

       Tell screen how to deal with user interfaces (displays) that  cease  to
       accept output. This can happen if a user presses ^S or a TCP/modem con-
       nection gets cut but no hangup is received. If nonblock is off (this is
       the default) screen waits until the display restarts to accept the out-
       put. If nonblock is on, screen waits until the timeout is  reached  (on
       is  treated  as  1s).  If the display still doesn't receive characters,
       screen will consider it "blocked" and stop sending characters to it. If
       at  some time it restarts to accept characters, screen will unblock the
       display and redisplay the updated window contents.

       number [[+|-]n]

       Change the current window's number. If the given number  n  is  already
       used  by  another  window,  both  windows exchange their numbers. If no
       argument is specified, the current window number (and title) is  shown.
       Using `+' or `-' will change the window's number by the relative amount

       other

       Switch  to  the  window  displayed  previously.  If this window does no
       longer exist, other has the same effect as next.

       partial on|off

       Defines whether the display should be  refreshed  (as  with  redisplay)
       after  switching  to  the current window. This command only affects the
       current window.  To immediately affect all windows use  the  allpartial
       command.  Default is `off', of course.  This default is fixed, as there
       is currently no defpartial command.

       password [crypted_pw]

       Present a crypted password in your ".screenrc" file and screen will ask
       for  it, whenever someone attempts to resume a detached. This is useful
       if you have privileged programs running under screen and  you  want  to
       protect  your session from reattach attempts by another user masquerad-
       ing as your uid (i.e. any superuser.)  If no crypted password is speci-
       fied, screen prompts twice for typing a password and places its encryp-
       tion in the paste buffer.  Default is `none',  this  disables  password
       checking.

       paste [registers [dest_reg]]

       Write  the  (concatenated)  contents  of the specified registers to the
       stdin queue of the current window. The register '.' is treated  as  the
       paste  buffer. If no parameter is given the user is prompted for a sin-
       gle register to paste.  The paste buffer can be filled with  the  copy,
       history  and  readbuf commands.  Other registers can be filled with the
       register, readreg and paste commands.  If paste is called with a second
       argument,  the  contents  of the specified registers is pasted into the
       named destination register rather than the window. If '.'  is  used  as
       the  second  argument,  the  displays  paste buffer is the destination.
       Note, that "paste" uses a wide variety of resources: Whenever a  second
       argument  is  specified  no  current  window is needed. When the source
       specification only contains registers (not the paste buffer) then there
       need not be a current display (terminal attached), as the registers are
       a global resource. The paste buffer exists once for every user.

       pastefont [on|off]

       Tell screen to include  font  information  in  the  paste  buffer.  The
       default  is  not  to do so. This command is especially useful for multi
       character fonts like kanji.

       pow_break

       Reopen the window's terminal line  and  send  a  break  condition.  See
       `break'.

       pow_detach

       Switch  to  the window with the next lower number.  This command can be
       used repeatedly to cycle through the list of windows.

       printcmd [cmd]

       If cmd is not an empty string, screen will not use the  terminal  capa-
       bilities  "po/pf"  if  it detects an ansi print sequence ESC [ 5 i, but
       pipe the output into cmd.  This should normally be a command like "lpr"
       or  "'cat  >  /tmp/scrprint'".  printcmd without a command displays the
       current setting.  The ansi sequence ESC \ ends printing and closes  the
       pipe.
       Warning:  Be careful with this command! If other user have write access
       to your terminal, they will be able to fire off print commands.

       process [key]

       Stuff the contents of the specified register into screen's input queue.
       If  no argument is given you are prompted for a register name. The text
       is parsed as if it had been typed in from  the  user's  keyboard.  This
       command can be used to bind multiple actions to a single key.

       quit

       Kill all windows and terminate screen.  Note that on VT100-style termi-
       nals the keys C-4 and C-\ are identical.  This makes the default  bind-
       ings  dangerous:  Be  careful not to type C-a C-4 when selecting window
       no. 4.  Use the empty bind command (as in "bind '^\'") to remove a  key
       binding.

       readbuf [-e encoding] [filename]

       Reads  the  contents  of the specified file into the paste buffer.  You
       can tell screen the encoding of the file via the -e option.  If no file
       is  specified, the screen-exchange filename is used.  See also "buffer-
       file" command.

       readreg [-e encoding] [register [filename]]

       Does one of two things, dependent on number of arguments: with zero  or
       one  arguments it it duplicates the paste buffer contents into the reg-
       ister specified or entered at the prompt. With two arguments  it  reads
       the contents of the named file into the register, just as readbuf reads
       the screen-exchange file into the paste buffer.  You  can  tell  screen
       the encoding of the file via the -e option.  The following example will
       paste the system's password file into the screen window (using register
       p, where a copy remains):

                   C-a : readreg p /etc/passwd
                   C-a : paste p

       redisplay

       Redisplay  the  current  window. Needed to get a full redisplay when in
       removebuf

       Unlinks the screen-exchange file used by the  commands  "writebuf"  and
       "readbuf".

       rendition bell | monitor | silence | so attr [color]

       Change  the  way screen renders the titles of windows that have monitor
       or bell flags set in caption  or  hardstatus  or  windowlist.  See  the
       "STRING  ESCAPES" chapter for the syntax of the modifiers.  The default
       for monitor is currently "=b " (bold, active colors), for bell  "=ub  "
       (underline, bold and active colors), and "=u " for silence.

       reset

       Reset  the  virtual  terminal  to  its  "power-on"  values. Useful when
       strange settings (like scroll regions or graphics  character  set)  are
       left over from an application.

       resize

       Resize  the  current region. The space will be removed from or added to
       the region below or if there's not enough space from the region above.

              resize +N   increase current region height by N

              resize -N   decrease current region height by N

              resize  N   set current region height to N

              resize  =   make all windows equally high

              resize  max maximize current region height

              resize  min minimize current region height

       screen [-opts] [n] [cmd [args]|//group]

       Establish a new window.  The flow-control options (-f,  -fn  and  -fa),
       title  (a.k.a.) option (-t), login options (-l and -ln) , terminal type
       option (-T <term>), the all-capability-flag (-a) and scrollback  option
       (-h  <num>)  may be specified with each command.  The option (-M) turns
       monitoring on for this window.  The option (-L) turns output logging on
       for  this  window.  If an optional number n in the range 0..MAXWIN-1 is
       given, the window number n is assigned to the newly created window (or,
       if  this  number  is  already in-use, the next available number).  If a
       command is specified after "screen", this command (with the given argu-
       ments)  is  started  in  the window; otherwise, a shell is created.  If
       //group is supplied, a container-type window is created in which  other
       windows may be created inside it.

       Thus, if your ".screenrc" contains the lines

                   # example for .screenrc:

       chapter "WINDOW TYPES".

       scrollback num

       Set  the  size  of the scrollback buffer for the current windows to num
       lines. The default scrollback is 100 lines.  See also  the  "defscroll-
       back" command and use "info" to view the current setting. To access and
       use the contents in the scrollback buffer, use the "copy" command.

       select [WindowID]

       Switch to the window identified by WindowID.  This can be a prefix of a
       window title (alphanumeric window name) or a window number.  The param-
       eter is optional and if omitted, you get prompted  for  an  identifier.
       When  a  new  window  is  established,  the  first  available number is
       assigned to this window.  Thus, the first window can  be  activated  by
       "select  0".   The  number of windows is limited at compile-time by the
       MAXWIN configuration parameter (which defaults to 40).  There  are  two
       special  WindowIDs,  "-"  selects  the  internal  blank  window and "."
       selects the current window. The latter is useful if used with  screen's
       "-X" option.

       sessionname [name]

       Rename  the  current  session.  Note,  that for "screen -list" the name
       shows up with the process-id prepended. If the argument "name" is omit-
       ted,  the name of this session is displayed. Caution: The $STY environ-
       ment variables will still reflect the old name in pre-existing  shells.
       This may result in confusion. Use of this command is generally discour-
       aged. Use the "-S" command-line option if you want to name a  new  ses-
       sion.  The default is constructed from the tty and host names.

       setenv [var [string]]

       Set the environment variable var to value string.  If only var is spec-
       ified, the user will be prompted to enter a value.   If  no  parameters
       are  specified,  the user will be prompted for both variable and value.
       The environment is inherited by all subsequently forked shells.

       setsid [on|off]

       Normally screen uses different sessions and process groups for the win-
       dows. If setsid is turned off, this is not done anymore and all windows
       will be in the same process group as the screen backend  process.  This
       also  breaks job-control, so be careful.  The default is on, of course.
       This command is probably useful only in rare circumstances.

       shell command

       Set the command to be used to create a new shell.  This  overrides  the
       value of the environment variable $SHELL.  This is useful if you'd like
       to run a tty-enhancer which is expecting to execute the program  speci-
       fied  in $SHELL.  If the command begins with a '-' character, the shell
       will be started as a login-shell. Typical shells do only  minimal  ini-
       an  affected  window  is switched into the background, you will receive
       the silence notification message in the status line after  a  specified
       period of inactivity (silence). The default timeout can be changed with
       the `silencewait' command or by specifying a number of seconds  instead
       of `on' or `off'.  Silence is initially off for all windows.

       silencewait sec

       Define  the  time  that  all  windows monitored for silence should wait
       before displaying a message. Default 30 seconds.

       sleep num

       This command will pause the execution of a .screenrc file for num  sec-
       onds.   Keyboard  activity  will end the sleep.  It may be used to give
       users a chance to read the messages output by "echo".

       slowpaste msec

       Define the speed at which text is inserted into the current  window  by
       the paste ("C-a ]") command.  If the slowpaste value is nonzero text is
       written character by character.  screen will make a pause of msec  mil-
       liseconds after each single character write to allow the application to
       process its input. Only use slowpaste if your underlying system exposes
       flow control problems while pasting large amounts of text.

       sort

       Sort the windows in alphabetical order of the window tiles.

       source file

       Read and execute commands from file file. Source commands may be nested
       to a maximum recursion level of ten. If file is not  an  absolute  path
       and screen is already processing a source command, the parent directory
       of the running source command file is used to search for the  new  com-
       mand file before screen's current directory.

       Note  that  termcap/terminfo/termcapinfo  commands only work at startup
       and reattach time, so they must be reached  via  the  default  screenrc
       files to have an effect.

       sorendition [attr [color]]

       This command is deprecated. See "rendition so" instead.

       split [-v]

       Split  the current region into two new ones. All regions on the display
       are resized to make room for the new region. The blank window  is  dis-
       played  on  the  new  region. Splits are made horizontally unless -v is
       used. Use the "remove" or the "only" command  to  delete  regions.  Use
       "focus" to toggle between regions.


       su [username [password [password2]]]

       Substitute the user of a display. The command prompts for  all  parame-
       ters  that  are omitted. If passwords are specified as parameters, they
       have to be specified un-crypted. The first password is matched  against
       the systems passwd database, the second password is matched against the
       screen password as set with the commands "acladd" or "password".   "Su"
       may  be  useful  for the screen administrator to test multiuser setups.
       When the identification fails, the user  has  access  to  the  commands
       available  for  user nobody.  These are "detach", "license", "version",
       "help" and "displays".

       suspend

       Suspend screen.  The windows are in the `detached' state, while  screen
       is  suspended.  This  feature  relies on the shell being able to do job
       control.

       term term

       In each window's environment screen opens, the $TERM variable is set to
       "screen" by default.  But when no description for "screen" is installed
       in the local termcap or terminfo data base, you set $TERM to  -  say  -
       "vt100".  This  won't do much harm, as screen is VT100/ANSI compatible.
       The use of the "term" command is discouraged for  non-default  purpose.
       That  is,  one  may want to specify special $TERM settings (e.g. vt100)
       for the next "screen rlogin  othermachine"  command.  Use  the  command
       "screen -T vt100 rlogin othermachine" rather than setting and resetting
       the default.

       termcap term terminal-tweaks [window-tweaks]
       terminfo term terminal-tweaks [window-tweaks]
       termcapinfo term terminal-tweaks [window-tweaks]

       Use this command to modify your terminal's termcap entry without  going
       through  all  the  hassles involved in creating a custom termcap entry.
       Plus, you can optionally customize the termcap generated for  the  win-
       dows.   You have to place these commands in one of the screenrc startup
       files, as they are meaningless once the terminal emulator is booted.
       If your system works uses the terminfo database  rather  than  termcap,
       screen  will  understand  the  `terminfo'  command,  which has the same
       effects as the `termcap' command.  Two separate commands are  provided,
       as there are subtle syntactic differences, e.g. when parameter interpo-
       lation (using `%') is required. Note that termcap names of the capabil-
       ities have to be used with the `terminfo' command.
       In many cases, where the arguments are valid in both terminfo and term-
       cap syntax, you can use the command  `termcapinfo',  which  is  just  a
       shorthand  for a pair of `termcap' and `terminfo' commands with identi-
       cal arguments.

       The first argument specifies which terminal(s) should  be  affected  by
       this definition.  You can specify multiple terminal names by separating
       them with `|'s.  Use `*' to match all terminals and `vt*' to match  all

              termcap xterm*  LP:hs@

       Informs screen that all terminals that begin  with  `xterm'  have  firm
       auto-margins  that  allow the last position on the screen to be updated
       (LP), but they don't really have a status line (no 'hs' - append `@' to
       turn  entries  off).   Note  that we assume `LP' for all terminal names
       that start with "vt", but only if you don't specify a  termcap  command
       for that terminal.

              termcap vt*  LP
              termcap vt102|vt220  Z0=\E[?3h:Z1=\E[?3l

       Specifies  the  firm-margined  `LP'  capability  for all terminals that
       begin with `vt', and the second line will also add the escape-sequences
       to switch into (Z0) and back out of (Z1) 132-character-per-line mode if
       this is a VT102 or VT220.  (You must specify Z0 and Z1 in your  termcap
       to use the width-changing commands.)

              termcap vt100  ""  l0=PF1:l1=PF2:l2=PF3:l3=PF4

       This  leaves  your vt100 termcap alone and adds the function key labels
       to each window's termcap entry.

              termcap h19|z19  am@:im=\E@:ei=\EO  dc=\E[P

       Takes a h19 or z19 termcap and turns off auto-margins (am@) and enables
       the  insert  mode (im) and end-insert (ei) capabilities (the `@' in the
       `im' string is after the `=', so it is part of the string).  Having the
       `im'  and  `ei' definitions put into your terminal's termcap will cause
       screen to automatically advertise the  character-insert  capability  in
       each  window's termcap.  Each window will also get the delete-character
       capability (dc) added to its termcap, which screen will translate  into
       a  line-update  for  the  terminal (we're pretending it doesn't support
       character deletion).

       If you would like to fully specify each  window's  termcap  entry,  you
       should  instead  set  the  $SCREENCAP variable prior to running screen.
       See the discussion on the "VIRTUAL TERMINAL" in this  manual,  and  the
       termcap(5) man page for more information on termcap definitions.

       time [string]

       Uses  the  message  line to display the time of day, the host name, and
       the load averages over 1, 5, and 15 minutes (if this  is  available  on
       your system).  For window specific information, use "info".

       If a string is specified, it changes the format of the time report like
       it is described in the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter. Screen uses a  default
       of "%c:%s %M %d %H%? %l%?".

       title [windowtitle]

       Set the name of the current window to windowtitle. If no name is speci-
       Unset an environment variable.

       utf8 [on|off [on|off]]

       Change the encoding used in the current window. If utf8 is enabled, the
       strings  sent to the window will be UTF-8 encoded and vice versa. Omit-
       ting the parameter toggles the setting. If a second parameter is given,
       the display's encoding is also changed (this should rather be done with
       screen's "-U" option).  See also "defutf8", which changes  the  default
       setting of a new window.

       vbell [on|off]

       Sets  the  visual  bell setting for this window. Omitting the parameter
       toggles the setting. If vbell is switched on, but  your  terminal  does
       not support a visual bell, a `vbell-message' is displayed in the status
       line when the bell character (^G) is received.  Visual bell support  of
       a terminal is defined by the termcap variable `vb' (terminfo: 'flash').
       Per  default,  vbell  is  off, thus the audible bell is used.  See also
       `bell_msg'.

       vbell_msg [message]

       Sets the visual bell message. message is printed to the status line  if
       the  window  receives  a bell character (^G), vbell is set to "on", but
       the terminal does not support a visual bell.  The  default  message  is
       "Wuff, Wuff!!".  Without a parameter, the current message is shown.

       vbellwait sec

       Define  a  delay  in seconds after each display of screen's visual bell
       message. The default is 1 second.

       verbose [on|off]

       If verbose is switched on, the command name is echoed, whenever a  win-
       dow  is  created  (or  resurrected  from zombie state). Default is off.
       Without a parameter, the current setting is shown.

       version

       Print the current version and the compile date in the status line.

       wall message

       Write a message to all displays. The message will appear in the  termi-
       nal's status line.

       width [-w|-d] [cols [lines]]

       Toggle  the  window  width between 80 and 132 columns or set it to cols
       columns if an argument is specified.  This requires a capable  terminal
       and  the  termcap entries "Z0" and "Z1".  See the "termcap" command for
       more information. You can also specify a new  height  if  you  want  to
       windows,  instead of sorting by window numbers screen uses its internal
       most-recently-used list.  The -g option will show  the  windows  inside
       any groups in that level and downwards.

       The following keys are used to navigate in "windowlist":
         k, C-p, or up Move up one line.
         j, C-n, or down Move down one line.
         C-g or escape Exit windowlist.
         C-a or home Move to the first line.
         C-e or end Move to the last line.
         C-u or C-d Move one half page up or down.
         C-b or C-f Move one full page up or down.
         0..9 Using the number keys, move to the selected line.
         mouseclick  Move to the selected line. Available when "mousetrack" is
           set to "on"
         / Search.
         n Repeat search in the forward direction.
         N Repeat search in the backward direction.
         m Toggle MRU.
         g Toggle group nesting.
         a All window view.
         C-h or backspace Back out the group.
         , Switch numbers with the previous window.
         . Switch numbers with the next window.
         K Kill that window.
         space or enter Select that window.

       The table format can be changed with the string and title  option,  the
       title  is displayed as table heading, while the lines are made by using
       the string setting. The default setting is "Num  Name%=Flags"  for  the
       title and "%3n %t%=%f" for the lines.  See the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter
       for more codes (e.g. color settings).

       "Windowlist" needs a region size of at least 10 characters wide  and  6
       characters high in order to display.

       windows [ string ]

       Uses  the message line to display a list of all the windows.  Each win-
       dow is listed by number with the name of process that has been  started
       in  the window (or its title); the current window is marked with a `*';
       the previous window is marked with a `-';  all  the  windows  that  are
       "logged  in"  are  marked  with  a  `$';  a  background window that has
       received a bell is marked with a `!'; a background window that is being
       monitored  and  has  had activity occur is marked with an `@'; a window
       which has output logging turned on is marked with `(L)'; windows  occu-
       pied  by  other  users are marked with `&'; windows in the zombie state
       are marked with `Z'.  If this list is too long to fit on the terminal's
       status  line  only  the portion around the current window is displayed.
       The optional string parameter follows the "STRING ESCAPES" format.   If
       string  parameter is passed, the output size is unlimited.  The default
       command without any parameter is limited to a size of 1024 bytes.

       wrap [on|off]
       thought  of  as a primitive means of communication between screen users
       on the same host. If an encoding  is  specified  the  paste  buffer  is
       recoded on the fly to match the encoding.  The filename can be set with
       the bufferfile command and defaults to "/tmp/screen-exchange".

       writelock [on|off|auto]

       In addition to access control lists, not all users may be able to write
       to  the  same  window at once. Per default, writelock is in `auto' mode
       and grants exclusive input permission to the user who is the  first  to
       switch to the particular window. When he leaves the window, other users
       may obtain the writelock (automatically). The writelock of the  current
       window  is  disabled by the command "writelock off". If the user issues
       the command "writelock on" he  keeps  the  exclusive  write  permission
       while switching to other windows.

       xoff
       xon

       Insert  a  CTRL-s  / CTRL-q character to the stdin queue of the current
       window.

       zmodem [off|auto|catch|pass]
       zmodem sendcmd [string]
       zmodem recvcmd [string]

       Define zmodem support for  screen.  Screen  understands  two  different
       modes  when  it  detects  a zmodem request: "pass" and "catch".  If the
       mode is set to "pass", screen will relay all data to the attacher until
       the end of the transmission is reached.  In "catch" mode screen acts as
       a zmodem endpoint and starts the corresponding rz/sz commands.  If  the
       mode  is  set to "auto", screen will use "catch" if the window is a tty
       (e.g. a serial line), otherwise it will use "pass".
       You can define the templates screen uses in "catch" mode via the second
       and the third form.
       Note also that this is an experimental feature.

       zombie [keys[onerror]]
       defzombie [keys]

       Per  default screen windows are removed from the window list as soon as
       the windows process (e.g. shell) exits. When a string of  two  keys  is
       specified  to  the  zombie  command,  `dead' windows will remain in the
       list.  The kill command may be used to remove such a  window.  Pressing
       the first key in the dead window has the same effect. When pressing the
       second key, screen will attempt to resurrect the  window.  The  process
       that  was initially running in the window will be launched again. Call-
       ing zombie without parameters will clear the zombie setting, thus  mak-
       ing windows disappear when their process exits.

       As  the  zombie-setting  is  manipulated globally for all windows, this
       command should only be called defzombie. Until we need this  as  a  per
       window setting, the commands zombie and defzombie are synonymous.

THE MESSAGE LINE
       Screen  displays informational messages and other diagnostics in a mes-
       sage line.  While this line is distributed to appear at the  bottom  of
       the screen, it can be defined to appear at the top of the screen during
       compilation.  If your terminal has a status line defined in  its  term-
       cap, screen will use this for displaying its messages, otherwise a line
       of the current screen will be temporarily overwritten and  output  will
       be  momentarily  interrupted. The message line is automatically removed
       after a few seconds delay, but it can also be removed early (on  termi-
       nals without a status line) by beginning to type.

       The  message line facility can be used by an application running in the
       current window by means of the ANSI Privacy message  control  sequence.
       For instance, from within the shell, try something like:

              echo '<esc>^Hello world from window '$WINDOW'<esc>\\'

       where  '<esc>'  is an escape, '^' is a literal up-arrow, and '\\' turns
       into a single backslash.

WINDOW TYPES
       Screen provides three different window types. New windows  are  created
       with screen's screen command (see also the entry in chapter "CUSTOMIZA-
       TION"). The first parameter to the screen command defines which type of
       window  is created. The different window types are all special cases of
       the normal type. They have been added in order to allow  screen  to  be
       used efficiently as a console multiplexer with 100 or more windows.

       o  The  normal  window  contains  a  shell (default, if no parameter is
          given) or any other system command that could  be  executed  from  a
          shell (e.g.  slogin, etc)

       o  If a tty (character special device) name (e.g. "/dev/ttya") is spec-
          ified as the first parameter, then the window is directly  connected
          to  this  device.   This  window  type  is  similar to "screen cu -l
          /dev/ttya".  Read and write access is required on the  device  node,
          an  exclusive  open  is attempted on the node to mark the connection
          line as busy.  An optional parameter  is  allowed  consisting  of  a
          comma separated list of flags in the notation used by stty(1):

          <baud_rate>
                 Usually  300,  1200, 9600 or 19200. This affects transmission
                 as well as receive speed.

          cs8 or cs7
                 Specify the transmission of eight (or seven) bits per byte.

          ixon or -ixon
                 Enables (or disables) software  flow-control  (CTRL-S/CTRL-Q)
                 for sending data.

          ixoff or -ixoff
                 Enables  (or  disables)  software  flow-control for receiving
                 data.

          system header files as well as the on the physical  capabilities  of
          the  serial  board.   Signals  that  are logical low (inactive) have
          their name preceded by an exclamation mark (!), otherwise the signal
          is logical high (active).  Signals not supported by the hardware but
          available to the ioctl() interface are usually shown low.

          When the CLOCAL status bit is true, the whole set of  modem  signals
          is  placed inside curly braces ({ and }).  When the CRTSCTS or TIOC-
          SOFTCAR bit is set, the signals `CTS' or `CD' are shown in parenthe-
          sis, respectively.

          For tty windows, the command break causes the Data transmission line
          (TxD) to go low for a specified period of time. This is expected  to
          be  interpreted  as break signal on the other side.  No data is sent
          and no modem control line is changed when a break is issued.

       o  If the first  parameter  is  "//telnet",  the  second  parameter  is
          expected  to  be  a  host  name, and an optional third parameter may
          specify a TCP port number (default decimal 23).  Screen will connect
          to a server listening on the remote host and use the telnet protocol
          to communicate with that server.
          For telnet windows, the command info shows details about the connec-
          tion in square brackets ([ and ]) at the end of the status line.

          b      BINARY. The connection is in binary mode.

          e      ECHO. Local echo is disabled.

          c      SGA.  The  connection  is in `character mode' (default: `line
                 mode').

          t      TTYPE. The terminal type has been  requested  by  the  remote
                 host.   Screen sends the name "screen" unless instructed oth-
                 erwise (see also the command `term').

          w      NAWS. The remote site is notified about window size changes.

          f      LFLOW. The remote host will send  flow  control  information.
                 (Ignored at the moment.)

          Additional  flags for debugging are x, t and n (XDISPLOC, TSPEED and
          NEWENV).

          For telnet windows, the command break  sends  the  telnet  code  IAC
          BREAK (decimal 243) to the remote host.

          This  window  type is only available if screen was compiled with the
          BUILTIN_TELNET option defined.

STRING ESCAPES
       Screen provides an escape mechanism to insert information like the cur-
       rent time into messages or file names. The escape character is '%' with
       one exception: inside of a window's  hardstatus  '^%'  ('^E')  is  used
       instead.

       d      day number

       D      weekday name

       E      sets %? to true if the escape character has been pressed.

       f      flags  of  the window, see "windows" for meanings of the various
              flags

       F      sets %? to true if the window has the focus

       h      hardstatus of the window

       H      hostname of the system

       l      current load of the system

       m      month number

       M      month name

       n      window number

       P      sets %? to true if the current region is in copy/paste mode

       S      session name

       s      seconds

       t      window title

       u      all other users on this window

       w      all window numbers and names. With '-' qualifier: up to the cur-
              rent  window; with '+' qualifier: starting with the window after
              the current one.

       W      all window numbers and names except the current one

       x      the executed command including arguments running in this windows

       X      the executed command without arguments running in this windows

       y      last two digits of the year number

       Y      full year number

       ?      the part to the next '%?' is displayed  only  if  a  '%'  escape
              inside the part expands to a non-empty string

       :      else part of '%?'

       =      pad  the  string to the display's width (like TeX's hfill). If a
              the marked position gets moved to the  specified  percentage  of
              the  output  area.  (The  area starts from the last absolute pad
              position and ends with the position specified by the  truncation
              operator.)  The 'L' qualifier tells screen to mark the truncated
              parts with ''.

       {      attribute/color modifier string terminated by the next "}"

       `      Substitute with the output of a 'backtick' command.  The  length
              qualifier is misused to identify one of the commands.

       The  'c'  and 'C' escape may be qualified with a '0' to make screen use
       zero instead of space as fill character. The '0' qualifier  also  makes
       the  '='  escape use absolute positions. The 'n' and '=' escapes under-
       stand a length qualifier (e.g. '%3n'), 'D' and 'M' can be prefixed with
       'L'  to  generate long names, 'w' and 'W' also show the window flags if
       'L' is given.

       An attribute/color modifier is is used to change the attributes or  the
       color  settings.  Its  format  is "[attribute modifier] [color descrip-
       tion]". The attribute modifier must be prefixed by a change type  indi-
       cator  if  it  can  be confused with a color description. The following
       change types are known:

       +      add the specified set to the current attributes

       -      remove the set from the current attributes

       !      invert the set in the current attributes

       =      change the current attributes to the specified set

       The attribute set can either be specified as a hexadecimal number or  a
       combination of the following letters:

       d      dim
       u      underline
       b      bold
       r      reverse
       s      standout
       B      blinking

       Colors are coded either as a hexadecimal number or two letters specify-
       ing the desired background and foreground color (in  that  order).  The
       following colors are known:

       k      black
       r      red
       g      green
       y      yellow
       b      blue
       m      magenta
       c      cyan
       w      white
       As a special case, "%{-}" restores the attributes and colors that  were
       set before the last change was made (i.e., pops one level of the color-
       change stack).

       Examples:

       "G"    set color to bright green

       "+b r" use bold red

       "= yd" clear all attributes, write in default  color  on  yellow  back-
              ground.

       %-Lw%{= BW}%50>%n%f* %t%{-}%+Lw%<
              The  available  windows centered at the current window and trun-
              cated to the available width. The current  window  is  displayed
              white  on  blue.   This can be used with "hardstatus alwayslast-
              line".

       %?%F%{.R.}%?%3n %t%? [%h]%?
              The window number and title and the window's hardstatus, if  one
              is  set.  Also use a red background if this is the active focus.
              Useful for "caption string".

FLOW-CONTROL
       Each window has a flow-control setting that determines how screen deals
       with the XON and XOFF characters (and perhaps the interrupt character).
       When flow-control is turned off, screen ignores the XON and XOFF  char-
       acters,  which  allows  the user to send them to the current program by
       simply typing them (useful for the emacs editor,  for  instance).   The
       trade-off  is  that it will take longer for output from a "normal" pro-
       gram to pause in response to an XOFF.  With flow-control turned on, XON
       and  XOFF  characters  are  used to immediately pause the output of the
       current window.  You can still send these  characters  to  the  current
       program, but you must use the appropriate two-character screen commands
       (typically "C-a q" (xon) and "C-a s" (xoff)).   The  xon/xoff  commands
       are  also useful for typing C-s and C-q past a terminal that intercepts
       these characters.

       Each window has an initial flow-control value set with  either  the  -f
       option  or the "defflow" .screenrc command. Per default the windows are
       set to automatic flow-switching.  It can then be  toggled  between  the
       three states 'fixed on', 'fixed off' and 'automatic' interactively with
       the "flow" command bound to "C-a f".

       The automatic flow-switching mode deals with  flow  control  using  the
       TIOCPKT  mode  (like "rlogin" does). If the tty driver does not support
       TIOCPKT, screen tries to find out the right mode based on  the  current
       setting of the application keypad - when it is enabled, flow-control is
       turned off and visa versa.  Of course, you can still  manipulate  flow-
       control manually when needed.

       If  you're running with flow-control enabled and find that pressing the
       interrupt key (usually  C-c)  does  not  interrupt  the  display  until
       output of the virtual terminal to your physical terminal when flow-con-
       trol is enabled.  If this happens, a simple refresh of the screen  with
       "C-a  l" will restore it.  Give each mode a try, and use whichever mode
       you find more comfortable.

TITLES (naming windows)
       You can customize each window's name in the window display (viewed with
       the "windows" command (C-a w)) by setting it with one of the title com-
       mands.  Normally the name displayed is the actual command name  of  the
       program created in the window.  However, it is sometimes useful to dis-
       tinguish various programs of the same name or to change  the  name  on-
       the-fly to reflect the current state of the window.

       The default name for all shell windows can be set with the "shelltitle"
       command in the .screenrc file, while all other windows are created with
       a "screen" command and thus can have their name set with the -t option.
       Interactively,    there    is    the    title-string    escape-sequence
       (<esc>kname<esc>\)  and the "title" command (C-a A).  The former can be
       output from an application to control the window's name under  software
       control,  and  the  latter  will prompt for a name when typed.  You can
       also bind pre-defined names to keys with the  "title"  command  to  set
       things quickly without prompting.

       Finally,  screen has a shell-specific heuristic that is enabled by set-
       ting the window's name to "search|name" and arranging to  have  a  null
       title escape-sequence output as a part of your prompt.  The search por-
       tion specifies an end-of-prompt search string, while the  name  portion
       specifies the default shell name for the window.  If the name ends in a
       `:' screen will add what it believes to be the current command  running
       in  the window to the end of the window's shell name (e.g. "name:cmd").
       Otherwise the current command name supersedes the shell name  while  it
       is running.

       Here's  how  it  works:   you must modify your shell prompt to output a
       null title-escape-sequence (<esc>k<esc>\) as a  part  of  your  prompt.
       The  last part of your prompt must be the same as the string you speci-
       fied for the search portion of the title.  Once this is set up,  screen
       will  use  the title-escape-sequence to clear the previous command name
       and get ready for the next command.  Then, when a newline  is  received
       from  the shell, a search is made for the end of the prompt.  If found,
       it will grab the first word after the matched string and use it as  the
       command  name.  If the command name begins with either '!', '%', or '^'
       screen will use the first word on the  following  line  (if  found)  in
       preference  to  the  just-found  name.  This helps csh users get better
       command names when using job control or history recall commands.

       Here's some .screenrc examples:

              screen -t top 2 nice top

       Adding this line to your .screenrc would start a nice-d version of  the
       "top" command in window 2 named "top" rather than "nice".

                   shelltitle '> |csh'

              bind R screen -t '% |root:' su

       Having  this command in your .screenrc would bind the key sequence "C-a
       R" to the "su" command and give it an auto-title name of "root:".   For
       this auto-title to work, the screen could look something like this:

                   % !em
                   emacs file.c

       Here  the user typed the csh history command "!em" which ran the previ-
       ously  entered  "emacs"  command.   The  window   status   would   show
       "root:emacs"  during the execution of the command, and revert to simply
       "root:" at its completion.

                   bind o title
                   bind E title ""
                   bind u title (unknown)

       The first binding doesn't have any arguments, so it  would  prompt  you
       for  a title. when you type "C-a o".  The second binding would clear an
       auto-title's current setting (C-a E).  The third binding would set  the
       current window's title to "(unknown)" (C-a u).

       One  thing  to keep in mind when adding a null title-escape-sequence to
       your prompt is that some shells (like the csh) count all  the  non-con-
       trol  characters  as  part  of the prompt's length.  If these invisible
       characters aren't a multiple of 8 then  backspacing  over  a  tab  will
       result in an incorrect display.  One way to get around this is to use a
       prompt like this:

              set prompt='^[[0000m^[k^[\% '

       The escape-sequence "<esc>[0000m" not  only  normalizes  the  character
       attributes, but all the zeros round the length of the invisible charac-
       ters up to 8.  Bash  users  will  probably  want  to  echo  the  escape
       sequence in the PROMPT_COMMAND:

              PROMPT_COMMAND='printf "\033k\033\134"'

       (I used "134" to output a `\' because of a bug in bash v1.04).

THE VIRTUAL TERMINAL
       Each  window  in  a screen session emulates a VT100 terminal, with some
       extra functions added. The VT100 emulator is hard-coded, no other  ter-
       minal types can be emulated.
       Usually  screen  tries to emulate as much of the VT100/ANSI standard as
       possible. But if your terminal lacks certain capabilities,  the  emula-
       tion  may not be complete. In these cases screen has to tell the appli-
       cations that some of the features are missing. This is  no  problem  on
       machines using termcap, because screen can use the $TERMCAP variable to
       customize the standard screen termcap.

       But if you do a rlogin on another machine or your machine supports only
       terminfo  this  method  fails.  Because of this, screen offers a way to
       machines you are able to do a rlogin and still keep the  correct  term-
       cap/terminfo  entry.  The terminal name is put in the $TERM variable of
       all new windows.  Screen also sets the $TERMCAP variable reflecting the
       capabilities of the virtual terminal emulated. Notice that, however, on
       machines using the terminfo database this variable has no effect.  Fur-
       thermore, the variable $WINDOW is set to the window number of each win-
       dow.

       The actual set  of  capabilities  supported  by  the  virtual  terminal
       depends  on  the  capabilities supported by the physical terminal.  If,
       for instance, the physical terminal does not support  underscore  mode,
       screen  does  not  put the `us' and `ue' capabilities into the window's
       $TERMCAP variable, accordingly.  However, a minimum number of capabili-
       ties  must  be  supported  by a terminal in order to run screen; namely
       scrolling, clear screen, and direct  cursor  addressing  (in  addition,
       screen  does  not  run on hardcopy terminals or on terminals that over-
       strike).

       Also, you can customize the $TERMCAP value used by screen by using  the
       "termcap"  .screenrc  command,  or  by defining the variable $SCREENCAP
       prior to startup.  When the is latter defined, its value will be copied
       verbatim  into each window's $TERMCAP variable.  This can either be the
       full terminal definition, or a filename  where  the  terminal  "screen"
       (and/or "screen-w") is defined.

       Note  that screen honors the "terminfo" .screenrc command if the system
       uses the terminfo database rather than termcap.

       When the boolean `G0' capability is present in the  termcap  entry  for
       the terminal on which screen has been called, the terminal emulation of
       screen supports multiple character sets.  This allows an application to
       make use of, for instance, the VT100 graphics character set or national
       character sets.  The following control functions from ISO 2022 are sup-
       ported:  lock  shift  G0  (SI), lock shift G1 (SO), lock shift G2, lock
       shift G3, single shift G2, and single shift G3.  When a virtual  termi-
       nal  is  created  or reset, the ASCII character set is designated as G0
       through G3.  When the `G0' capability is present, screen evaluates  the
       capabilities  `S0', `E0', and `C0' if present. `S0' is the sequence the
       terminal uses to enable and start the  graphics  character  set  rather
       than  SI.   `E0'  is the corresponding replacement for SO. `C0' gives a
       character by character translation string that  is  used  during  semi-
       graphics  mode.  This string is built like the `acsc' terminfo capabil-
       ity.

       When the `po' and `pf' capabilities are present in the terminal's term-
       cap  entry,  applications running in a screen window can send output to
       the printer port of the terminal.  This allows a user to have an appli-
       cation  in one window sending output to a printer connected to the ter-
       minal, while all other windows are still active (the  printer  port  is
       enabled  and  disabled  again  for  each  chunk of output).  As a side-
       effect, programs running in different windows can send  output  to  the
       printer  simultaneously.   Data sent to the printer is not displayed in
       the window.  The info command displays a line starting `PRIN' while the
       printer is active.
       CAP variable if the terminal supports  either  delete  line  itself  or
       scrolling  regions. Note that this may provoke confusion, when the ses-
       sion is reattached on a different terminal, as the  value  of  $TERMCAP
       cannot be modified by parent processes.

       The  "alternate  screen" capability is not enabled by default.  Set the
       altscreen .screenrc command to enable it.

       The following is a list of  control  sequences  recognized  by  screen.
       "(V)" and "(A)" indicate VT100-specific and ANSI- or ISO-specific func-
       tions, respectively.

       ESC E                      Next Line

       ESC D                      Index

       ESC M                      Reverse Index

       ESC H                      Horizontal Tab Set

       ESC Z                      Send VT100 Identification String

       ESC 7                 (V)  Save Cursor and Attributes

       ESC 8                 (V)  Restore Cursor and Attributes

       ESC [s                (A)  Save Cursor and Attributes

       ESC [u                (A)  Restore Cursor and Attributes

       ESC c                      Reset to Initial State

       ESC g                      Visual Bell

       ESC Pn p                   Cursor Visibility (97801)

           Pn = 6                 Invisible

                7                 Visible

       ESC =                 (V)  Application Keypad Mode

       ESC >                 (V)  Numeric Keypad Mode

       ESC # 8               (V)  Fill Screen with E's

       ESC \                 (A)  String Terminator

       ESC ^                 (A)  Privacy Message String (Message Line)

       ESC !                      Global Message String (Message Line)

       ESC k                      A.k.a. Definition String

                                  the access control list. Use  "addacl  :win-
                                  dow:  -rwx  #?"  to  create  a  user with no
                                  rights and allow only the needed commands.

       Control-N             (A)  Lock Shift G1 (SO)

       Control-O             (A)  Lock Shift G0 (SI)

       ESC n                 (A)  Lock Shift G2

       ESC o                 (A)  Lock Shift G3

       ESC N                 (A)  Single Shift G2

       ESC O                 (A)  Single Shift G3

       ESC ( Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G0

       ESC ) Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G1

       ESC * Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G2

       ESC + Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G3

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn H            Direct Cursor Addressing

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn f            same as above

       ESC [ Pn J                 Erase in Display

             Pn = None or 0       From Cursor to End of Screen

                  1               From Beginning of Screen to Cursor

                  2               Entire Screen

       ESC [ Pn K                 Erase in Line

             Pn = None or 0       From Cursor to End of Line

                  1               From Beginning of Line to Cursor

                  2               Entire Line

       ESC [ Pn X                 Erase character

       ESC [ Pn A                 Cursor Up

       ESC [ Pn B                 Cursor Down

       ESC [ Pn C                 Cursor Right

       ESC [ Pn D                 Cursor Left

             Ps = None or 0       Default Rendition

                  1               Bold

                  2          (A)  Faint

                  3          (A)  Standout Mode (ANSI: Italicized)

                  4               Underlined

                  5               Blinking

                  7               Negative Image

                  22         (A)  Normal Intensity

                  23         (A)  Standout Mode off (ANSI: Italicized off)

                  24         (A)  Not Underlined

                  25         (A)  Not Blinking

                  27         (A)  Positive Image

                  30         (A)  Foreground Black

                  31         (A)  Foreground Red

                  32         (A)  Foreground Green

                  33         (A)  Foreground Yellow

                  34         (A)  Foreground Blue

                  35         (A)  Foreground Magenta

                  36         (A)  Foreground Cyan

                  37         (A)  Foreground White

                  39         (A)  Foreground Default

                  40         (A)  Background Black

                  49         (A)  Background Default

       ESC [ Pn g                 Tab Clear

             Pn = None or 0       Clear Tab at Current Position

                  3               Clear All Tabs

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn r       (V)  Set Scrolling Region

       ESC [ Pn S                 Scroll Scrolling Region Up

       ESC [ Pn T                 Scroll Scrolling Region Down

       ESC [ Pn ^                 same as above

       ESC [ Ps ;; Ps h           Set Mode

       ESC [ Ps ;; Ps l           Reset Mode

             Ps = 4          (A)  Insert Mode

                  20         (A)  Automatic Linefeed Mode

                  34              Normal Cursor Visibility

                  ?1         (V)  Application Cursor Keys

                  ?3         (V)  Change Terminal Width to 132 columns

                  ?5         (V)  Reverse Video

                  ?6         (V)  Origin Mode

                  ?7         (V)  Wrap Mode

                  ?9              X10 mouse tracking

                  ?25        (V)  Visible Cursor

                  ?47             Alternate Screen (old xterm code)

                  ?1000      (V)  VT200 mouse tracking

                  ?1047           Alternate Screen (new xterm code)

                  ?1049           Alternate Screen (new xterm code)

       ESC [ 5 i             (A)  Start relay to printer (ANSI Media Copy)

       ESC [ 4 i             (A)  Stop relay to printer (ANSI Media Copy)

       ESC [ 8 ; Ph ; Pw t        Resize the window to  `Ph'  lines  and  `Pw'
                                  columns (SunView special)

       ESC [ c                    Send VT100 Identification String

       ESC [ x                    Send Terminal Parameter Report

       ESC [ > c                  Send   VT220   Secondary  Device  Attributes
                                  String

       ESC [ 6 n                  Send Cursor Position Report

       details on the syntax and examples.

       Here  is the table of the default key bindings. (A) means that the com-
       mand is executed if the keyboard is switched into application mode.

       Key name          Termcap name    Command
       ______________________________________________________
       Cursor up             ku          stuff \033[A
                                         stuff \033OA    (A)
       Cursor down           kd          stuff \033[B
                                         stuff \033OB    (A)
       Cursor right          kr          stuff \033[C
                                         stuff \033OC    (A)
       Cursor left           kl          stuff \033[D
                                         stuff \033OD    (A)
       Function key 0        k0          stuff \033[10~
       Function key 1        k1          stuff \033OP
       Function key 2        k2          stuff \033OQ
       Function key 3        k3          stuff \033OR
       Function key 4        k4          stuff \033OS
       Function key 5        k5          stuff \033[15~
       Function key 6        k6          stuff \033[17~
       Function key 7        k7          stuff \033[18~
       Function key 8        k8          stuff \033[19~
       Function key 9        k9          stuff \033[20~
       Function key 10       k;          stuff \033[21~
       Function key 11       F1          stuff \033[23~
       Function key 12       F2          stuff \033[24~
       Home                  kh          stuff \033[1~
       End                   kH          stuff \033[4~
       Insert                kI          stuff \033[2~
       Delete                kD          stuff \033[3~
       Page up               kP          stuff \033[5~
       Page down             kN          stuff \033[6~
       Keypad 0              f0          stuff 0
                                         stuff \033Op    (A)
       Keypad 1              f1          stuff 1
                                         stuff \033Oq    (A)
       Keypad 2              f2          stuff 2
                                         stuff \033Or    (A)
       Keypad 3              f3          stuff 3
                                         stuff \033Os    (A)
       Keypad 4              f4          stuff 4
                                         stuff \033Ot    (A)
       Keypad 5              f5          stuff 5
                                         stuff \033Ou    (A)
       Keypad 6              f6          stuff 6
                                         stuff \033Ov    (A)
       Keypad 7              f7          stuff 7
                                         stuff \033Ow    (A)
       Keypad 8              f8          stuff 8
                                         stuff \033Ox    (A)
       Keypad 9              f9          stuff 9
                                         stuff \033Oy    (A)

       Keypad ,              f,          stuff ,
                                         stuff \033Ol    (A)
       Keypad enter          fe          stuff \015
                                         stuff \033OM    (A)

SPECIAL TERMINAL CAPABILITIES
       The following table describes all terminal capabilities that are recog-
       nized  by  screen  and are not in the termcap(5) manual.  You can place
       these capabilities in your termcap entries (in `/etc/termcap')  or  use
       them  with the commands `termcap', `terminfo' and `termcapinfo' in your
       screenrc files. It is often not possible to place these capabilities in
       the terminfo database.

       LP   (bool)  Terminal  has  VT100 style margins (`magic margins'). Note
                    that this capability is obsolete because screen  uses  the
                    standard 'xn' instead.

       Z0   (str)   Change width to 132 columns.

       Z1   (str)   Change width to 80 columns.

       WS   (str)   Resize  display. This capability has the desired width and
                    height as arguments. SunView(tm) example: '\E[8;%d;%dt'.

       NF   (bool)  Terminal doesn't need flow control. Send ^S and ^Q  direct
                    to  the  application.  Same as 'flow off'. The opposite of
                    this capability is 'nx'.

       G0   (bool)  Terminal can deal with ISO 2022 font selection sequences.

       S0   (str)   Switch charset 'G0' to the specified charset.  Default  is
                    '\E(%.'.

       E0   (str)   Switch  charset  'G0' back to standard charset. Default is
                    '\E(B'.

       C0   (str)   Use the string as a conversion table for font '0'. See the
                    'ac' capability for more details.

       CS   (str)   Switch cursor-keys to application mode.

       CE   (str)   Switch cursor-keys back to normal mode.

       AN   (bool)  Turn  on  autonuke.  See  the  'autonuke' command for more
                    details.

       OL   (num)   Set the output buffer limit. See the  'obuflimit'  command
                    for more details.

       KJ   (str)   Set  the encoding of the terminal. See the 'encoding' com-
                    mand for valid encodings.

       AF   (str)   Change character foreground color in an ANSI conform  way.
                    This  capability  will  almost  always be set to '\E[3%dm'
                    tracking).

       C8   (bool)  Terminal needs bold to display high-intensity colors (e.g.
                    Eterm).

       TF   (bool)  Add  missing  capabilities to the termcap/info entry. (Set
                    by default).

CHARACTER TRANSLATION
       Screen has a powerful mechanism to translate  characters  to  arbitrary
       strings depending on the current font and terminal type.  Use this fea-
       ture if you want to work with a  common  standard  character  set  (say
       ISO8851-latin1) even on terminals that scatter the more unusual charac-
       ters over several national language font pages.

       Syntax:
           XC=<charset-mapping>{,,<charset-mapping>}
           <charset-mapping> := <designator><template>{,<mapping>}
           <mapping> := <char-to-be-mapped><template-arg>

       The things in braces may be repeated any number of times.

       A <charset-mapping> tells screen how to map characters in font  <desig-
       nator>  ('B':  Ascii,  'A':  UK,  'K': German, etc.)  to strings. Every
       <mapping> describes to what string a single character  will  be  trans-
       lated. A template mechanism is used, as most of the time the codes have
       a lot in common (for example strings to  switch  to  and  from  another
       charset).  Each  occurrence  of '%' in <template> gets substituted with
       the <template-arg> specified  together  with  the  character.  If  your
       strings  are  not  similar at all, then use '%' as a template and place
       the full string in <template-arg>. A quoting  mechanism  was  added  to
       make  it  possible to use a real '%'. The '\' character quotes the spe-
       cial characters '\', '%', and ','.

       Here is an example:

           termcap hp700 'XC=B\E(K%\E(B,\304[,\326\\\\,\334]'

       This tells screen how to translate ISOlatin1 (charset 'B')  upper  case
       umlaut characters on a hp700 terminal that has a German charset. '\304'
       gets translated to '\E(K[\E(B' and so on.  Note  that  this  line  gets
       parsed  *three* times before the internal lookup table is built, there-
       fore a lot of quoting is needed to create a single '\'.

       Another extension was added to  allow  more  emulation:  If  a  mapping
       translates the unquoted '%' char, it will be sent to the terminal when-
       ever screen switches to the corresponding <designator>. In this special
       case  the template is assumed to be just '%' because the charset switch
       sequence and the character mappings normally haven't much in common.

       This example shows one use of the extension:

           termcap xterm 'XC=K%,%\E(B,[\304,\\\\\326,]\334'

       LOCKPRG        Screen lock program.
       NETHACKOPTIONS Turns on nethack option.
       PATH           Used for locating programs to run.
       SCREENCAP      For customizing a terminal's TERMCAP value.
       SCREENDIR      Alternate socket directory.
       SCREENRC       Alternate user screenrc file.
       SHELL          Default  shell  program  for  opening  windows  (default
                      "/bin/sh").  See also "shell" .screenrc command.
       STY            Alternate socket name.
       SYSSCREENRC    Alternate system screenrc file.
       TERM           Terminal name.
       TERMCAP        Terminal description.
       WINDOW         Window number of a window (at creation time).

FILES
       /screen-4.?.??/etc/screenrc
       /screen-4.?.??/etc/etcscreenrc    Examples  in  the screen distribution
                                         package for private and  global  ini-
                                         tialization files.
       $SYSSCREENRC
       /etc/screenrc                     screen initialization commands
       $SCREENRC
       $HOME/.screenrc                   Read in after /etc/screenrc
       $SCREENDIR/S-<login>
       /var/run/screen/S-<login>         Socket directories (default)
       /usr/tmp/screens/S-<login>        Alternate socket directories.
       <socket directory>/.termcap       Written by the "termcap" output func-
                                         tion
       /usr/tmp/screens/screen-exchange  or
       /tmp/screen-exchange              screen  `interprocess   communication
                                         buffer'
       hardcopy.[0-9]                    Screen images created by the hardcopy
                                         function
       screenlog.[0-9]                   Output log files created by  the  log
                                         function
       /usr/lib/terminfo/?/*             or
       /etc/termcap                      Terminal capability databases
       /var/run/utmp                     Login records
       $LOCKPRG                          Program that locks a terminal.

SEE ALSO
       termcap(5), utmp(5), vi(1), captoinfo(1), tic(1)

AUTHORS
       Originally  created  by  Oliver Laumann. For a long time maintained and
       developed by Juergen Weigert, Michael Schroeder, Micah Cowan and Sadrul
       Habib  Chowdhury. This latest version was produced by Amadeusz Slawiski
       <amade@asmblr.net>   and   Alexander   Naumov   <alexander_naumov@open-
       suse.org>.

COPYLEFT
       Copyright (c) 2010-2015
            Juergen Weigert (jnweiger@immd4.informatik.uni-erlangen.de)
            Sadrul Habib Chowdhury (sadrul@users.sourceforge.net)

       later version.
       This program is distributed in the hope that it  will  be  useful,  but
       WITHOUT  ANY  WARRANTY;  without  even  the  implied  warranty  of MER-
       CHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU  General
       Public License for more details.
       You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along
       with this program (see the file COPYING); if not,  write  to  the  Free
       Software  Foundation,  Inc.,  59  Temple  Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA
       02111-1307, USA

CONTRIBUTORS
       Ken Beal (kbeal@amber.ssd.csd.harris.com),
       Rudolf Koenig (rfkoenig@immd4.informatik.uni-erlangen.de),
       Toerless Eckert (eckert@immd4.informatik.uni-erlangen.de),
       Wayne Davison (davison@borland.com),
       Patrick Wolfe (pat@kai.com, kailand!pat),
       Bart Schaefer (schaefer@cse.ogi.edu),
       Nathan Glasser (nathan@brokaw.lcs.mit.edu),
       Larry W. Virden (lvirden@cas.org),
       Howard Chu (hyc@hanauma.jpl.nasa.gov),
       Tim MacKenzie (tym@dibbler.cs.monash.edu.au),
       Markku Jarvinen (mta@{cc,cs,ee}.tut.fi),
       Marc Boucher (marc@CAM.ORG),
       Doug Siebert (dsiebert@isca.uiowa.edu),
       Ken Stillson (stillson@tsfsrv.mitre.org),
       Ian Frechett (frechett@spot.Colorado.EDU),
       Brian Koehmstedt (bpk@gnu.ai.mit.edu),
       Don Smith (djs6015@ultb.isc.rit.edu),
       Frank van der Linden (vdlinden@fwi.uva.nl),
       Martin Schweikert (schweik@cpp.ob.open.de),
       David Vrona (dave@sashimi.lcu.com),
       E. Tye McQueen (tye%spillman.UUCP@uunet.uu.net),
       Matthew Green (mrg@eterna.com.au),
       Christopher Williams (cgw@pobox.com),
       Matt Mosley (mattm@access.digex.net),
       Gregory Neil Shapiro (gshapiro@wpi.WPI.EDU),
       Johannes Zellner (johannes@zellner.org),
       Pablo Averbuj (pablo@averbuj.com).

VERSION
       This is version 4.3.1. Its roots are a merge of a custom version 2.3PR7
       by  Wayne  Davison and several enhancements to Oliver Laumann's version
       2.0. Note that all versions numbered 2.x are copyright by  Oliver  Lau-
       mann.

AVAILABILITY
       The  latest official release of screen available via anonymous ftp from
       ftp.gnu.org/gnu/screen/ or any other GNU distribution  site.  The  home
       site  of  screen  is  savannah.gnu.org/projects/screen/. If you want to
       help, send a note to screen-devel@gnu.org.

BUGS
       o  `dm' (delete mode) and `xs' are  not  handled  correctly  (they  are
          ignored). `xn' is treated as a magic-margin indicator.

       o  Screen must be installed as set-uid with owner root on most  systems
          in  order to be able to correctly change the owner of the tty device
          file for each window.  Special permission may also  be  required  to
          write the file "/var/run/utmp".

       o  Entries  in  "/var/run/utmp"  are  not removed when screen is killed
          with SIGKILL.  This will cause some programs (like "w" or "rwho") to
          advertise that a user is logged on who really isn't.

       o  Screen may give a strange warning when your tty has no utmp entry.

       o  When the modem line was hung up, screen may not automatically detach
          (or quit) unless the device driver is configured to  send  a  HANGUP
          signal.   To  detach  a screen session use the -D or -d command line
          option.

       o  If a password is set, the command  line  options  -d  and  -D  still
          detach a session without asking.

       o  Both  "breaktype"  and  "defbreaktype"  change  the break generating
          method used by all terminal devices. The first should change a  win-
          dow  specific  setting,  where  the  latter  should  change only the
          default for new windows.

       o  When attaching to a multiuser session, the user's .screenrc file  is
          not  sourced.  Each  user's personal settings have to be included in
          the .screenrc file from which the session is booted, or have  to  be
          changed manually.

       o  A weird imagination is most useful to gain full advantage of all the
          features.

       o  Send bug-reports, fixes, enhancements, t-shirts, money, beer & pizza
          to screen-devel@gnu.org.

4th Berkeley Distribution          May 2015                          SCREEN(1)
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