SCREEN(1)                   General Commands Manual                  SCREEN(1)

       screen - screen manager with VT100/ANSI terminal emulation

       screen [ -options ] [ cmd [ args ] ]
       screen -r [[pid.]tty[.host]]
       screen -r sessionowner/[[pid.]tty[.host]]

       Screen is a full-screen window manager that multiplexes a physical ter-
       minal between several processes (typically interactive  shells).   Each
       virtual terminal provides the functions of a DEC VT100 terminal and, in
       addition, several control functions from the ISO 6429  (ECMA  48,  ANSI
       X3.64)  and ISO 2022 standards (e.g. insert/delete line and support for
       multiple character sets).  There is a  scrollback  history  buffer  for
       each virtual terminal and a copy-and-paste mechanism that allows moving
       text regions between windows.

       When screen is called, it creates a single window with a  shell  in  it
       (or  the  specified  command) and then gets out of your way so that you
       can use the program as you normally would.  Then, at any time, you  can
       create new (full-screen) windows with other programs in them (including
       more shells), kill existing windows, view a list of windows, turn  out-
       put  logging  on and off, copy-and-paste text between windows, view the
       scrollback history, switch between windows in whatever manner you wish,
       etc.  All  windows  run  their  programs completely independent of each
       other. Programs continue to run when their window is currently not vis-
       ible and even when the whole screen session is detached from the user's
       terminal.  When a program terminates, screen (per  default)  kills  the
       window  that  contained  it.  If this window was in the foreground, the
       display switches to the previous window; if none are left,  screen  ex-
       its.  Shells usually distinguish between running as login-shell or sub-
       shell.  Screen runs them as  sub-shells,  unless  told  otherwise  (See
       "shell" .screenrc command).

       Everything  you type is sent to the program running in the current win-
       dow.  The only exception to this is the one keystroke that is  used  to
       initiate a command to the window manager.  By default, each command be-
       gins with a control-a (abbreviated C-a from now on), and is followed by
       one  other  keystroke.   The command character and all the key bindings
       can be fully customized to be anything you like, though they are always
       two characters in length.

       Screen  does  not  understand the prefix "C-" to mean control, although
       this notation is used in this manual for readability.  Please  use  the
       caret  notation ("^A" instead of "C-a") as arguments to e.g. the escape
       command or the -e option.  Screen will also print out  control  charac-
       ters in caret notation.

       The  standard way to create a new window is to type "C-a c".  This cre-
       ates a new window running a shell and switches to that  window  immedi-
       ately,  regardless  of  the state of the process running in the current
       window.  Similarly, you can create a new window with a  custom  command
       in  it  by  first binding the command to a keystroke (in your .screenrc
       file or at the "C-a :" command line) and then using it  just  like  the
       "C-a  c" command.  In addition, new windows can be created by running a
       command like:

              screen emacs prog.c

       from a shell prompt within a previously created window.  This will  not
       run  another  copy  of screen, but will instead supply the command name
       and its arguments to the window manager (specified in the $STY environ-
       ment variable) who will use it to create the new window.  The above ex-
       ample would start the emacs editor (editing prog.c) and switch  to  its
       window. - Note that you cannot transport environment variables from the
       invoking shell to the application (emacs in this case), because  it  is
       forked from the parent screen process, not from the invoking shell.

       If  "/run/utmp"  is  writable  by screen, an appropriate record will be
       written to this file for each window, and removed when  the  window  is
       terminated.   This  is useful for working with "talk", "script", "shut-
       down", "rsend", "sccs" and other similar programs  that  use  the  utmp
       file to determine who you are. As long as screen is active on your ter-
       minal, the terminal's own record is removed from  the  utmp  file.  See
       also "C-a L".

       Before  you  begin to use screen you'll need to make sure you have cor-
       rectly selected your terminal type, just as you  would  for  any  other
       termcap/terminfo program.  (You can do this by using tset for example.)

       If  you're  impatient  and want to get started without doing a lot more
       reading, you should remember this one command:  "C-a ?".  Typing  these
       two characters will display a list of the available screen commands and
       their bindings. Each keystroke is discussed in the section "DEFAULT KEY
       BINDINGS".  The  manual section "CUSTOMIZATION" deals with the contents
       of your .screenrc.

       If your terminal is a "true" auto-margin terminal (it doesn't allow the
       last position on the screen to be updated without scrolling the screen)
       consider using a version of your terminal's termcap that has  automatic
       margins  turned off. This will ensure an accurate and optimal update of
       the screen in all circumstances. Most terminals nowadays  have  "magic"
       margins  (automatic margins plus usable last column). This is the VT100
       style type and perfectly suited for screen.  If all  you've  got  is  a
       "true"  auto-margin  terminal screen will be content to use it, but up-
       dating a character put into the last position on the screen may not  be
       possible until the screen scrolls or the character is moved into a safe
       position in some other way. This delay can be shortened by using a ter-
       minal with insert-character capability.

       Screen has the following command-line options:

       -a   include all capabilities (with some minor exceptions) in each win-
            dow's termcap, even if screen must redraw parts of the display  in
            order to implement a function.

       -A   Adapt  the  sizes of all windows to the size of the current termi-
            nal.  By default, screen tries to restore  its  old  window  sizes
            when  attaching to resizable terminals (those with "WS" in its de-
            scription, e.g. suncmd or some xterm).

       -c file
            override the default configuration file from "$HOME/.screenrc"  to

       -d|-D []
            does  not  start screen, but detaches the elsewhere running screen
            session. It has the same effect as typing "C-a  d"  from  screen's
            controlling  terminal.  -D  is  the equivalent to the power detach
            key.  If no session can be detached, this option  is  ignored.  In
            combination  with  the  -r/-R  option more powerful effects can be

       -d -r   Reattach a session and if necessary detach it first.

       -d -R   Reattach a session and if necessary detach or  even  create  it

       -d -RR  Reattach  a  session  and if necessary detach or create it. Use
               the first session if more than one session is available.

       -D -r   Reattach a session. If necessary  detach  and  logout  remotely

       -D -R   Attach here and now. In detail this means: If a session is run-
               ning, then reattach. If necessary detach  and  logout  remotely
               first.   If  it  was not running create it and notify the user.
               This is the author's favorite.

       -D -RR  Attach here and now. Whatever that means, just do it.

            Note: It is always a good idea to check the status  of  your  ses-
            sions by means of "screen -list".

       -e xy
            specifies the command character to be x and the character generat-
            ing a literal command character to y (when typed after the command
            character).   The default is "C-a" and `a', which can be specified
            as "-e^Aa".  When creating a screen session, this option sets  the
            default  command character. In a multiuser session all users added
            will start off with this command character. But when attaching  to
            an  already  running session, this option changes only the command
            character of the attaching user.  This option is equivalent to ei-
            ther the commands "defescape" or "escape" respectively.

       -f, -fn, and -fa
            turns  flow-control  on, off, or "automatic switching mode".  This
            can also be defined through the "defflow" .screenrc command.

       -h num
            Specifies the history scrollback buffer to be num lines high.

       -i   will cause the interrupt key (usually C-c) to interrupt  the  dis-
            play  immediately  when  flow-control  is  on.   See the "defflow"
            .screenrc command for details.  The use of this option is discour-

       -l and -ln
            turns  login  mode  on  or off (for /run/utmp updating).  This can
            also be defined through the "deflogin" .screenrc command.

       -ls [match]
       -list [match]
            does not start screen, but prints a list of  strings
            and  creation  timestamps  identifying your screen sessions.  Ses-
            sions marked `detached' can be resumed  with  "screen  -r".  Those
            marked  `attached' are running and have a controlling terminal. If
            the session runs in multiuser mode, it is marked `multi'. Sessions
            marked  as  `unreachable'  either  live on a different host or are
            `dead'.  An unreachable session is considered dead, when its  name
            matches either the name of the local host, or the specified param-
            eter, if any.  See the -r flag for a description how to  construct
            matches.   Sessions  marked as `dead' should be thoroughly checked
            and removed.  Ask your system administrator if you are  not  sure.
            Remove sessions with the -wipe option.

       -L   tells screen to turn on automatic output logging for the windows.

       -Logfile file
            By  default logfile name is "screenlog.0". You can set new logfile
            name with the "-Logfile" option.

       -m   causes screen  to  ignore  the  $STY  environment  variable.  With
            "screen  -m"  creation  of  a  new session is enforced, regardless
            whether screen is called from within  another  screen  session  or
            not.  This  flag has a special meaning in connection with the `-d'

       -d -m   Start screen in "detached" mode. This creates a new session but
               doesn't  attach  to  it.  This  is  useful  for  system startup

       -D -m   This also starts screen in "detached" mode, but doesn't fork  a
               new process. The command exits if the session terminates.

       -O   selects  an optimal output mode for your terminal rather than true
            VT100 emulation (only affects auto-margin terminals without `LP').
            This  can  also  be  set in your .screenrc by specifying `OP' in a
            "termcap" command.

       -p number_or_name|-|=|+
            Preselect a window. This is useful when you want to reattach to  a
            specific  window or you want to send a command via the "-X" option
            to a specific window. As with screen's select command, "-" selects
            the  blank  window.  As a special case for reattach, "=" brings up
            the windowlist on the blank window, while a "+" will create a  new
            window.  The  command will not be executed if the specified window
            could not be found.

       -q   Suppress printing of error messages. In combination with "-ls" the
            exit  value  is  as  follows: 9 indicates a directory without ses-
            sions. 10 indicates a directory with running  but  not  attachable
            sessions.  11 (or more) indicates 1 (or more) usable sessions.  In
            combination with "-r" the exit value is as follows:  10  indicates
            that  there  is  no session to resume. 12 (or more) indicates that
            there are 2 (or more) sessions to resume and  you  should  specify
            which one to choose.  In all other cases "-q" has no effect.

       -Q   Some  commands now can be queried from a remote session using this
            flag, e.g. "screen -Q windows". The commands  will  send  the  re-
            sponse  to the stdout of the querying process. If there was an er-
            ror in the command, then the querying process  will  exit  with  a
            non-zero status.

            The commands that can be queried now are:

       -r []
       -r sessionowner/[]
            resumes  a detached screen session.  No other options (except com-
            binations with -d/-D) may be specified, though an optional  prefix
            of  [pid.]  may  be needed to distinguish between multiple
            detached screen sessions.  The second form is used to  connect  to
            another  user's  screen session which runs in multiuser mode. This
            indicates that screen should look for sessions in  another  user's
            directory. This requires setuid-root.

       -R   resumes  screen  only  when  it's unambiguous which one to attach,
            usually when only one screen is detached. Otherwise  lists  avail-
            able  sessions.   -RR attempts to resume the youngest (in terms of
            creation time) detached screen session it finds.   If  successful,
            all  other  command-line options are ignored.  If no detached ses-
            sion exists, starts a new session  using  the  specified  options,
            just as if -R had not been specified. The option is set by default
            if screen is run as a login-shell (actually screen uses "-xRR"  in
            that  case).   For  combinations  with the -d/-D option see there.
            Note: Time-based session selection is a Debian addition.

       -s program
            sets the default shell to the program specified,  instead  of  the
            value  in the environment variable $SHELL (or "/bin/sh" if not de-
            fined).  This can also be defined through  the  "shell"  .screenrc
            command.  See also there.

       -S sessionname
            When  creating a new session, this option can be used to specify a
            meaningful name for the session. This name identifies the  session
            for "screen -list" and "screen -r" actions. It substitutes the de-
            fault [] suffix.

       -t name
            sets the title (a.k.a.) for the default shell  or  specified  pro-
            gram.  See also the "shelltitle" .screenrc command.

       -T term
            Set the $TERM environment variable using the specified term as op-
            posed to the default setting of screen.

       -U   Run screen in UTF-8 mode. This option tells screen that your  ter-
            minal sends and understands UTF-8 encoded characters. It also sets
            the default encoding for new windows to `utf8'.

       -v   Print version number.

       -wipe [match]
            does the same as "screen -ls", but removes destroyed sessions  in-
            stead  of  marking them as `dead'.  An unreachable session is con-
            sidered dead, when its name matches either the name of  the  local
            host,  or the explicitly given parameter, if any.  See the -r flag
            for a description how to construct matches.

       -x   Attach to a not detached screen  session.  (Multi  display  mode).
            Screen  refuses  to attach from within itself.  But when cascading
            multiple screens, loops are not detected; take care.

       -X   Send the specified command to a running screen  session.  You  may
            use  the  -S option to specify the screen session if you have sev-
            eral screen sessions running. You can use the -d or -r  option  to
            tell screen to look only for attached or detached screen sessions.
            Note that this command doesn't work if  the  session  is  password

       -4   Resolve hostnames only to IPv4 addresses.

       -6   Resolve hostnames only to IPv6 addresses.

       As  mentioned,  each screen command consists of a "C-a" followed by one
       other character.  For your convenience, all commands that are bound  to
       lower-case  letters  are also bound to their control character counter-
       parts (with the exception of "C-a a"; see below), thus, "C-a c" as well
       as  "C-a  C-c"  can be used to create a window. See section "CUSTOMIZA-
       TION" for a description of the command.

       The following table shows the default key bindings. The trailing commas
       in  boxes  with  multiple keystroke entries are separators, not part of
       the bindings.

       C-a '              (select)          Prompt for a window
                                            name  or  number to
                                            switch to.
       C-a "              (windowlist -b)   Present a  list  of
                                            all windows for se-
       C-a digit          (select 0-9)      Switch  to   window
                                            number 0 - 9
       C-a -              (select -)        Switch   to  window
                                            number 0 - 9, or to
                                            the blank window.
       C-a tab            (focus)           Switch   the  input
                                            focus to  the  next
                                            region.   See  also
                                            split,      remove,
       C-a C-a            (other)           Toggle  to the win-
                                            dow displayed  pre-
                                            viously.  Note that
                                            this  binding   de-
                                            faults  to the com-
                                            mand      character
                                            typed twice, unless
                                            overridden.     For
                                            instance,   if  you
                                            use   the    option
                                            "-e]x",  this  com-
                                            mand becomes "]]".
       C-a a              (meta)            Send  the   command
                                            character  (C-a) to
                                            window. See  escape
       C-a A              (title)           Allow  the  user to
                                            enter  a  name  for
                                            the current window.
       C-a b,             (break)           Send   a  break  to
       C-a C-b                              window.
       C-a B              (pow_break)       Reopen the terminal
                                            line   and  send  a
       C-a c,             (screen)          Create a new window
       C-a C-c                              with  a  shell  and
                                            switch to that win-
       C-a C              (clear)           Clear the screen.

       C-a d,             (detach)          Detach  screen from
       C-a C-d                              this terminal.
       C-a D D            (pow_detach)      Detach and logout.
       C-a f,             (flow)            Toggle flow on, off
       C-a C-f                              or auto.
       C-a F              (fit)             Resize  the  window
                                            to the current  re-
                                            gion size.
       C-a C-g            (vbell)           Toggles    screen's
                                            visual bell mode.
       C-a h              (hardcopy)        Write a hardcopy of
                                            the  current window
                                            to the file  "hard-
       C-a H              (log)             Begins/ends logging
                                            of the current win-
                                            dow   to  the  file
       C-a i,             (info)            Show   info   about
       C-a C-i                              this window.
       C-a k,             (kill)            Destroy     current
       C-a C-k                              window.
       C-a l,             (redisplay)       Fully refresh  cur-
       C-a C-l                              rent window.
       C-a L              (login)           Toggle this windows
                                            login slot.  Avail-
                                            able only if screen
                                            is  configured   to
                                            update   the   utmp
       C-a m,             (lastmsg)         Repeat   the   last
       C-a C-m                              message   displayed
                                            in   the    message
       C-a M              (monitor)         Toggles  monitoring
                                            of the current win-
       C-a space,         (next)            Switch  to the next
       C-a n,                               window.
       C-a C-n
       C-a N              (number)          Show   the   number
                                            (and  title) of the
                                            current window.
       C-a backspace,     (prev)            Switch to the  pre-
       C-a C-h,                             vious window (oppo-
       C-a p,                               site of C-a n).
       C-a C-p
       C-a q,             (xon)             Send a control-q to
       C-a C-q                              the current window.

       C-a Q              (only)            Delete  all regions
                                            but   the   current
                                            one.     See   also
                                            split, remove,  fo-
       C-a r,             (wrap)            Toggle  the current
       C-a C-r                              window's  line-wrap
                                            setting  (turn  the
                                            current    window's
                                            automatic   margins
                                            on and off).
       C-a s,             (xoff)            Send a control-s to
       C-a C-s;                             the current window.
       C-a S              (split)           Split  the  current
                                            region horizontally
                                            into  two new ones.
                                            See also only,  re-
                                            move, focus.
       C-a t,             (time)            Show  system infor-
       C-a C-t                              mation.
       C-a v              (version)         Display the version
                                            and     compilation
       C-a C-v            (digraph)         Enter digraph.
       C-a w,             (windows)         Show a list of win-
       C-a C-w                              dow.
       C-a W              (width)           Toggle  80/132 col-
       C-a x or C-a C-x   (lockscreen)      Lock this terminal.
       C-a X              (remove)          Kill  the   current
                                            region.   See  also
                                            split, only, focus.
       C-a z,             (suspend)         Suspend     screen.
       C-a C-z                              Your   system  must
                                            support   BSD-style
       C-a Z              (reset)           Reset  the  virtual
                                            terminal   to   its
                                            "power-on" values.
       C-a .              (dumptermcap)     Write out a ".term-
                                            cap" file.
       C-a ?              (help)            Show key bindings.
       C-a \              (quit)            Kill  all   windows
                                            and       terminate
       C-a :              (colon)           Enter command  line

       C-a [,             (copy)            Enter  copy/scroll-
       C-a C-[,                             back mode.
       C-a esc
       C-a C-],           (paste .)         Write the  contents
       C-a ]                                of the paste buffer
                                            to the stdin  queue
                                            of the current win-
       C-a {,             (history)         Copy  and  paste  a
       C-a }                                previous  (command)
       C-a >              (writebuf)        Write paste  buffer
                                            to a file.
       C-a <              (readbuf)         Reads  the  screen-
                                            exchange file  into
                                            the paste buffer.
       C-a =              (removebuf)       Removes   the  file
                                            used by C-a  <  and
                                            C-a >.
       C-a ,              (license)         Shows  where screen
                                            comes  from,  where
                                            it  went to and why
                                            you can use it.
       C-a _              (silence)         Start/stop monitor-
                                            ing   the   current
                                            window for inactiv-
       C-a |              (split -v)        Split  the  current
                                            region   vertically
                                            into two new ones.
       C-a *              (displays)        Show  a  listing of
                                            all  currently  at-
                                            tached displays.

       The  "socket  directory"  defaults either to $HOME/.screen or simply to
       /tmp/screens or preferably to /run/screen chosen  at  compile-time.  If
       screen  is installed setuid-root, then the administrator should compile
       screen with an adequate (not NFS mounted) socket directory.  If  screen
       is not running setuid-root, the user can specify any mode 700 directory
       in the environment variable $SCREENDIR.

       When screen is invoked, it executes initialization  commands  from  the
       files  "/etc/screenrc"  and  ".screenrc"  in the user's home directory.
       These are the "programmer's defaults" that can  be  overridden  in  the
       following  ways:  for  the global screenrc file screen searches for the
       environment variable $SYSSCREENRC (this override feature  may  be  dis-
       abled  at compile-time). The user specific screenrc file is searched in
       $SCREENRC, then $HOME/.screenrc.  The  command  line  option  -c  takes
       precedence over the above user screenrc files.

       Commands  in  these  files  are  used to set options, bind functions to
       keys, and to automatically establish one or more windows at the  begin-
       ning  of  your  screen session.  Commands are listed one per line, with
       empty lines being ignored.  A command's arguments are separated by tabs
       or  spaces,  and  may  be surrounded by single or double quotes.  A `#'
       turns the rest of the line into a comment, except in quotes.   Unintel-
       ligible  lines are warned about and ignored.  Commands may contain ref-
       erences to environment variables. The syntax is the shell-like "$VAR  "
       or "${VAR}". Note that this causes incompatibility with previous screen
       versions, as now the '$'-character has to be protected with '\'  if  no
       variable  substitution shall be performed. A string in single-quotes is
       also protected from variable substitution.

       Two configuration files are shipped as examples with your  screen  dis-
       tribution:  "etc/screenrc" and "etc/etcscreenrc". They contain a number
       of useful examples for various commands.

       Customization can also be done 'on-line'. To  enter  the  command  mode
       type  `C-a  :'.  Note  that commands starting with "def" change default
       values, while others change current settings.

       The following commands are available:

       acladd usernames [crypted-pw]

       addacl usernames

       Enable users to fully access this screen session. Usernames can be  one
       user or a comma separated list of users. This command enables to attach
       to the screen session and performs the equivalent of `aclchg  usernames
       +rwx  "#?"'.   executed.  To add a user with restricted access, use the
       `aclchg' command below.  If an optional second parameter  is  supplied,
       it  should  be  a crypted password for the named user(s). `Addacl' is a
       synonym to `acladd'.  Multi user mode only.

       aclchg usernames permbits list

       chacl usernames permbits list

       Change permissions for a comma separated list of users. Permission bits
       are  represented  as `r', `w' and `x'. Prefixing `+' grants the permis-
       sion, `-' removes it. The third parameter is a comma separated list  of
       commands and/or windows (specified either by number or title). The spe-
       cial list `#' refers to all windows, `?' to all commands. if  usernames
       consists of a single `*', all known users are affected.

       A  command  can  be executed when the user has the `x' bit for it.  The
       user can type input to a window when he has its  `w'  bit  set  and  no
       other  user  obtains  a writelock for this window.  Other bits are cur-
       rently ignored.  To withdraw the writelock from another user in  window
       2: `aclchg username -w+w 2'.  To allow read-only access to the session:
       `aclchg username -w "#"'. As soon as a user's name is known  to  screen
       he can attach to the session and (per default) has full permissions for
       all command and windows. Execution permission  for  the  acl  commands,
       `at'  and  others should also be removed or the user may be able to re-
       gain write permission.  Rights of the special username nobody cannot be
       changed  (see  the  "su"  command).   `Chacl' is a synonym to `aclchg'.
       Multi user mode only.

       acldel username

       Remove a user from screen's access control list. If currently attached,
       all the user's displays are detached from the session. He cannot attach
       again.  Multi user mode only.

       aclgrp username [groupname]

       Creates groups of users that share common access rights.  The  name  of
       the group is the username of the group leader. Each member of the group
       inherits the permissions that are granted to  the  group  leader.  That
       means,  if  a user fails an access check, another check is made for the
       group leader.  A user is removed from  all  groups  the  special  value
       "none"  is  used for groupname.  If the second parameter is omitted all
       groups the user is in are listed.

       aclumask [[ users ] +bits | [ users ] -bits... ]

       umask [[ users ] +bits | [ users ] -bits... ]

       This specifies the access other users have to windows that will be cre-
       ated  by  the  caller  of the command.  Users may be no, one or a comma
       separated list of known usernames. If no users are specified, a list of
       all  currently  known users is assumed.  Bits is any combination of ac-
       cess control bits allowed defined with the "aclchg" command.  The  spe-
       cial  username  "?" predefines the access that not yet known users will
       be granted to any window initially.  The special username  "??"  prede-
       fines  the  access that not yet known users are granted to any command.
       Rights of the special username nobody cannot be changed (see  the  "su"
       command).  `Umask' is a synonym to `aclumask'.

       activity message

       When  any  activity  occurs  in a background window that is being moni-
       tored, screen displays a notification in the message line.  The notifi-
       cation  message  can  be re-defined by means of the "activity" command.
       Each occurrence of `%' in message is replaced by the number of the win-
       dow  in which activity has occurred, and each occurrence of `^G' is re-
       placed by the definition for bell in your termcap (usually  an  audible
       bell).  The default message is

                       'Activity in window %n'

       Note  that monitoring is off for all windows by default, but can be al-
       tered by use of the "monitor" command (C-a M).

       allpartial on|off

       If set to on, only the current  cursor  line  is  refreshed  on  window
       change.   This  affects  all  windows  and  is useful for slow terminal
       lines. The previous setting of full/partial refresh for each window  is
       restored with "allpartial off".  This is a global flag that immediately
       takes effect on all windows overriding the "partial" settings. It  does
       not change the default redraw behavior of newly created windows.

       altscreen on|off

       If  set  to on, "alternate screen" support is enabled in virtual termi-
       nals, just like in xterm.  Initial setting is `off'.

       at [identifier][#|*|%] command [args ... ]

       Execute a command at other displays or windows as if it  had  been  en-
       tered  there.   "At" changes the context (the `current window' or `cur-
       rent display' setting) of the command. If the first parameter describes
       a  non-unique  context, the command will be executed multiple times. If
       the first parameter is of the form  `identifier*'  then  identifier  is
       matched against user names.  The command is executed once for each dis-
       play of the selected user(s). If the first parameter  is  of  the  form
       `identifier%'  identifier  is  matched  against  displays. Displays are
       named after the ttys they attach. The prefix `/dev/' or `/dev/tty'  may
       be omitted from the identifier.  If identifier has a `#' or nothing ap-
       pended it is matched against window numbers  and  titles.  Omitting  an
       identifier in front of the `#', `*' or `%'-character selects all users,
       displays or windows because a prefix-match is performed. Note  that  on
       the  affected  display(s)  a short message will describe what happened.
       Permission is checked for initiator of the "at" command,  not  for  the
       owners  of  the affected display(s).  Note that the '#' character works
       as a comment introducer when it is preceded by whitespace. This can  be
       escaped by prefixing a '\'.  Permission is checked for the initiator of
       the "at" command, not for the owners of the affected display(s).

       Caveat: When matching against windows, the command is executed at least
       once  per window. Commands that change the internal arrangement of win-
       dows (like "other") may be called again. In shared windows the  command
       will be repeated for each attached display. Beware, when issuing toggle
       commands like "login"!  Some commands (e.g. "process") require  that  a
       display  is associated with the target windows.  These commands may not
       work correctly under "at" looping over windows.

       attrcolor attrib [attribute/color-modifier]

       This command can be used to highlight attributes by changing the  color
       of  the  text.  If the attribute attrib is in use, the specified attri-
       bute/color modifier is also applied. If no modifier is given, the  cur-
       rent one is deleted. See the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter for the syntax of
       the modifier. Screen understands two pseudo-attributes, "i" stands  for
       high-intensity  foreground  color and "I" for high-intensity background


              attrcolor b "R"

       Change the color to bright red if bold text is to be printed.

              attrcolor u "-u b"

       Use blue text instead of underline.

              attrcolor b ".I"

       Use bright colors for bold text. Most terminal emulators  do  this  al-

              attrcolor i "+b"

       Make bright colored text also bold.

       autodetach on|off

       Sets  whether screen will automatically detach upon hangup, which saves
       all your running programs until they are resumed with a screen -r  com-
       mand.   When  turned off, a hangup signal will terminate screen and all
       the processes it contains. Autodetach is on by default.

       autonuke on|off

       Sets whether a clear screen sequence should nuke all  the  output  that
       has not been written to the terminal. See also "obuflimit".

       backtick id lifespan autorefresh cmd args...

       backtick id

       Program  the  backtick command with the numerical id id.  The output of
       such a command is used for substitution of the "%`" string escape.  The
       specified  lifespan  is  the number of seconds the output is considered
       valid. After this time, the command is run  again  if  a  corresponding
       string  escape  is  encountered.  The autorefresh parameter triggers an
       automatic refresh for caption and hardstatus strings after  the  speci-
       fied  number  of seconds. Only the last line of output is used for sub-

       If both the lifespan and the autorefresh parameters are zero, the back-
       tick  program is expected to stay in the background and generate output
       once in a while.  In this case, the command is executed right away  and
       screen  stores  the  last  line  of  output. If a new line gets printed
       screen will automatically refresh the hardstatus or the captions.

       The second form of the command deletes the backtick  command  with  the
       numerical id id.

       bce [on|off]

       Change background-color-erase setting. If "bce" is set to on, all char-
       acters cleared by an erase/insert/scroll/clear operation will  be  dis-
       played  in  the  current  background color. Otherwise the default back-
       ground color is used.

       bell_msg [message]

       When a bell character is sent to a background window, screen displays a
       notification  in the message line.  The notification message can be re-
       defined by this command.  Each occurrence of `%' in message is replaced
       by the number of the window to which a bell has been sent, and each oc-
       currence of `^G' is replaced by the definition for bell in your termcap
       (usually an audible bell).  The default message is

                              'Bell in window %n'

       An  empty message can be supplied to the "bell_msg" command to suppress
       output of a message line (bell_msg "").  Without parameter, the current
       message is shown.

       bind [class] key [command [args]]

       Bind  a command to a key.  By default, most of the commands provided by
       screen are bound to one or more keys as indicated in the  "DEFAULT  KEY
       BINDINGS"  section, e.g. the command to create a new window is bound to
       "C-c" and "c".  The "bind" command can be  used  to  redefine  the  key
       bindings and to define new bindings.  The key argument is either a sin-
       gle character, a two-character sequence of the form "^x"  (meaning  "C-
       x"), a backslash followed by an octal number (specifying the ASCII code
       of the character), or a backslash followed by a second character,  such
       as  "\^" or "\\".  The argument can also be quoted, if you like.  If no
       further argument is given, any previously established binding for  this
       key is removed.  The command argument can be any command listed in this

       If a command class is specified via the "-c" option, the key  is  bound
       for the specified class. Use the "command" command to activate a class.
       Command classes can be used to create multiple command keys  or  multi-
       character bindings.

       Some examples:

                       bind ' ' windows
                       bind ^k
                       bind k
                       bind K kill
                       bind ^f screen telnet foobar
                       bind \033 screen -ln -t root -h 1000 9 su

       would bind the space key to the command that displays a list of windows
       (so that the command usually invoked by "C-a C-w" would also be  avail-
       able  as  "C-a  space").  The  next three lines remove the default kill
       binding from "C-a C-k" and "C-a k".  "C-a K" is then bound to the  kill
       command.  Then  it  binds  "C-f" to the command "create a window with a
       TELNET connection to foobar", and bind "escape"  to  the  command  that
       creates an non-login window with a.k.a. "root" in slot #9, with a supe-
       ruser shell and a scrollback buffer of 1000 lines.

                       bind -c demo1 0 select 10
                       bind -c demo1 1 select 11
                       bind -c demo1 2 select 12
                       bindkey "^B" command -c demo1

       makes "C-b 0" select window 10, "C-b 1" window 11, etc.

                       bind -c demo2 0 select 10
                       bind -c demo2 1 select 11
                       bind -c demo2 2 select 12
                       bind - command -c demo2

       makes "C-a - 0" select window 10, "C-a - 1" window 11, etc.

       bindkey [-d] [-m] [-a] [[-k|-t] string [cmd-args]]

       This command manages screen's input translation tables. Every entry  in
       one  of  the  tables tells screen how to react if a certain sequence of
       characters is encountered. There are three tables: one that should con-
       tain  actions  programmed by the user, one for the default actions used
       for terminal emulation and one for screen's  copy  mode  to  do  cursor
       movement.  See  section  "INPUT  TRANSLATION" for a list of default key

       If the -d option is given,  bindkey  modifies  the  default  table,  -m
       changes  the  copy mode table and with neither option the user table is
       selected.  The argument string is the sequence of characters  to  which
       an action is bound. This can either be a fixed string or a termcap key-
       board capability name (selectable with the -k option).

       Some keys on a VT100 terminal can send a different string  if  applica-
       tion  mode  is turned on (e.g the cursor keys).  Such keys have two en-
       tries in the translation table. You can select the application mode en-
       try by specifying the -a option.

       The -t option tells screen not to do inter-character timing. One cannot
       turn off the timing if a termcap capability is used.

       Cmd can be any of screen's commands with an arbitrary number  of  args.
       If cmd is omitted the key-binding is removed from the table.

       Here are some examples of keyboard bindings:

               bindkey -d

       Show  all of the default key bindings. The application mode entries are
       marked with [A].

               bindkey -k k1 select 1

       Make the "F1" key switch to window one.

               bindkey -t foo stuff barfoo

       Make "foo" an abbreviation of the word "barfoo". Timeout is disabled so
       that users can type slowly.

               bindkey "\024" mapdefault

       This  key-binding  makes  "^T" an escape character for key-bindings. If
       you did the above "stuff barfoo" binding, you can enter the word  "foo"
       by  typing  "^Tfoo". If you want to insert a "^T" you have to press the
       key twice (i.e., escape the escape binding).

               bindkey -k F1 command

       Make the F11 (not F1!) key an alternative screen escape (besides ^A).


       Send a break signal for duration*0.25 seconds to this window.  For non-
       Posix  systems  the  time  interval  may be rounded up to full seconds.
       Most useful if a character device is attached to the window rather than
       a shell process (See also chapter "WINDOW TYPES"). The maximum duration
       of a break signal is limited to 15 seconds.


       Activate the screen blanker. First the screen is cleared. If no blanker
       program is defined, the cursor is turned off, otherwise, the program is
       started and it's output is written to the screen.  The  screen  blanker
       is killed with the first keypress, the read key is discarded.

       This command is normally used together with the "idle" command.

       blankerprg [program-args]

       Defines a blanker program. Disables the blanker program if an empty ar-
       gument is given. Shows the currently set blanker program  if  no  argu-
       ments are given.

       breaktype [tcsendbreak|TIOCSBRK|TCSBRK]

       Choose  one  of  the available methods of generating a break signal for
       terminal devices. This command should affect the current  window  only.
       But  it still behaves identical to "defbreaktype". This will be changed
       in the future.  Calling "breaktype"  with  no  parameter  displays  the
       break method for the current window.

       bufferfile [exchange-file]

       Change the filename used for reading and writing with the paste buffer.
       If the optional argument to the "bufferfile" command  is  omitted,  the
       default setting ("/tmp/screen-exchange") is reactivated.  The following
       example will paste the system's password file into  the  screen  window
       (using the paste buffer, where a copy remains):

                       C-a : bufferfile /etc/passwd
                       C-a < C-a ]
                       C-a : bufferfile


       Swaps window with previous one on window list.


       Swaps window with next one on window list.

       c1 [on|off]

       Change  c1  code  processing.  "C1  on" tells screen to treat the input
       characters between 128 and 159 as control  functions.   Such  an  8-bit
       code  is  normally  the same as ESC followed by the corresponding 7-bit
       code. The default setting is to process c1 codes  and  can  be  changed
       with the "defc1" command.  Users with fonts that have usable characters
       in the c1 positions may want to turn this off.

       caption [ top | bottom ] always|splitonly[string]

       caption string [string]

       This command controls the display of the window  captions.  Normally  a
       caption  is  only  used if more than one window is shown on the display
       (split screen mode). But if the type is set to always  screen  shows  a
       caption even if only one window is displayed. The default is splitonly.

       The  second form changes the text used for the caption. You can use all
       escapes from the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter. Screen  uses  a  default  of
       `%3n %t'.

       You can mix both forms by providing a string as an additional argument.

       You  can  have the caption displayed either at the top or bottom of the
       window.  The default is bottom.

       charset set

       Change the current character set slot designation and charset  mapping.
       The  first  four  character  of  set are treated as charset designators
       while the fifth and sixth character must be in range '0' to '3' and set
       the GL/GR charset mapping. On every position a '.' may be used to indi-
       cate that the corresponding charset/mapping should not be changed  (set
       is  padded  to  six characters internally by appending '.'  chars). New
       windows have "BBBB02" as default charset, unless a  "encoding"  command
       is active.
       The current setting can be viewed with the "info" command.

       chdir [directory]

       Change  the  current directory of screen to the specified directory or,
       if called without an argument, to your home directory (the value of the
       environment  variable $HOME).  All windows that are created by means of
       the "screen" command from within ".screenrc" or  by  means  of  "C-a  :
       screen  ..." or "C-a c" use this as their default directory.  Without a
       chdir command, this would be the directory from which  screen  was  in-

       Hardcopy  and  log files are always written to the window's default di-
       rectory, not the current directory of the process running in  the  win-
       dow.   You  can  use  this  command multiple times in your .screenrc to
       start various windows in different default directories,  but  the  last
       chdir value will affect all the windows you create interactively.

       cjkwidth [ on | off ]

       Treat ambiguous width characters as full/half width.


       Clears the current window and saves its image to the scrollback buffer.


       Reorders window on window list, removing number gaps between them.

       colon [prefix]

       Allows  you  to  enter ".screenrc" command lines. Useful for on-the-fly
       modification of key bindings, specific  window  creation  and  changing
       settings.  Note  that  the "set" keyword no longer exists! Usually com-
       mands affect the current window rather than default settings for future
       windows. Change defaults with commands starting with 'def...'.

       If you consider this as the `Ex command mode' of screen, you may regard
       "C-a esc" (copy mode) as its `Vi command mode'.

       command [-c class]

       This command has the same effect as typing the screen escape  character
       (^A).  It is probably only useful for key bindings.  If the "-c" option
       is given, select the specified command  class.   See  also  "bind"  and

       compacthist [on|off]

       This  tells  screen  whether  to  suppress  trailing  blank  lines when
       scrolling up text into the history buffer.

       console [on|off]

       Grabs or un-grabs the machines console output to a window.  Note:  Only
       the owner of /dev/console can grab the console output.  This command is
       only available if the machine supports the ioctl TIOCCONS.


       Enter copy/scrollback mode. This allows you to copy text from the  cur-
       rent  window  and its history into the paste buffer. In this mode a vi-
       like `full screen editor' is active:
       The editor's movement keys are:

       h, C-h,        move the cursor left.
       left arrow
       j, C-n,        move the cursor down.
       down arrow
       k, C-p,        move the cursor up.
       up arrow
       l ('el'),      move the cursor right.
       right arrow
       0 (zero) C-a   move to the leftmost column.
       + and -        positions one line up and down.
       H, M and L     move the cursor to the leftmost  column  of  the
                      top, center or bottom line of the window.
       |              moves to the specified absolute column.
       g or home      moves to the beginning of the buffer.
       G or end       moves  to  the specified absolute line (default:
                      end of buffer).
       %              jumps to the specified percentage of the buffer.
       ^ or $         move to the leftmost column,  to  the  first  or
                      last non-whitespace character on the line.
       w, b, and e    move the cursor word by word.
       B, E           move the cursor WORD by WORD (as in vi).
       f/F, t/T       move the cursor forward/backward to the next oc-
                      currence of the target. (eg, '3fy' will move the
                      cursor to the 3rd 'y' to the right.)
       ; and ,        Repeat  the last f/F/t/T command in the same/op-
                      posite direction.

       C-e and C-y    scroll the display up/down  by  one  line  while
                      preserving the cursor position.
       C-u and C-d    scroll  the  display  up/down  by  the specified
                      amount of lines while preserving the cursor  po-
                      sition. (Default: half screen-full).
       C-b and C-f    scroll the display up/down a full screen.

       Note:  Emacs  style movement keys can be customized by a .screenrc com-
       mand.  (E.g. markkeys "h=^B:l=^F:$=^E") There is no simple method for a
       full emacs-style keymap, as this involves multi-character codes.

       Some keys are defined to do mark and replace operations.

       The  copy  range  is  specified  by setting two marks. The text between
       these marks will be highlighted. Press:

              space or enter to set the first or second mark respectively.  If
              mousetrack  is  set  to  `on',  marks can also be set using left
              mouse click.

              Y and y used to mark one whole line or to  mark  from  start  of

              W marks exactly one word.

       Any  of  these  commands  can be prefixed with a repeat count number by
       pressing digits

              0..9 which is taken as a repeat count.

       Example: "C-a C-[ H 10 j 5 Y" will copy lines 11 to 15 into  the  paste

       The following search keys are defined:

              / Vi-like search forward.

              ? Vi-like search backward.

              C-a s Emacs style incremental search forward.

              C-r Emacs style reverse i-search.

              n Find next search pattern.

              N Find previous search pattern.

       There  are  however some keys that act differently than in vi.  Vi does
       not allow one to yank rectangular blocks  of  text,  but  screen  does.
       Press:  c  or C to set the left or right margin respectively. If no re-
       peat count is given, both default to the current cursor position.

       Example: Try this on a rather full text screen:

              "C-a [ M 20 l SPACE c 10 l 5 j C SPACE".

       This moves one to the middle line of the screen, moves  in  20  columns
       left,  marks  the  beginning of the paste buffer, sets the left column,
       moves 5 columns down, sets the right column, and then marks the end  of
       the paste buffer. Now try:

              "C-a [ M 20 l SPACE 10 l 5 j SPACE"

       and notice the difference in the amount of text copied.

       J joins lines. It toggles between 4 modes: lines separated by a newline
       character (012), lines glued seamless,  lines  separated  by  a  single
       whitespace  and  comma  separated  lines. Note that you can prepend the
       newline character with a carriage return character, by issuing a  "crlf

       v  or  V  is  for all the vi users with ":set numbers" - it toggles the
       left margin between column 9 and 1. Press

       a before the final space key to toggle in append mode.  Thus  the  con-
       tents of the paste buffer will not be overwritten, but is appended to.

       A toggles in append mode and sets a (second) mark.

       > sets the (second) mark and writes the contents of the paste buffer to
       the screen-exchange file (/tmp/screen-exchange per default) once  copy-
       mode is finished.

       This  example  demonstrates  how to dump the whole scrollback buffer to
       that file: "C-A [ g SPACE G $ >".

       C-g gives information about the current line and column.

       x or o exchanges the first mark and the current  cursor  position.  You
       can use this to adjust an already placed mark.

       C-l ('el') will redraw the screen.

       @ does nothing. Does not even exit copy mode.

       All keys not described here exit copy mode.

       copy_reg [key]

       No longer exists, use "readreg" instead.

       crlf [on|off]

       This  affects  the copying of text regions with the `C-a [' command. If
       it is set to `on', lines will be separated by  the  two  character  se-
       quence  `CR'  -  `LF'.  Otherwise (default) only `LF' is used.  When no
       parameter is given, the state is toggled.

       debug on|off

       Turns runtime debugging on or off. If screen has been compiled with op-
       tion  -DDEBUG  debugging  available  and is turned on per default. Note
       that this command only affects debugging output from the main  "SCREEN"
       process  correctly.  Debug  output  from attacher processes can only be
       turned off once and forever.

       defc1 on|off

       Same as the c1 command except that the default setting for new  windows
       is changed. Initial setting is `on'.

       defautonuke on|off

       Same  as  the  autonuke command except that the default setting for new
       displays is changed. Initial setting is `off'.  Note that you  can  use
       the  special  `AN' terminal capability if you want to have a dependency
       on the terminal type.

       defbce on|off

       Same as the bce command except that the default setting for new windows
       is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defbreaktype [tcsendbreak|TIOCSBRK|TCSBRK]

       Choose  one  of  the available methods of generating a break signal for
       terminal devices. The preferred methods are tcsendbreak  and  TIOCSBRK.
       The  third, TCSBRK, blocks the complete screen session for the duration
       of the break, but it may be the only way to generate long breaks.   Tc-
       sendbreak  and  TIOCSBRK may or may not produce long breaks with spikes
       (e.g. 4 per second). This is not only system-dependent, this also  dif-
       fers  between serial board drivers.  Calling "defbreaktype" with no pa-
       rameter displays the current setting.

       defcharset [set]

       Like the charset command except that the default setting for  new  win-
       dows is changed. Shows current default if called without argument.

       defdynamictitle on|off

       Set default behaviour for new windows regarding if screen should change
       window title when seeing proper escape sequence. See also "TITLES (nam-
       ing windows)" section.

       defescape xy

       Set  the default command characters. This is equivalent to the "escape"
       except that it is useful multiuser sessions only. In a  multiuser  ses-
       sion  "escape" changes the command character of the calling user, where
       "defescape" changes the default command characters for users that  will
       be added later.

       defflow on|off|auto [interrupt]

       Same  as  the flow command except that the default setting for new win-
       dows is changed. Initial setting is `auto'.  Specifying  "defflow  auto
       interrupt" is the same as the command-line options -fa and -i.

       defgr on|off

       Same  as the gr command except that the default setting for new windows
       is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defhstatus [status]

       The hardstatus line that all new windows will get  is  set  to  status.
       This  command  is useful to make the hardstatus of every window display
       the window number or title or the like.  Status may  contain  the  same
       directives  as in the window messages, but the directive escape charac-
       ter is '^E' (octal 005) instead of '%'.  This was done to make a misin-
       terpretation  of program generated hardstatus lines impossible.  If the
       parameter status is omitted, the current default string  is  displayed.
       Per default the hardstatus line of new windows is empty.

       defencoding enc

       Same  as  the  encoding command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is the encoding taken from the ter-

       deflog on|off

       Same as the log command except that the default setting for new windows
       is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       deflogin on|off

       Same as the login command except that the default setting for new  win-
       dows is changed. This is initialized with `on' as distributed (see con-

       defmode mode

       The mode of each newly allocated pseudo-tty is set to mode.  Mode is an
       octal number.  When no "defmode" command is given, mode 0622 is used.

       defmonitor on|off

       Same  as  the  monitor  command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defmousetrack on|off

       Same as the mousetrack command except that the default setting for  new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defnonblock on|off|numsecs

       Same  as  the nonblock command except that the default setting for dis-
       plays is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defobuflimit limit

       Same as the obuflimit command except that the default setting  for  new
       displays  is  changed. Initial setting is 256 bytes.  Note that you can
       use the special 'OL' terminal capability if you want to have  a  depen-
       dency on the terminal type.

       defscrollback num

       Same  as the scrollback command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is 100.

       defshell command

       Synonym to the shell .screenrc command. See there.

       defsilence on|off

       Same as the silence command except that the  default  setting  for  new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defslowpaste msec

       Same  as  the slowpaste command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is 0 milliseconds, meaning `off'.

       defutf8 on|off

       Same as the utf8 command except that the default setting for  new  win-
       dows  is  changed.  Initial  setting is `on' if screen was started with
       "-U", otherwise `off'.

       defwrap on|off

       Same as the wrap command except that the default setting for  new  win-
       dows  is changed. Initially line-wrap is on and can be toggled with the
       "wrap" command ("C-a r") or by means of "C-a : wrap on|off".

       defwritelock on|off|auto

       Same as the writelock command except that the default setting  for  new
       windows is changed. Initially writelocks will off.

       detach [-h]

       Detach  the  screen session (disconnect it from the terminal and put it
       into the background).  This returns you to the shell where you  invoked
       screen.   A  detached screen can be resumed by invoking screen with the
       -r option (see also section  "COMMAND-LINE  OPTIONS").  The  -h  option
       tells  screen  to  immediately  close  the  connection  to the terminal


       Show what screen thinks about your terminal. Useful if you want to know
       why features like color or the alternate charset don't work.


       Shows  a  tabular  listing  of  all currently connected user front-ends
       (displays).  This is most useful for multiuser sessions.  The following
       keys can be used in displays list:

       k, C-p, or up           Move up one line.
       j, C-n, or down         Move down one line.
       C-a or home             Move to the first line.
       C-e or end              Move to the last line.
       C-u or C-d              Move one half page up or down.
       C-b or C-f              Move one full page up or down.
       mouseclick              Move  to  the  selected  line.
                               Available when "mousetrack" is
                               set to on.
       space                   Refresh the list
       d                       Detach that display
       D                       Power detach that display
       C-g, enter, or escape   Exit the list

       The following is an example of what "displays" could look like:
              xterm 80x42 jnweiger@/dev/ttyp4     0(m11)   &rWx
              facit 80x24 mlschroe@/dev/ttyhf nb 11(tcsh)   rwx
              xterm 80x42 jnhollma@/dev/ttyp5     0(m11)   &R.x
               (A)   (B)     (C)     (D)     (E) (F)(G)   (H)(I)

       The legend is as follows:

              (A) The terminal type known by screen for this display.

              (B) Displays geometry as width x height.

              (C) Username who is logged in at the display.

              (D) Device name of the display or the attached device

              (E)  Display  is in blocking or nonblocking mode.  The available
              modes are "nb", "NB", "Z<", "Z>", and "BL".

              (F) Number of the window

              (G) Name/title of window

              (H) Whether the window is shared

              (I) Window permissions. Made up of three characters.

              |             Window permissions indicators              |
              | 1st character   |  2nd character   |   3rd character   |
              |-   |no read     | -   |no write    | -   |no execute   |
              |r   |read        | w   |write       | x   |execute      |
              |    |            | W   |own wlock   |     |             |
              |Indicators of permissions suppressed by a foreign wlock |
              |R   |read only   | .   |no write    |     |             |
              "displays" needs a region size of at least  10  characters  wide
              and 5 characters high in order to display.

       digraph [preset[unicode-value]]

       This  command  prompts  the  user  for a digraph sequence. The next two
       characters typed are looked up in a builtin  table  and  the  resulting
       character is inserted in the input stream. For example, if the user en-
       ters 'a"', an a-umlaut will be inserted. If the first character entered
       is a 0 (zero), screen will treat the following characters (up to three)
       as an octal number instead.  The optional argument preset is treated as
       user  input, thus one can create an "umlaut" key.  For example the com-
       mand "bindkey ^K digraph '"'" enables the user to generate an  a-umlaut
       by  typing CTRL-K a.  When a non-zero unicode-value is specified, a new
       digraph is created with the specified preset. The digraph is unset if a
       zero value is provided for the unicode-value.


       Write the termcap entry for the virtual terminal optimized for the cur-
       rently  active  window  to  the   file   ".termcap"   in   the   user's
       "$HOME/.screen"  directory  (or wherever screen stores its sockets. See
       the "FILES" section below).  This termcap entry  is  identical  to  the
       value of the environment variable $TERMCAP that is set up by screen for
       each window. For terminfo based systems you will need  to  run  a  con-
       verter like captoinfo and then compile the entry with tic.

       dynamictitle on|off

       Change  behaviour  for windows regarding if screen should change window
       title when seeing proper escape sequence. See also "TITLES (naming win-
       dows)" section.

       echo [-n] message

       The  echo  command may be used to annoy screen users with a 'message of
       the day'. Typically installed in a global  /etc/screenrc.   The  option
       "-n" may be used to suppress the line feed.  See also "sleep".  Echo is
       also useful for online checking of environment variables.

       encoding enc [enc]

       Tell screen how to interpret the input/output. The first argument  sets
       the encoding of the current window. Each window can emulate a different
       encoding. The optional second parameter overwrites the encoding of  the
       connected terminal. It should never be needed as screen uses the locale
       setting to detect the encoding.  There is also a way to select a termi-
       nal  encoding  depending on the terminal type by using the "KJ" termcap

       Supported encodings are eucJP, SJIS, eucKR, eucCN, Big5,  GBK,  KOI8-R,
       KOI8-U,  CP1251,  UTF-8,  ISO8859-2,  ISO8859-3,  ISO8859-4, ISO8859-5,
       ISO8859-6, ISO8859-7,  ISO8859-8,  ISO8859-9,  ISO8859-10,  ISO8859-15,

       See also "defencoding", which changes the default setting of a new win-

       escape xy

       Set the command character to x and the character generating  a  literal
       command  character  (by triggering the "meta" command) to y (similar to
       the -e option).  Each argument is either a  single  character,  a  two-
       character  sequence  of the form "^x" (meaning "C-x"), a backslash fol-
       lowed by an octal number (specifying the ASCII code of the  character),
       or  a  backslash  followed by a second character, such as "\^" or "\\".
       The default is "^Aa".

       eval command1[command2 ...]

       Parses and executes each argument as separate command.

       exec [[fdpat]newcommand [args ...]]

       Run a unix subprocess (specified by an executable path  newcommand  and
       its optional arguments) in the current window. The flow of data between
       newcommands stdin/stdout/stderr, the process originally started in  the
       window  (let  us call it "application-process") and screen itself (win-
       dow) is controlled by the file descriptor pattern fdpat.  This  pattern
       is  basically a three character sequence representing stdin, stdout and
       stderr of newcommand. A dot (.) connects the file descriptor to screen.
       An  exclamation  mark (!) causes the file descriptor to be connected to
       the application-process. A colon (:) combines both.  User input will go
       to  newcommand unless newcommand receives the application-process' out-
       put (fdpats first character is `!' or `:') or  a  pipe  symbol  (|)  is
       added (as a fourth character) to the end of fdpat.

       Invoking  `exec' without arguments shows name and arguments of the cur-
       rently running subprocess in this window. Only one  subprocess  a  time
       can be running in each window.

       When  a subprocess is running the `kill' command will affect it instead
       of the windows process.

       Refer to the postscript file `doc/' for a  confusing  illustra-
       tion  of  all  21  possible combinations. Each drawing shows the digits
       2,1,0 representing the three file descriptors of  newcommand.  The  box
       marked  `W'  is  the  usual pty that has the application-process on its
       slave side.  The box marked `P' is  the  secondary  pty  that  now  has
       screen at its master side.

       Abbreviations:  Whitespace  between  the  word `exec' and fdpat and the
       command can be omitted. Trailing dots and a fdpat  consisting  only  of
       dots can be omitted. A simple `|' is synonymous for the pattern `!..|';
       the word exec can be omitted here and can always be replaced by `!'.


              exec ... /bin/sh

              exec /bin/sh


                     Creates another shell in the same window, while the orig-
                     inal  shell  is  still  running. Output of both shells is
                     displayed and user input is sent to the new /bin/sh.

              exec !.. stty 19200

              exec ! stty 19200

              !!stty 19200

                     Set the speed of the window's tty. If your  stty  command
                     operates on stdout, then add another `!'.

              exec !..| less


                     This adds a pager to the window output. The special char-
                     acter `|' is needed to give the  user  control  over  the
                     pager  although  it  gets  its  input  from  the window's
                     process. This works, because less listens  on  stderr  (a
                     behavior  that  screen  would not expect without the `|')
                     when its stdin is not a tty.  Less  versions  newer  than
                     177 fail miserably here; good old pg still works.

              !:sed -n s/.*Error.*/\007/p

                     Sends  window  output  to both, the user and the sed com-
                     mand. The sed inserts an additional bell character  (oct.
                     007)  to  the  window  output  seen by screen.  This will
                     cause "Bell in window x" messages,  whenever  the  string
                     "Error" appears in the window.


       Change  the window size to the size of the current region. This command
       is needed because screen doesn't adapt the window size automatically if
       the window is displayed more than once.

       flow   [on|off|auto]

       Sets  the flow-control mode for this window.  Without parameters it cy-
       cles the current window's flow-control setting from "automatic" to "on"
       to  "off".  See the discussion on "FLOW-CONTROL" later on in this docu-
       ment for full details and note, that this is subject to change  in  fu-
       ture releases.  Default is set by `defflow'.

       focus [next|prev|up|down|left|right|top|bottom]

       Move  the  input focus to the next region. This is done in a cyclic way
       so that the top left region is selected after the bottom right one.  If
       no  option  is  given  it defaults to `next'. The next region to be se-
       lected is determined by how the regions  are  layered.   Normally,  the
       next region in the same layer would be selected.  However, if that next
       region contains one or more layers, the first  region  in  the  highest
       layer  is  selected first. If you are at the last region of the current
       layer, `next' will move the focus to the next region in the lower layer
       (if  there is a lower layer).  `Prev' cycles in the opposite order. See
       "split" for more information about layers.

       The rest of the options (`up',  `down',  `left',  `right',  `top',  and
       `bottom') are more indifferent to layers. The option `up' will move the
       focus upward to the region that is touching the upper  left  corner  of
       the  current  region.   `Down' will move downward to the region that is
       touching the lower left corner of the current region. The option `left'
       will  move  the focus leftward to the region that is touching the upper
       left corner of the current region, while `right' will move rightward to
       the  region  that is touching the upper right corner of the current re-
       gion. Moving left from a left most region or moving right from a  right
       most region will result in no action.

       The  option  `top'  will move the focus to the very first region in the
       upper list corner of the screen, and `bottom' will move to  the  region
       in the bottom right corner of the screen. Moving up from a top most re-
       gion or moving down from a bottom most region will result in no action.

       Useful bindings are (h, j, k, and l as in vi)
           bind h focus left
           bind j focus down
           bind k focus up
           bind l focus right
           bind t focus top
           bind b focus bottom
       Note that k is traditionally bound to the kill command.

       focusminsize [ ( width|max|_ ) ( height|max|_ ) ]

       This forces any currently selected region to be  automatically  resized
       at least a certain width and height. All other surrounding regions will
       be resized in order to accommodate.  This constraint follows every time
       the  "focus"  command  is used. The "resize" command can be used to in-
       crease either dimension of a region, but never below what is  set  with
       "focusminsize".  The  underscore  `_'  is  a synonym for max. Setting a
       width and height of `0 0' (zero zero) will undo any constraints and al-
       low for manual resizing.  Without any parameters, the minimum width and
       height is shown.

       gr [on|off]

       Turn GR charset switching on/off. Whenever screen sees an input charac-
       ter with the 8th bit set, it will use the charset stored in the GR slot
       and print the character with the 8th bit  stripped.  The  default  (see
       also  "defgr")  is  not  to  process GR switching because otherwise the
       ISO88591 charset would not work.

       group [grouptitle]

       Change or show the group the current window belongs to. Windows can  be
       moved  around  between  different  groups by specifying the name of the
       destination group. Without specifying a group, the title of the current
       group is displayed.

       hardcopy [-h] [file]

       Writes  out  the  currently displayed image to the file file, or, if no
       filename is specified, to hardcopy.n in the default directory, where  n
       is the number of the current window.  This either appends or overwrites
       the file if it exists. See below.  If the option -h is specified,  dump
       also the contents of the scrollback buffer.

       hardcopy_append on|off

       If set to "on", screen will append to the "hardcopy.n" files created by
       the command "C-a h", otherwise these files are overwritten  each  time.
       Default is `off'.

       hardcopydir directory

       Defines  a  directory  where  hardcopy  files will be placed. If unset,
       hardcopys are dumped in screen's current working directory.

       hardstatus [on|off]

       hardstatus [always]firstline|lastline|message|ignore[string]

       hardstatus string[string]

       This command configures the use and emulation of the  terminal's  hard-
       status  line.  The first form toggles whether screen will use the hard-
       ware status line to display messages. If the  flag  is  set  to  `off',
       these  messages are overlaid in reverse video mode at the display line.
       The default setting is `on'.

       The second form tells screen what to do if the terminal doesn't have  a
       hardstatus  line  (i.e.  the  termcap/terminfo capabilities "hs", "ts",
       "fs" and "ds" are not set).  When "firstline/lastline" is used,  screen
       will  reserve  the  first/last  line of the display for the hardstatus.
       "message" uses screen's message mechanism  and  "ignore"  tells  screen
       never  to  display the hardstatus.  If you prepend the word "always" to
       the type (e.g., "alwayslastline"), screen will use the type even if the
       terminal supports a hardstatus.

       The  third form specifies the contents of the hardstatus line.  '%h' is
       used as default string, i.e., the stored hardstatus of the current win-
       dow  (settable  via  "ESC]0;<string>^G"  or "ESC_<string>ESC\") is dis-
       played.  You can customize this to any string you  like  including  the
       escapes  from  the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter. If you leave out the argu-
       ment string, the current string is displayed.

       You can mix the second and third form by providing the string as  addi-
       tional argument.

       height [-w|-d] [lines [cols]]

       Set the display height to a specified number of lines. When no argument
       is given it toggles between 24 and 42 lines display. You can also spec-
       ify  a  width  if  you want to change both values.  The -w option tells
       screen to leave the display size unchanged  and  just  set  the  window
       size, -d vice versa.


       Not  really  a  online help, but displays a help screen showing you all
       the key bindings.  The first pages list all the internal commands  fol-
       lowed  by  their  current  bindings.  Subsequent pages will display the
       custom commands, one command per key.  Press  space  when  you're  done
       reading  each  page, or return to exit early.  All other characters are
       ignored. If the "-c" option is given, display all  bound  commands  for
       the specified command class.  See also "DEFAULT KEY BINDINGS" section.


       Usually  users  work  with  a shell that allows easy access to previous
       commands.  For example csh has the command "!!" to repeat the last com-
       mand executed.  Screen allows you to have a primitive way of re-calling
       "the command that started ...": You just type the first letter of  that
       command, then hit `C-a {' and screen tries to find a previous line that
       matches with the `prompt character' to the left  of  the  cursor.  This
       line  is  pasted into this window's input queue.  Thus you have a crude
       command history (made up by the visible window and its scrollback  buf-

       hstatus status

       Change the window's hardstatus line to the string status.

       idle [timeout[cmd-args]]

       Sets  a command that is run after the specified number of seconds inac-
       tivity is reached. This command will normally be the "blanker"  command
       to  create  a  screen blanker, but it can be any screen command.  If no
       command is specified, only the timeout is set. A timeout  of  zero  (or
       the  special  timeout  off)  disables  the  timer.  If no arguments are
       given, the current settings are displayed.

       ignorecase [on|off]

       Tell screen to ignore the case of characters in  searches.  Default  is
       `off'. Without any options, the state of ignorecase is toggled.


       Uses  the  message  line  to display some information about the current
       window: the cursor position in the form  "(column,row)"  starting  with
       "(1,1)",  the terminal width and height plus the size of the scrollback
       buffer in lines, like in "(80,24)+50",  the  current  state  of  window
       XON/XOFF  flow  control  is shown like this (See also section FLOW CON-

       |+flow    | automatic flow control, currently on.                    |
       |-flow    | automatic flow control, currently off.                   |
       |+(+)flow | flow control enabled. Agrees with automatic control.     |
       |-(+)flow | flow control disabled. Disagrees with automatic control. |
       |+(-)flow | flow control enabled. Disagrees with automatic control.  |
       |-(-)flow | flow control disabled. Agrees with automatic control.    |
       The current line wrap setting (`+wrap' indicates enabled, `-wrap'  not)
       is  also  shown. The flags `ins', `org', `app', `log', `mon' or `nored'
       are displayed when the window is in insert mode, origin mode,  applica-
       tion-keypad  mode,  has  output logging, activity monitoring or partial
       redraw enabled.

       The currently active character set (G0, G1, G2, or G3)  and  in  square
       brackets  the  terminal character sets that are currently designated as
       G0 through G3 is shown. If the window is  in  UTF-8  mode,  the  string
       "UTF-8" is shown instead.

       Additional  modes  depending on the type of the window are displayed at
       the end of the status line (See also chapter "WINDOW TYPES").

       If the state machine of the  terminal  emulator  is  in  a  non-default
       state,  the  info line is started with a string identifying the current

       For system information use the "time" command.

       ins_reg [key]

       No longer exists, use "paste" instead.


       Kill current window.

       If there is an `exec' command running then it is killed. Otherwise  the
       process  (shell) running in the window receives a HANGUP condition, the
       window structure is removed and screen (your display) switches  to  an-
       other  window.  When the last window is destroyed, screen exits.  After
       a kill screen switches to the previously displayed window.

       Note: Emacs users should keep this command  in  mind,  when  killing  a
       line.   It  is recommended not to use "C-a" as the screen escape key or
       to rebind kill to "C-a K".


       Redisplay the last contents of  the  message/status  line.   Useful  if
       you're  typing  when  a message appears, because  the message goes away
       when you press a key (unless your terminal has a hardware status line).
       Refer to the commands "msgwait" and "msgminwait" for fine tuning.

       layout new [title]

       Create  a new layout. The screen will change to one whole region and be
       switched to the blank window. From here, you build the regions and  the
       windows  they  show as you desire. The new layout will be numbered with
       the smallest available integer, starting with zero. You can  optionally
       give a title to your new layout.  Otherwise, it will have a default ti-
       tle of "layout". You can always change the title  later  by  using  the
       command layout title.

       layout remove [n|title]

       Remove, or in other words, delete the specified layout. Either the num-
       ber or the title can be specified. Without either specification, screen
       will remove the current layout.

       Removing a layout does not affect your set windows or regions.

       layout next

       Switch to the next layout available

       layout prev

       Switch to the previous layout available

       layout select [n|title]

       Select the desired layout. Either the number or the title can be speci-
       fied. Without either specification, screen will prompt  and  ask  which
       screen  is  desired. To see which layouts are available, use the layout
       show command.

       layout show

       List on the message line the number(s) and title(s)  of  the  available
       layout(s). The current layout is flagged.

       layout title [title]

       Change  or display the title of the current layout. A string given will
       be used to name the layout. Without any options, the current title  and
       number is displayed on the message line.

       layout number [n]

       Change  or  display  the number of the current layout. An integer given
       will be used to number the layout. Without  any  options,  the  current
       number and title is displayed on the message line.

       layout attach [title|:last]

       Change  or  display  which  layout  to reattach back to. The default is
       :last, which tells screen to reattach back to the last used layout just
       before  detachment.  By  supplying  a title, You can instruct screen to
       reattach to a particular layout regardless which one was  used  at  the
       time of detachment. Without any options, the layout to reattach to will
       be shown in the message line.

       layout save [n|title]

       Remember the current arrangement of regions. When used, screen will re-
       member  the  arrangement  of vertically and horizontally split regions.
       This arrangement is restored when a screen  session  is  reattached  or
       switched  back  from  a  different  layout.  If the session ends or the
       screen process dies, the layout arrangements are lost. The layout  dump
       command  should  help  in  this siutation. If a number or title is sup-
       plied, screen will remember the arrangement of that particular  layout.
       Without any options, screen will remember the current layout.

       Saving  your  regions can be done automatically by using the layout au-
       tosave command.

       layout autosave [on|off]

       Change or display the status of automatcally saving  layouts.  The  de-
       fault  is on, meaning when screen is detached or changed to a different
       layout, the arrangement of regions and windows will  be  remembered  at
       the  time  of  change  and restored upon return.  If autosave is set to
       off, that arrangement will only be restored to either to the last  man-
       ual  save,  using layout save, or to when the layout was first created,
       to a single region with a single window. Without either an on  or  off,
       the current status is displayed on the message line.

       layout dump [filename]

       Write to a file the order of splits made in the current layout. This is
       useful to recreate the order of your regions used in your current  lay-
       out.  Only  the  current layout is recorded. While the order of the re-
       gions are recorded, the sizes of those regions and which windows corre-
       spond  to  which  regions are not. If no filename is specified, the de-
       fault is layout-dump, saved in the directory that  the  screen  process
       was  started in. If the file already exists, layout dump will append to
       that file. As an example:

                C-a : layout dump /home/user/.screenrc

       will save or append the layout to the user's .screenrc file.


       Display the disclaimer page. This is done whenever  screen  is  started
       without   options,   which   should  be  often  enough.  See  also  the
       "startup_message" command.


       Lock this  display.   Call  a  screenlock  program  (/local/bin/lck  or
       /usr/bin/lock  or  a builtin if no other is available). Screen does not
       accept any command keys until this program terminates.  Meanwhile  pro-
       cesses  in  the  windows  may  continue, as the windows are in the `de-
       tached' state. The screenlock program may be changed through the  envi-
       ronment  variable  $LOCKPRG  (which must be set in the shell from which
       screen is started) and is executed with the user's uid and gid.

       Warning: When you leave other shells unlocked and you have no  password
       set on screen, the lock is void: One could easily re-attach from an un-
       locked shell. This feature should rather be called `lockterminal'.

       log [on|off]

       Start/stop writing output of the current window to a file "screenlog.n"
       in the window's default directory, where n is the number of the current
       window. This filename can be changed with the `logfile' command. If  no
       parameter is given, the state of logging is toggled. The session log is
       appended to the previous contents of the file if it already exists. The
       current contents and the contents of the scrollback history are not in-
       cluded in the session log.  Default is `off'.

       logfile filename

       logfile flush secs

       Defines the name the log files will get. The default is "screenlog.%n".
       The  second  form changes the number of seconds screen will wait before
       flushing the logfile buffer to the file-system. The default value is 10

       login [on|off]

       Adds  or  removes  the  entry in the utmp database file for the current
       window.  This controls if the window is `logged in'.  When no parameter
       is  given,  the  login state of the window is toggled.  Additionally to
       that toggle, it is convenient having a `log in' and a  `log  out'  key.
       E.g. `bind I login on' and `bind O login off' will map these keys to be
       C-a I and C-a O.  The default setting (in should  be  "on"
       for  a screen that runs under suid-root.  Use the "deflogin" command to
       change the default login state for new windows. Both commands are  only
       present when screen has been compiled with utmp support.

       logtstamp [on|off]

       logtstamp after [secs]

       logtstamp string

       This command controls logfile time-stamp mechanism of screen.  If time-
       stamps are turned "on", screen adds a  string  containing  the  current
       time  to the logfile after two minutes of inactivity.  When output con-
       tinues and more than another two minutes have passed,  a  second  time-
       stamp  is  added  to document the restart of the output. You can change
       this timeout with the second form of the command.  The  third  form  is
       used  for customizing the time-stamp string (`-- %n:%t -- time-stamp --
       %M/%d/%y %c:%s --\n' by default).


       Tell screen that the next input character should only be looked  up  in
       the default bindkey table. See also "bindkey".


       Like mapdefault, but don't even look in the default bindkey table.

       maptimeout [timeout]

       Set the inter-character timer for input sequence detection to a timeout
       of timeout ms. The default timeout is 300ms. Maptimeout with  no  argu-
       ments shows the current setting.  See also "bindkey".

       markkeys string

       This  is  a  method  of changing the keymap used for copy/history mode.
       The string is made up of oldchar=newchar pairs which are  separated  by
       `:'. Example: The string "B=^B:F=^F" will change the keys `C-b' and `C-
       f' to the vi style binding (scroll up/down fill page).  This happens to
       be  the  default  binding  for  `B'  and  `F'.   The  command "markkeys
       h=^B:l=^F:$=^E" would set the mode for an emacs-style binding.  If your
       terminal sends characters, that cause you to abort copy mode, then this
       command may help by binding these characters to do nothing.  The  no-op
       character  is `@' and is used like this: "markkeys @=L=H" if you do not
       want to use the `H' or `L' commands any longer.  As shown in this exam-
       ple,  multiple  keys can be assigned to one function in a single state-

       maxwin num

       Set the maximum window number screen will create.  Doesn't  affect  al-
       ready existing windows. The number can be increased only when there are
       no existing windows.


       Insert the command  character  (C-a)  in  the  current  window's  input

       monitor [on|off]

       Toggles  activity  monitoring of windows.  When monitoring is turned on
       and an affected window is switched into the background,  you  will  re-
       ceive the activity notification message in the status line at the first
       sign of output and the window will also be marked with an  `@'  in  the
       window-status display.  Monitoring is initially off for all windows.

       mousetrack [on|off]

       This  command  determines  whether  screen will watch for mouse clicks.
       When this command is enabled, regions that have been split  in  various
       ways can be selected by pointing to them with a mouse and left-clicking
       them. Without specifying on or off, the current state is displayed. The
       default state is determined by the "defmousetrack" command.

       msgminwait sec

       Defines  the  time screen delays a new message when one message is cur-
       rently displayed.  The default is 1 second.

       msgwait sec

       Defines the time a message is displayed if screen is not  disturbed  by
       other activity. The default is 5 seconds.

       multiuser on|off

       Switch between singleuser and multiuser mode. Standard screen operation
       is singleuser. In  multiuser  mode  the  commands  `acladd',  `aclchg',
       `aclgrp'  and  `acldel' can be used to enable (and disable) other users
       accessing this screen session.

       nethack on|off

       Changes the kind of error messages used by screen.  When you are famil-
       iar  with  the game "nethack", you may enjoy the nethack-style messages
       which will often blur the facts a little, but are much funnier to read.
       Anyway, standard messages often tend to be unclear as well.
       This  option  is only available if screen was compiled with the NETHACK
       flag defined. The default setting is then determined by the presence of
       the environment variable $NETHACKOPTIONS and the file ~/.nethackrc - if
       either one is present, the default is on.


       Switch to the next window.  This command can be used repeatedly to  cy-
       cle through the list of windows.

       nonblock [on|off|numsecs]

       Tell  screen  how to deal with user interfaces (displays) that cease to
       accept output. This can happen if a user presses ^S or a TCP/modem con-
       nection gets cut but no hangup is received. If nonblock is off (this is
       the default) screen waits until the display restarts to accept the out-
       put.  If  nonblock is on, screen waits until the timeout is reached (on
       is treated as 1s). If the display  still  doesn't  receive  characters,
       screen will consider it "blocked" and stop sending characters to it. If
       at some time it restarts to accept characters, screen will unblock  the
       display and redisplay the updated window contents.

       number [[+|-]n]

       Change  the  current  window's number. If the given number n is already
       used by another window, both windows exchange their numbers. If no  ar-
       gument  is  specified,  the current window number (and title) is shown.
       Using `+' or `-' will change the window's number by the relative amount

       obuflimit [limit]

       If  the  output buffer contains more bytes than the specified limit, no
       more data will be read from the windows. The default value is  256.  If
       you  have  a  fast  display (like xterm), you can set it to some higher
       value. If no argument is specified, the current setting is displayed.


       Kill all regions but the current one.


       Switch to the window displayed  previously.  If  this  window  does  no
       longer exist, other has the same effect as next.

       partial on|off

       Defines whether the display should be refreshed (as with redisplay) af-
       ter switching to the current window. This command only affects the cur-
       rent window.  To immediately affect all windows use the allpartial com-
       mand.  Default is `off', of course.  This default is fixed, as there is
       currently no defpartial command.

       password [crypted_pw]

       Present a crypted password in your ".screenrc" file and screen will ask
       for it, whenever someone attempts to resume a detached. This is  useful
       if  you  have  privileged programs running under screen and you want to
       protect your session from reattach attempts by another user  masquerad-
       ing as your uid (i.e. any superuser.)  If no crypted password is speci-
       fied, screen prompts twice for typing a password and places its encryp-
       tion  in  the  paste buffer.  Default is `none', this disables password

       paste [registers [dest_reg]]

       Write the (concatenated) contents of the  specified  registers  to  the
       stdin  queue  of the current window. The register '.' is treated as the
       paste buffer. If no parameter is given the user is prompted for a  sin-
       gle  register  to paste.  The paste buffer can be filled with the copy,
       history and readbuf commands.  Other registers can be filled  with  the
       register, readreg and paste commands.  If paste is called with a second
       argument, the contents of the specified registers is  pasted  into  the
       named  destination  register  rather than the window. If '.' is used as
       the second argument, the displays  paste  buffer  is  the  destination.
       Note,  that "paste" uses a wide variety of resources: Whenever a second
       argument is specified no current window  is  needed.  When  the  source
       specification only contains registers (not the paste buffer) then there
       need not be a current display (terminal attached), as the registers are
       a global resource. The paste buffer exists once for every user.

       pastefont [on|off]

       Tell  screen  to  include font information in the paste buffer. The de-
       fault is not to do so. This command  is  especially  useful  for  multi
       character fonts like kanji.


       Reopen  the  window's  terminal  line  and  send a break condition. See


       Power detach.  Mainly the same as detach, but also sends a HANGUP  sig-
       nal  to  the  parent process of screen.  CAUTION: This will result in a
       logout, when screen was started from your login-shell.

       pow_detach_msg [message]

       The message specified here is output whenever a `Power detach' was per-
       formed.  It may be used as a replacement for a logout message or to re-
       set baud rate, etc.  Without parameter, the current message is shown.


       Switch to the window with the next lower number.  This command  can  be
       used repeatedly to cycle through the list of windows.

       printcmd [cmd]

       If  cmd  is not an empty string, screen will not use the terminal capa-
       bilities "po/pf" if it detects an ansi print sequence ESC [  5  i,  but
       pipe the output into cmd.  This should normally be a command like "lpr"
       or "'cat > /tmp/scrprint'".  printcmd without a  command  displays  the
       current  setting.  The ansi sequence ESC \ ends printing and closes the

       Warning: Be careful with this command! If other user have write  access
       to your terminal, they will be able to fire off print commands.

       process [key]

       Stuff the contents of the specified register into screen's input queue.
       If no argument is given you are prompted for a register name. The  text
       is  parsed  as  if  it had been typed in from the user's keyboard. This
       command can be used to bind multiple actions to a single key.


       Kill all windows and terminate screen.  Note that on VT100-style termi-
       nals  the keys C-4 and C-\ are identical.  This makes the default bind-
       ings dangerous: Be careful not to type C-a C-4  when  selecting  window
       no.  4.  Use the empty bind command (as in "bind '^\'") to remove a key

       readbuf [encoding] [filename]

       Reads the contents of the specified file into the  paste  buffer.   You
       can tell screen the encoding of the file via the -e option.  If no file
       is specified, the screen-exchange filename is used.  See also  "buffer-
       file" command.

       readreg [encoding] [register [filename]]

       Does  one of two things, dependent on number of arguments: with zero or
       one arguments it duplicates the paste buffer contents into the register
       specified  or  entered  at  the prompt. With two arguments it reads the
       contents of the named file into the register, just as readbuf reads the
       screen-exchange  file  into  the paste buffer.  You can tell screen the
       encoding of the file via the -e option.   The  following  example  will
       paste the system's password file into the screen window (using register
       p, where a copy remains):

                C-a : readreg p /etc/passwd
                C-a : paste p


       Redisplay the current window. Needed to get a full  redisplay  when  in
       partial redraw mode.

       register [-eencoding]key-string

       Save  the  specified  string  to the register key.  The encoding of the
       string can be specified via the -e option.  See also the  "paste"  com-


       Kill the current region. This is a no-op if there is only one region.


       Unlinks  the  screen-exchange  file used by the commands "writebuf" and

       rendition bell | monitor | silence | so  attr  [ color ]

       Change the way screen renders the titles of windows that  have  monitor
       or  bell  flags  set  in  caption  or hardstatus or windowlist. See the
       "STRING ESCAPES" chapter for the syntax of the modifiers.  The  default
       for  monitor  is currently "=b " (bold, active colors), for bell "=ub "
       (underline, bold and active colors), and "=u " for silence.


       Reset the virtual  terminal  to  its  "power-on"  values.  Useful  when
       strange  settings  (like  scroll regions or graphics character set) are
       left over from an application.

       resize [-h|-v|-b|-l|-p] [[+|-] n[%] |=|max|min|_|0]

       Resize the current region. The space will be removed from or  added  to
       the  surrounding  regions  depending  on  the order of the splits.  The
       available options for resizing  are  `-h'(horizontal),  `-v'(vertical),
       `-b'(both),  `-l'(local  to layer), and `-p'(perpendicular). Horizontal
       resizes will add or remove width to a region, vertical will add or  re-
       move height, and both will add or remove size from both dimensions. Lo-
       cal and perpendicular are similar to horizontal and vertical, but  they
       take  in  account  of how a region was split.  If a region's last split
       was horizontal, a local resize will work like a vertical resize.  If  a
       region's last split was vertical, a local resize will work like a hori-
       zontal resize. Perpendicular resizes work in opposite of local resizes.
       If no option is specified, local is the default.

       The  amount of lines to add or remove can be expressed a couple of dif-
       ferent ways. By specifying a number n by itself will resize the  region
       by that absolute amount. You can specify a relative amount by prefixing
       a plus `+' or minus `-' to the amount, such as adding +n lines  or  re-
       moving -n lines. Resizing can also be expressed as an absolute or rela-
       tive percentage by postfixing a percent sign `%'. Using zero `0'  is  a
       synonym for `min' and using an underscore `_' is a synonym for `max'.

       Some examples are:

       resize +N
              increase current region by N

       resize -N
              decrease current region by N

       resize  N
              set current region to N

       resize 20%
              set current region to 20% of original size

       resize +20%
              increase current region by 20%

       resize -b =
              make all windows equally

       resize  max
              maximize current region

       resize  min
              minimize current region

       Without any arguments, screen will prompt for how you would like to re-
       size the current region.

       See "focusminsize" if you want to restrict the minimum  size  a  region
       can have.

       screen [-opts] [n] [cmd [args]|//group]

       Establish  a  new  window.  The flow-control options (-f, -fn and -fa),
       title (a.k.a.) option (-t), login options (-l and -ln) , terminal  type
       option  (-T <term>), the all-capability-flag (-a) and scrollback option
       (-h <num>) may be specified with each command.  The option  (-M)  turns
       monitoring on for this window.  The option (-L) turns output logging on
       for this window.  If an optional number n in the range  0..MAXWIN-1  is
       given, the window number n is assigned to the newly created window (or,
       if this number is already in-use, the next  available  number).   If  a
       command is specified after "screen", this command (with the given argu-
       ments) is started in the window; otherwise, a  shell  is  created.   If
       //group  is supplied, a container-type window is created in which other
       windows may be created inside it.

       Thus, if your ".screenrc" contains the lines

                # example for .screenrc:
                screen 1
                screen -fn -t foobar -L 2 telnet foobar

       screen creates a shell window (in window #1) and a window with a TELNET
       connection  to the machine foobar (with no flow-control using the title
       "foobar" in window #2) and will write a logfile ("screenlog.2") of  the
       telnet session.  Note, that unlike previous versions of screen no addi-
       tional default window is created when "screen" commands are included in
       your  ".screenrc"  file.  When  the initialization is completed, screen
       switches to the last window specified in your  .screenrc  file  or,  if
       none, opens a default window #0.

       Screen  has built in some functionality of "cu" and "telnet".  See also
       chapter "WINDOW TYPES".

       scrollback num

       Set the size of the scrollback buffer for the current  windows  to  num
       lines.  The  default scrollback is 100 lines.  See also the "defscroll-
       back" command and use "info" to view the current setting. To access and
       use the contents in the scrollback buffer, use the "copy" command.

       select [WindowID]

       Switch to the window identified by WindowID.  This can be a prefix of a
       window title (alphanumeric window name) or a window number.  The param-
       eter  is  optional  and if omitted, you get prompted for an identifier.
       When a new window is established, the first  available  number  is  as-
       signed to this window.  Thus, the first window can be activated by "se-
       lect 0".  The number of windows  is  limited  at  compile-time  by  the
       MAXWIN  configuration  parameter (which defaults to 40).  There are two
       special WindowIDs, "-" selects the internal blank window  and  "."  se-
       lects  the  current  window. The latter is useful if used with screen's
       "-X" option.

       sessionname [name]

       Rename the current session. Note, that  for  "screen  -list"  the  name
       shows up with the process-id prepended. If the argument "name" is omit-
       ted, the name of this session is displayed. Caution: The $STY  environ-
       ment  variables will still reflect the old name in pre-existing shells.
       This may result in confusion. Use of this command is generally discour-
       aged.  Use  the "-S" command-line option if you want to name a new ses-
       sion.  The default is constructed from the tty and host names.

       setenv [var [string]]

       Set the environment variable var to value string.  If only var is spec-
       ified,  the  user  will be prompted to enter a value.  If no parameters
       are specified, the user will be prompted for both variable  and  value.
       The environment is inherited by all subsequently forked shells.

       setsid [on|off]

       Normally screen uses different sessions and process groups for the win-
       dows. If setsid is turned off, this is not done anymore and all windows
       will  be  in the same process group as the screen backend process. This
       also breaks job-control, so be careful.  The default is on, of  course.
       This command is probably useful only in rare circumstances.

       shell command

       Set  the  command to be used to create a new shell.  This overrides the
       value of the environment variable $SHELL.  This is useful if you'd like
       to  run a tty-enhancer which is expecting to execute the program speci-
       fied in $SHELL.  If the command begins with a '-' character, the  shell
       will  be  started as a login-shell. Typical shells do only minimal ini-
       tialization when not started as a login-shell.  E.g. Bash will not read
       your "~/.bashrc" unless it is a login-shell.

       shelltitle title

       Set  the  title for all shells created during startup or by the C-A C-c
       command.  For details about what a title is, see the  discussion  enti-
       tled "TITLES (naming windows)".

       silence [on|off|sec]

       Toggles  silence  monitoring of windows.  When silence is turned on and
       an affected window is switched into the background,  you  will  receive
       the  silence  notification message in the status line after a specified
       period of inactivity (silence). The default timeout can be changed with
       the  `silencewait' command or by specifying a number of seconds instead
       of `on' or `off'.  Silence is initially off for all windows.

       silencewait sec

       Define the time that all windows monitored for silence should wait  be-
       fore displaying a message. Default 30 seconds.

       sleep num

       This  command will pause the execution of a .screenrc file for num sec-
       onds.  Keyboard activity will end the sleep.  It may be  used  to  give
       users a chance to read the messages output by "echo".

       slowpaste msec

       Define  the  speed at which text is inserted into the current window by
       the paste ("C-a ]") command.  If the slowpaste value is nonzero text is
       written  character by character.  screen will make a pause of msec mil-
       liseconds after each single character write to allow the application to
       process its input. Only use slowpaste if your underlying system exposes
       flow control problems while pasting large amounts of text.


       Sort the windows in alphabetical order of the window tiles.

       source file

       Read and execute commands from file file. Source commands may be nested
       to  a  maximum  recursion level of ten. If file is not an absolute path
       and screen is already processing a source command, the parent directory
       of  the  running source command file is used to search for the new com-
       mand file before screen's current directory.

       Note that termcap/terminfo/termcapinfo commands only  work  at  startup
       and  reattach  time,  so  they must be reached via the default screenrc
       files to have an effect.

       sorendition [attr[color]]

       This command is deprecated. See "rendition so" instead.


       Split the current region into two new ones. All regions on the  display
       are  resized  to make room for the new region. The blank window is dis-
       played in the new region. The default is to create a horizontal  split,
       putting the new regions on the top and bottom of each other. Using `-v'
       will create a vertical split, causing the new regions to appear side by
       side  of  each other.  Use the "remove" or the "only" command to delete
       regions.  Use "focus" to toggle between regions.

       When a region is split opposite of how it was  previously  split  (that
       is,  vertical then horizontal or horizontal then vertical), a new layer
       is created. The layer is used to group together the  regions  that  are
       split  the  same.  Normally,  as a user, you should not see nor have to
       worry about layers, but they will affect how some commands ("focus" and
       "resize") behave.

       With  this current implementation of screen, scrolling data will appear
       much slower in a vertically split region than one  that  is  not.  This
       should  be  taken into consideration if you need to use system commands
       such as "cat" or "tail -f".

       startup_message on|off

       Select whether you want to see the  copyright  notice  during  startup.
       Default is `on', as you probably noticed.

       status [top|up|down|bottom] [left|right]

       The status window by default is in bottom-left corner. This command can
       move status messages to any corner of the screen. top is  the  same  as
       up, down is the same as bottom.

       stuff [string]

       Stuff  the  string  string  in  the input buffer of the current window.
       This is like the "paste" command but with much less overhead.   Without
       a  parameter,  screen  will  prompt  for a string to stuff.  You cannot
       paste large buffers with the "stuff" command. It is most useful for key
       bindings. See also "bindkey".

       su [username [password [password2]]]

       Substitute  the  user of a display. The command prompts for all parame-
       ters that are omitted. If passwords are specified as  parameters,  they
       have  to be specified un-crypted. The first password is matched against
       the systems passwd database, the second password is matched against the
       screen  password as set with the commands "acladd" or "password".  "Su"
       may be useful for the screen administrator to  test  multiuser  setups.
       When  the  identification  fails,  the  user has access to the commands
       available for user nobody.  These are "detach",  "license",  "version",
       "help" and "displays".


       Suspend  screen.  The windows are in the `detached' state, while screen
       is suspended. This feature relies on the shell being  able  to  do  job

       term term

       In each window's environment screen opens, the $TERM variable is set to
       "screen" by default.  But when no description for "screen" is installed
       in  the  local  termcap or terminfo data base, you set $TERM to - say -
       "vt100". This won't do much harm, as screen is  VT100/ANSI  compatible.
       The  use  of the "term" command is discouraged for non-default purpose.
       That is, one may want to specify special $TERM  settings  (e.g.  vt100)
       for  the  next  "screen  rlogin  othermachine" command. Use the command
       "screen -T vt100 rlogin othermachine" rather than setting and resetting
       the default.

       termcap term terminal-tweaks[window-tweaks]

       terminfo term terminal-tweaks[window-tweaks]

       termcapinfo term terminal-tweaks[window-tweaks]

       Use  this command to modify your terminal's termcap entry without going
       through all the hassles involved in creating a  custom  termcap  entry.
       Plus,  you  can optionally customize the termcap generated for the win-
       dows.  You have to place these commands in one of the screenrc  startup
       files, as they are meaningless once the terminal emulator is booted.

       If  your  system uses the terminfo database rather than termcap, screen
       will understand the `terminfo' command, which has the same  effects  as
       the  `termcap'  command.   Two separate commands are provided, as there
       are subtle syntactic differences,  e.g.  when  parameter  interpolation
       (using  `%')  is  required. Note that termcap names of the capabilities
       have to be used with the `terminfo' command.

       In many cases, where the arguments are valid in both terminfo and term-
       cap  syntax,  you  can  use  the command `termcapinfo', which is just a
       shorthand for a pair of `termcap' and `terminfo' commands with  identi-
       cal arguments.

       The  first  argument  specifies which terminal(s) should be affected by
       this definition.  You can specify multiple terminal names by separating
       them  with `|'s.  Use `*' to match all terminals and `vt*' to match all
       terminals that begin with "vt".

       Each tweak argument contains one or more termcap defines (separated  by
       `:'s) to be inserted at the start of the appropriate termcap entry, en-
       hancing it or overriding existing values.   The  first  tweak  modifies
       your  terminal's  termcap,  and contains definitions that your terminal
       uses to perform certain functions.  Specify a null string to leave this
       unchanged (e.g. '').  The second (optional) tweak modifies all the win-
       dow termcaps, and should contain definitions  that  screen  understands
       (see the "VIRTUAL TERMINAL" section).

       Some examples:

              termcap xterm*  LP:hs@

       Informs  screen  that  all  terminals that begin with `xterm' have firm
       auto-margins that allow the last position on the screen to  be  updated
       (LP), but they don't really have a status line (no 'hs' - append `@' to
       turn entries off).  Note that we assume `LP'  for  all  terminal  names
       that  start  with "vt", but only if you don't specify a termcap command
       for that terminal.
              termcap vt*  LP

       termcap vt102|vt220  Z0=\E[?3h:Z1=\E[?3l

       Specifies the firm-margined `LP' capability for all terminals that  be-
       gin  with  `vt', and the second line will also add the escape-sequences
       to switch into (Z0) and back out of (Z1) 132-character-per-line mode if
       this  is a VT102 or VT220.  (You must specify Z0 and Z1 in your termcap
       to use the width-changing commands.)

              termcap vt100  ""  l0=PF1:l1=PF2:l2=PF3:l3=PF4

       This leaves your vt100 termcap alone and adds the function  key  labels
       to each window's termcap entry.

              termcap h19|z19  am@:im=\E@:ei=\EO  dc=\E[P

       Takes a h19 or z19 termcap and turns off auto-margins (am@) and enables
       the insert mode (im) and end-insert (ei) capabilities (the `@'  in  the
       `im' string is after the `=', so it is part of the string).  Having the
       `im' and `ei' definitions put into your terminal's termcap  will  cause
       screen  to  automatically  advertise the character-insert capability in
       each window's termcap.  Each window will also get the  delete-character
       capability  (dc) added to its termcap, which screen will translate into
       a line-update for the terminal (we're  pretending  it  doesn't  support
       character deletion).

       If  you  would  like  to fully specify each window's termcap entry, you
       should instead set the $SCREENCAP variable  prior  to  running  screen.
       See  the  discussion  on the "VIRTUAL TERMINAL" in this manual, and the
       termcap(5) man page for more information on termcap definitions.

       time   [string]

       Uses the message line to display the time of day, the  host  name,  and
       the  load  averages  over 1, 5, and 15 minutes (if this is available on
       your system).  For window specific information, use "info".

       If a string is specified, it changes the format of the time report like
       it  is described in the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter. Screen uses a default
       of "%c:%s %M %d %H%? %l%?".

       title [windowtitle]

       Set the name of the current window to windowtitle. If no name is speci-
       fied, screen prompts for one. This command was known as `aka' in previ-
       ous releases.


       Unbind all the bindings. This can be useful when screen is used  solely
       for its detaching abilities, such as when letting a console application
       run as a daemon. If, for some reason, it is necessary to bind  commands
       after this, use 'screen -X'.

       unsetenv var

       Unset an environment variable.

       utf8 [on|off[on|off]]

       Change the encoding used in the current window. If utf8 is enabled, the
       strings sent to the window will be UTF-8 encoded and vice versa.  Omit-
       ting the parameter toggles the setting. If a second parameter is given,
       the display's encoding is also changed (this should rather be done with
       screen's  "-U"  option).  See also "defutf8", which changes the default
       setting of a new window.

       vbell [on|off]

       Sets the visual bell setting for this window.  Omitting  the  parameter
       toggles  the  setting.  If vbell is switched on, but your terminal does
       not support a visual bell, a `vbell-message' is displayed in the status
       line  when the bell character (^G) is received.  Visual bell support of
       a terminal is defined by the termcap variable `vb' (terminfo: 'flash').

       Per default, vbell is off, thus the audible bell  is  used.   See  also

       vbell_msg [message]

       Sets  the visual bell message. message is printed to the status line if
       the window receives a bell character (^G), vbell is set  to  "on",  but
       the  terminal  does  not support a visual bell.  The default message is
       "Wuff, Wuff!!".  Without a parameter, the current message is shown.

       vbellwait sec

       Define a delay in seconds after each display of  screen's  visual  bell
       message. The default is 1 second.

       verbose [on|off]

       If  verbose is switched on, the command name is echoed, whenever a win-
       dow is created (or resurrected from  zombie  state).  Default  is  off.
       Without a parameter, the current setting is shown.


       Print the current version and the compile date in the status line.

       wall message

       Write  a message to all displays. The message will appear in the termi-
       nal's status line.

       width [-w|-d] [cols [lines]]

       Toggle the window width between 80 and 132 columns or set  it  to  cols
       columns  if an argument is specified.  This requires a capable terminal
       and the termcap entries "Z0" and "Z1".  See the "termcap"  command  for
       more  information.  You  can  also  specify a new height if you want to
       change both values.  The -w option tells screen to  leave  the  display
       size unchanged and just set the window size, -d vice versa.

       windowlist [-b] [-m] [-g]

       windowlist string [string]

       windowlist title [title]

       Display  all windows in a table for visual window selection.  If screen
       was in a window group, screen will back out of the group and then  dis-
       play the windows in that group.  If the -b option is given, screen will
       switch to the blank window before presenting the list, so that the cur-
       rent window is also selectable.  The -m option changes the order of the
       windows, instead of sorting by window numbers screen uses its  internal
       most-recently-used  list.   The  -g option will show the windows inside
       any groups in that level and downwards.

       The following keys are used to navigate in "windowlist":

       k, C-p, or up      Move up one line.
       j, C-n, or down    Move down one line.
       C-g or escape      Exit windowlist.
       C-a or home        Move to the first line.
       C-e or end         Move to the last line.
       C-u or C-d         Move one half page up or down.
       C-b or C-f         Move one full page up or down.
       0..9               Using the number keys, move to the selected line.
       mouseclick         Move to the selected line. Available when "mouse-
                          track" is set to "on"

       /                  Search.
       n                  Repeat search in the forward direction.
       N                  Repeat search in the backward direction.
       m                  Toggle MRU.

       g                  Toggle group nesting.
       a                  All window view.
       C-h or backspace   Back out the group.
       ,                  Switch numbers with the previous window.
       .                  Switch numbers with the next window.
       K                  Kill that window.
       space or enter     Select that window.

       The  table  format can be changed with the string and title option, the
       title is displayed as table heading, while the lines are made by  using
       the  string  setting.  The default setting is "Num Name%=Flags" for the
       title and "%3n %t%=%f" for the lines.  See the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter
       for more codes (e.g. color settings).

       "Windowlist"  needs  a region size of at least 10 characters wide and 6
       characters high in order to display.

       windows [ string ]

       Uses the message line to display a list of all the windows.  Each  win-
       dow  is listed by number with the name of process that has been started
       in the window (or its title); the current window is marked with a  `*';
       the  previous  window  is  marked  with a `-'; all the windows that are
       "logged in" are marked with a `$'; a background  window  that  has  re-
       ceived  a  bell is marked with a `!'; a background window that is being
       monitored and has had activity occur is marked with an  `@';  a  window
       which  has output logging turned on is marked with `(L)'; windows occu-
       pied by other users are marked with `&'; windows in  the  zombie  state
       are marked with `Z'.  If this list is too long to fit on the terminal's
       status line only the portion around the current  window  is  displayed.
       The  optional string parameter follows the "STRING ESCAPES" format.  If
       string parameter is passed, the output size is unlimited.  The  default
       command without any parameter is limited to a size of 1024 bytes.

       wrap [on|off]

       Sets  the  line-wrap setting for the current window.  When line-wrap is
       on, the second consecutive printable character output at the last  col-
       umn  of  a  line  will  wrap to the start of the following line.  As an
       added feature, backspace (^H) will also wrap through the left margin to
       the  previous line.  Default is `on'. Without any options, the state of
       wrap is toggled.

       writebuf [-e encoding] [filename]

       Writes the contents of the paste buffer to the specified file,  or  the
       public accessible screen-exchange file if no filename is given. This is
       thought of as a primitive means of communication between  screen  users
       on  the  same host. If an encoding is specified the paste buffer is re-
       coded on the fly to match the encoding.  The filename can be  set  with
       the bufferfile command and defaults to "/tmp/screen-exchange".

       writelock [on|off|auto]

       In addition to access control lists, not all users may be able to write
       to the same window at once. Per default, writelock is  in  `auto'  mode
       and  grants  exclusive input permission to the user who is the first to
       switch to the particular window. When he leaves the window, other users
       may  obtain the writelock (automatically). The writelock of the current
       window is disabled by the command "writelock off". If the  user  issues
       the  command  "writelock  on"  he  keeps the exclusive write permission
       while switching to other windows.



       Insert a CTRL-s / CTRL-q character to the stdin queue  of  the  current

       zmodem [off|auto|catch|pass]

       zmodem sendcmd [string]

       zmodem recvcmd [string]

       Define  zmodem  support  for  screen.  Screen understands two different
       modes when it detects a zmodem request: "pass"  and  "catch".   If  the
       mode is set to "pass", screen will relay all data to the attacher until
       the end of the transmission is reached.  In "catch" mode screen acts as
       a  zmodem  endpoint and starts the corresponding rz/sz commands. If the
       mode is set to "auto", screen will use "catch" if the window is  a  tty
       (e.g. a serial line), otherwise it will use "pass".

       You can define the templates screen uses in "catch" mode via the second
       and the third form.

       Note also that this is an experimental feature.

       zombie [keys[onerror]]

       Per default screen windows are removed from the window list as soon  as
       the  windows  process  (e.g. shell) exits. When a string of two keys is
       specified to the zombie command, `dead'  windows  will  remain  in  the
       list.   The  kill command may be used to remove such a window. Pressing
       the first key in the dead window has the same effect. When pressing the
       second  key,  screen  will attempt to resurrect the window. The process
       that was initially running in the window will be launched again.  Call-
       ing  zombie without parameters will clear the zombie setting, thus mak-
       ing windows disappear when their process exits.

       As the zombie-setting is manipulated globally  for  all  windows,  this
       command should probably be called defzombie, but it isn't.

       Optionally  you  can  put  the word "onerror" after the keys. This will
       cause screen to monitor exit status of the process running in the  win-
       dow.  If it exits normally ('0'), the window disappears. Any other exit
       value causes the window to become a zombie.


       Per default screen windows are removed from the window list as soon  as
       the  windows  process  (e.g.  shell)  exits. If zombie keys are defined
       (compare with above zombie command), it is possible to also set a time-
       out when screen tries to automatically reconnect a dead screen window.

       Screen  displays informational messages and other diagnostics in a mes-
       sage line.  While this line is distributed to appear at the  bottom  of
       the screen, it can be defined to appear at the top of the screen during
       compilation.  If your terminal has a status line defined in  its  term-
       cap, screen will use this for displaying its messages, otherwise a line
       of the current screen will be temporarily overwritten and  output  will
       be  momentarily  interrupted. The message line is automatically removed
       after a few seconds delay, but it can also be removed early (on  termi-
       nals without a status line) by beginning to type.

       The  message line facility can be used by an application running in the
       current window by means of the ANSI Privacy message  control  sequence.
       For instance, from within the shell, try something like:

              echo '<esc>^Hello world from window '$WINDOW'<esc>\\'

       where  '<esc>'  is an escape, '^' is a literal up-arrow, and '\\' turns
       into a single backslash.

       Screen provides three different window types. New windows  are  created
       with screen's screen command (see also the entry in chapter "CUSTOMIZA-
       TION"). The first parameter to the screen command defines which type of
       window  is created. The different window types are all special cases of
       the normal type. They have been added in order to allow  screen  to  be
       used efficiently as a console multiplexer with 100 or more windows.

       o  The  normal  window  contains  a  shell (default, if no parameter is
          given) or any other system command that could  be  executed  from  a
          shell (e.g.  slogin, etc...)

       o  If a tty (character special device) name (e.g. "/dev/ttya") is spec-
          ified as the first parameter, then the window is directly  connected
          to  this  device.   This  window  type  is  similar to "screen cu -l
          /dev/ttya".  Read and write access is required on the  device  node,
          an  exclusive  open  is attempted on the node to mark the connection
          line as busy.  An optional parameter  is  allowed  consisting  of  a
          comma separated list of flags in the notation used by stty(1):

                 Usually  300,  1200, 9600 or 19200. This affects transmission
                 as well as receive speed.

          cs8 or cs7
                 Specify the transmission of eight (or seven) bits per byte.

          ixon or -ixon
                 Enables (or disables) software  flow-control  (CTRL-S/CTRL-Q)
                 for sending data.

          ixoff or -ixoff
                 Enables  (or  disables)  software  flow-control for receiving

          istrip or -istrip
                 Clear (or keep) the eight bit in each received byte.

          You may want to specify as many of these options as applicable.  Un-
          specified options cause the terminal driver to make up the parameter
          values of the connection.  These values are system dependent and may
          be in defaults or values saved from a previous connection.

          For  tty  windows,  the info command shows some of the modem control
          lines in the status line. These may  include  `RTS',  `CTS',  'DTR',
          `DSR',  `CD'  and more.  This depends on the available ioctl()'s and
          system header files as well as the on the physical  capabilities  of
          the  serial  board.   Signals  that  are logical low (inactive) have
          their name preceded by an exclamation mark (!), otherwise the signal
          is logical high (active).  Signals not supported by the hardware but
          available to the ioctl() interface are usually shown low.

          When the CLOCAL status bit is true, the whole set of  modem  signals
          is  placed inside curly braces ({ and }).  When the CRTSCTS or TIOC-
          SOFTCAR bit is set, the signals `CTS' or `CD' are shown in parenthe-
          sis, respectively.

          For tty windows, the command break causes the Data transmission line
          (TxD) to go low for a specified period of time. This is expected  to
          be  interpreted  as break signal on the other side.  No data is sent
          and no modem control line is changed when a break is issued.

       o  If the first parameter is "//telnet", the second  parameter  is  ex-
          pected  to be a host name, and an optional third parameter may spec-
          ify a TCP port number (default decimal 23).  Screen will connect  to
          a server listening on the remote host and use the telnet protocol to
          communicate with that server.

       For telnet windows, the command info shows details about the connection
       in square brackets ([ and ]) at the end of the status line.

              b      BINARY. The connection is in binary mode.

              e      ECHO. Local echo is disabled.

              c      SGA.  The  connection  is  in  `character mode' (default:
                     `line mode').

              t      TTYPE. The terminal type has been requested by the remote
                     host.   Screen  sends the name "screen" unless instructed
                     otherwise (see also the command `term').

              w      NAWS. The remote  site  is  notified  about  window  size

              f      LFLOW.  The  remote  host will send flow control informa-
                     tion.  (Ignored at the moment.)

              Additional flags for debugging are x, t and n (XDISPLOC,  TSPEED
              and NEWENV).

              For  telnet windows, the command break sends the telnet code IAC
              BREAK (decimal 243) to the remote host.

              This window type is only available if screen was  compiled  with
              the ENABLE_TELNET option defined.

       Screen provides an escape mechanism to insert information like the cur-
       rent time into messages or file names. The escape character is '%' with
       one  exception: inside of a window's hardstatus '^%' ('^E') is used in-

       Here is the full list of supported escapes:

       %      the escape character itself

       E      sets %? to true if the escape character has been pressed.

       f      flags of the window, see "windows" for meanings of  the  various

       F      sets %? to true if the window has the focus

       h      hardstatus of the window

       H      hostname of the system

       n      window number

       P      sets %? to true if the current region is in copy/paste mode

       S      session name

       s      window size

       t      window title

       u      all other users on this window

       w      all window numbers and names. With '-' qualifier: up to the cur-
              rent window; with '+' qualifier: starting with the window  after
              the current one.

       W      all window numbers and names except the current one

       x      the executed command including arguments running in this windows

       X      the executed command without arguments running in this windows

       ?      the  part to the next '%?' is displayed only if a '%' escape in-
              side the part expands to a non-empty string

       :      else part of '%?'

       =      pad the string to the display's width (like TeX's hfill).  If  a
              number  is  specified,  pad  to  the  percentage of the window's
              width.  A '0' qualifier tells screen to treat the number as  ab-
              solute  position.   You  can specify to pad relative to the last
              absolute pad position by adding a '+' qualifier or to pad  rela-
              tive to the right margin by using '-'. The padding truncates the
              string if the specified position lies before the  current  posi-
              tion. Add the 'L' qualifier to change this.

       <      same as '%=' but just do truncation, do not fill with spaces

       >      mark  the  current  text  position for the next truncation. When
              screen needs to do truncation, it tries to do it in a  way  that
              the  marked  position  gets moved to the specified percentage of
              the output area. (The area starts from the last absolute pad po-
              sition  and  ends  with the position specified by the truncation
              operator.) The 'L' qualifier tells screen to mark the  truncated
              parts with '...'.

       {      attribute/color modifier string terminated by the next "}"

       `      Substitute  with  the output of a 'backtick' command. The length
              qualifier is misused to identify one of the commands.

       The 'c' and 'C' escape may be qualified with a '0' to make  screen  use
       zero  instead  of space as fill character. The '0' qualifier also makes
       the '=' escape use absolute positions. The 'n' and '='  escapes  under-
       stand a length qualifier (e.g. '%3n'), 'D' and 'M' can be prefixed with
       'L' to generate long names, 'w' and 'W' also show the window  flags  if
       'L' is given.

       An  attribute/color  modifier  is  used to change the attributes or the
       color settings. Its format is  "[attribute  modifier]  [color  descrip-
       tion]".  The attribute modifier must be prefixed by a change type indi-
       cator if it can be confused with a  color  description.  The  following
       change types are known:

       +      add the specified set to the current attributes

       -      remove the set from the current attributes

       !      invert the set in the current attributes

       =      change the current attributes to the specified set

       The  attribute set can either be specified as a hexadecimal number or a
       combination of the following letters:

       d      dim
       u      underline
       b      bold
       r      reverse
       s      standout
       B      blinking

       Colors are coded either as a hexadecimal number or two letters specify-
       ing  the  desired  background and foreground color (in that order). The
       following colors are known:

       k      black
       r      red
       g      green
       y      yellow
       b      blue
       m      magenta
       c      cyan
       w      white
       d      default color
       .      leave color unchanged

       The capitalized versions of the letter specify bright colors.  You  can
       also  use the pseudo-color 'i' to set just the brightness and leave the
       color unchanged.
       A one digit/letter color description is treated as foreground or  back-
       ground  color  dependent  on the current attributes: if reverse mode is
       set, the background color is changed instead of the  foreground  color.
       If  you  don't  like this, prefix the color with a ".". If you want the
       same behavior for two-letter color descriptions, also prefix them  with
       a ".".
       As  a special case, "%{-}" restores the attributes and colors that were
       set before the last change was made (i.e., pops one level of the color-
       change stack).


       "G"    set color to bright green

       "+b r" use bold red

       "= yd" clear  all  attributes,  write  in default color on yellow back-

       %-Lw%{= BW}%50>%n%f* %t%{-}%+Lw%<
              The available windows centered at the current window  and  trun-
              cated  to  the  available width. The current window is displayed
              white on blue.  This can be used  with  "hardstatus  alwayslast-

       %?%F%{.R.}%?%3n %t%? [%h]%?
              The  window number and title and the window's hardstatus, if one
              is set.  Also use a red background if this is the active  focus.
              Useful for "caption string".

       Each window has a flow-control setting that determines how screen deals
       with the XON and XOFF characters (and perhaps the interrupt character).
       When  flow-control is turned off, screen ignores the XON and XOFF char-
       acters, which allows the user to send them to the  current  program  by
       simply  typing  them  (useful for the emacs editor, for instance).  The
       trade-off is that it will take longer for output from a  "normal"  pro-
       gram to pause in response to an XOFF.  With flow-control turned on, XON
       and XOFF characters are used to immediately pause  the  output  of  the
       current  window.   You  can  still send these characters to the current
       program, but you must use the appropriate two-character screen commands
       (typically  "C-a  q"  (xon) and "C-a s" (xoff)).  The xon/xoff commands
       are also useful for typing C-s and C-q past a terminal that  intercepts
       these characters.

       Each  window  has  an initial flow-control value set with either the -f
       option or the "defflow" .screenrc command. Per default the windows  are
       set  to  automatic  flow-switching.  It can then be toggled between the
       three states 'fixed on', 'fixed off' and 'automatic' interactively with
       the "flow" command bound to "C-a f".

       The automatic flow-switching mode deals with flow control using the TI-
       OCPKT mode (like "rlogin" does). If the tty driver does not support TI-
       OCPKT,  screen  tries  to  find out the right mode based on the current
       setting of the application keypad - when it is enabled, flow-control is
       turned  off  and visa versa.  Of course, you can still manipulate flow-
       control manually when needed.

       If you're running with flow-control enabled and find that pressing  the
       interrupt  key  (usually  C-c) does not interrupt the display until an-
       other 6-8 lines have scrolled by, try running screen with  the  "inter-
       rupt"  option  (add  the "interrupt" flag to the "flow" command in your
       .screenrc, or use the -i command-line option).  This causes the  output
       that screen has accumulated from the interrupted program to be flushed.
       One disadvantage is that the virtual  terminal's  memory  contains  the
       non-flushed  version of the output, which in rare cases can cause minor
       inaccuracies in the output.  For example, if you switch screens and re-
       turn,  or  update  the screen with "C-a l" you would see the version of
       the output you would have gotten without "interrupt" being  on.   Also,
       you  might need to turn off flow-control (or use auto-flow mode to turn
       it off automatically) when running a program that expects you  to  type
       the  interrupt  character  as input, as it is possible to interrupt the
       output of the virtual terminal to your physical terminal when flow-con-
       trol  is enabled.  If this happens, a simple refresh of the screen with
       "C-a l" will restore it.  Give each mode a try, and use whichever  mode
       you find more comfortable.

TITLES (naming windows)
       You can customize each window's name in the window display (viewed with
       the "windows" command (C-a w)) by setting it with one of the title com-
       mands.   Normally  the name displayed is the actual command name of the
       program created in the window.  However, it is sometimes useful to dis-
       tinguish  various  programs  of the same name or to change the name on-
       the-fly to reflect the current state of the window.

       The default name for all shell windows can be set with the "shelltitle"
       command in the .screenrc file, while all other windows are created with
       a "screen" command and thus can have their name set with the -t option.
       Interactively,    there    is    the    title-string    escape-sequence
       (<esc>kname<esc>\) and the "title" command (C-a A).  The former can  be
       output  from an application to control the window's name under software
       control, and the latter will prompt for a name  when  typed.   You  can
       also  bind  pre-defined  names  to keys with the "title" command to set
       things quickly without prompting. Changing title  by  this  escape  se-
       quence can be controlled by defdynamictitle and dynamictitle commands.

       Finally,  screen has a shell-specific heuristic that is enabled by set-
       ting the window's name to "search|name" and arranging to  have  a  null
       title escape-sequence output as a part of your prompt.  The search por-
       tion specifies an end-of-prompt search string, while the  name  portion
       specifies the default shell name for the window.  If the name ends in a
       `:' screen will add what it believes to be the current command  running
       in  the window to the end of the window's shell name (e.g. "name:cmd").
       Otherwise the current command name supersedes the shell name  while  it
       is running.

       Here's  how  it  works:   you must modify your shell prompt to output a
       null title-escape-sequence (<esc>k<esc>\) as a  part  of  your  prompt.
       The  last part of your prompt must be the same as the string you speci-
       fied for the search portion of the title.  Once this is set up,  screen
       will  use  the title-escape-sequence to clear the previous command name
       and get ready for the next command.  Then, when a newline  is  received
       from  the shell, a search is made for the end of the prompt.  If found,
       it will grab the first word after the matched string and use it as  the
       command  name.  If the command name begins with either '!', '%', or '^'
       screen will use the first word on the  following  line  (if  found)  in
       preference  to  the  just-found  name.  This helps csh users get better
       command names when using job control or history recall commands.

       Here's some .screenrc examples:

              screen -t top 2 nice top

       Adding this line to your .screenrc would start a nice-d version of  the
       "top" command in window 2 named "top" rather than "nice".

                       shelltitle '> |csh'
                       screen 1

       These  commands would start a shell with the given shelltitle.  The ti-
       tle specified is an auto-title that would expect  the  prompt  and  the
       typed command to look something like the following:

              /usr/joe/src/dir> trn

       (it  looks  after  the  '>  ' for the command name).  The window status
       would show the name "trn" while the command was running, and revert  to
       "csh" upon completion.

              bind R screen -t '% |root:' su

       Having  this command in your .screenrc would bind the key sequence "C-a
       R" to the "su" command and give it an auto-title name of "root:".   For
       this auto-title to work, the screen could look something like this:

                       % !em
                       emacs file.c

       Here  the user typed the csh history command "!em" which ran the previ-
       ously  entered  "emacs"  command.   The  window   status   would   show
       "root:emacs"  during the execution of the command, and revert to simply
       "root:" at its completion.

                       bind o title
                       bind E title ""
                       bind u title (unknown)

       The first binding doesn't have any arguments, so it  would  prompt  you
       for  a  title when you type "C-a o".  The second binding would clear an
       auto-title's current setting (C-a E).  The third binding would set  the
       current window's title to "(unknown)" (C-a u).

       One  thing  to keep in mind when adding a null title-escape-sequence to
       your prompt is that some shells (like the csh) count all  the  non-con-
       trol  characters  as  part  of the prompt's length.  If these invisible
       characters aren't a multiple of 8 then backspacing over a tab will  re-
       sult  in  an incorrect display.  One way to get around this is to use a
       prompt like this:

              set prompt='^[[0000m^[k^[\% '

       The escape-sequence "<esc>[0000m" not only normalizes the character at-
       tributes,  but  all the zeros round the length of the invisible charac-
       ters up to 8.  Bash users will probably want to  echo  the  escape  se-
       quence in the PROMPT_COMMAND:

              PROMPT_COMMAND='printf "\033k\033\134"'

       (I used "\134" to output a `\' because of a bug in bash v1.04).

       Each  window  in  a screen session emulates a VT100 terminal, with some
       extra functions added. The VT100 emulator is hard-coded, no other  ter-
       minal types can be emulated.
       Usually  screen  tries to emulate as much of the VT100/ANSI standard as
       possible. But if your terminal lacks certain capabilities,  the  emula-
       tion  may not be complete. In these cases screen has to tell the appli-
       cations that some of the features are missing. This is  no  problem  on
       machines using termcap, because screen can use the $TERMCAP variable to
       customize the standard screen termcap.

       But if you do a rlogin on another machine or your machine supports only
       terminfo  this  method  fails.  Because of this, screen offers a way to
       deal with these cases.  Here is how it works:

       When screen tries to figure out a terminal name for  itself,  it  first
       looks  for an entry named "screen.<term>", where <term> is the contents
       of your $TERM variable.  If no such entry exists, screen tries "screen"
       (or  "screen-w"  if  the terminal is wide (132 cols or more)).  If even
       this entry cannot be found, "vt100" is used as a substitute.

       The idea is that if you have a terminal which doesn't support an impor-
       tant  feature  (e.g.  delete  char or clear to EOS) you can build a new
       termcap/terminfo entry for screen (named "screen.<dumbterm>") in  which
       this  capability  has been disabled. If this entry is installed on your
       machines you are able to do a rlogin and still keep the  correct  term-
       cap/terminfo  entry.  The terminal name is put in the $TERM variable of
       all new windows.  Screen also sets the $TERMCAP variable reflecting the
       capabilities of the virtual terminal emulated. Notice that, however, on
       machines using the terminfo database this variable has no effect.  Fur-
       thermore, the variable $WINDOW is set to the window number of each win-

       The actual set of capabilities supported by the  virtual  terminal  de-
       pends  on the capabilities supported by the physical terminal.  If, for
       instance, the physical  terminal  does  not  support  underscore  mode,
       screen  does  not  put the `us' and `ue' capabilities into the window's
       $TERMCAP variable, accordingly.  However, a minimum number of capabili-
       ties  must  be  supported  by a terminal in order to run screen; namely
       scrolling, clear screen, and direct  cursor  addressing  (in  addition,
       screen  does  not  run on hardcopy terminals or on terminals that over-

       Also, you can customize the $TERMCAP value used by screen by using  the
       "termcap"  .screenrc  command,  or  by defining the variable $SCREENCAP
       prior to startup.  When the latter is defined, its value will be copied
       verbatim  into each window's $TERMCAP variable.  This can either be the
       full terminal definition, or a filename  where  the  terminal  "screen"
       (and/or "screen-w") is defined.

       Note  that screen honors the "terminfo" .screenrc command if the system
       uses the terminfo database rather than termcap.

       When the boolean `G0' capability is present in the  termcap  entry  for
       the terminal on which screen has been called, the terminal emulation of
       screen supports multiple character sets.  This allows an application to
       make use of, for instance, the VT100 graphics character set or national
       character sets.  The following control functions from ISO 2022 are sup-
       ported:  lock  shift  G0  (SI), lock shift G1 (SO), lock shift G2, lock
       shift G3, single shift G2, and single shift G3.  When a virtual  termi-
       nal  is  created  or reset, the ASCII character set is designated as G0
       through G3.  When the `G0' capability is present, screen evaluates  the
       capabilities  `S0', `E0', and `C0' if present. `S0' is the sequence the
       terminal uses to enable and start the  graphics  character  set  rather
       than  SI.   `E0'  is the corresponding replacement for SO. `C0' gives a
       character by character translation string that  is  used  during  semi-
       graphics  mode.  This string is built like the `acsc' terminfo capabil-

       When the `po' and `pf' capabilities are present in the terminal's term-
       cap  entry,  applications running in a screen window can send output to
       the printer port of the terminal.  This allows a user to have an appli-
       cation  in one window sending output to a printer connected to the ter-
       minal, while all other windows are still active (the  printer  port  is
       enabled  and  disabled  again for each chunk of output).  As a side-ef-
       fect, programs running in different windows  can  send  output  to  the
       printer  simultaneously.   Data sent to the printer is not displayed in
       the window.  The info command displays a line starting `PRIN' while the
       printer is active.

       Screen  maintains  a hardstatus line for every window. If a window gets
       selected, the display's hardstatus will be updated to  match  the  win-
       dow's  hardstatus  line. If the display has no hardstatus the line will
       be displayed as a standard screen message.  The hardstatus line can  be
       changed    with   the   ANSI   Application   Program   Command   (APC):
       "ESC_<string>ESC\". As a  convenience  for  xterm  users  the  sequence
       "ESC]0..2;<string>^G" is also accepted.

       Some  capabilities  are only put into the $TERMCAP variable of the vir-
       tual terminal if they can be efficiently implemented  by  the  physical
       terminal.  For instance, `dl' (delete line) is only put into the $TERM-
       CAP variable if the terminal supports  either  delete  line  itself  or
       scrolling  regions. Note that this may provoke confusion, when the ses-
       sion is reattached on a different terminal, as the  value  of  $TERMCAP
       cannot be modified by parent processes.

       The  "alternate  screen" capability is not enabled by default.  Set the
       altscreen .screenrc command to enable it.

       The following is a list of  control  sequences  recognized  by  screen.
       "(V)" and "(A)" indicate VT100-specific and ANSI- or ISO-specific func-
       tions, respectively.

       ESC E                      Next Line

       ESC D                      Index

       ESC M                      Reverse Index

       ESC H                      Horizontal Tab Set

       ESC Z                      Send VT100 Identification String

       ESC 7                 (V)  Save Cursor and Attributes

       ESC 8                 (V)  Restore Cursor and Attributes

       ESC [s                (A)  Save Cursor and Attributes

       ESC [u                (A)  Restore Cursor and Attributes

       ESC c                      Reset to Initial State

       ESC g                      Visual Bell

       ESC Pn p                   Cursor Visibility (97801)

                                  Pn = 6                     Invisible

                                  Pn = 7                     Visible

       ESC =                 (V)  Application Keypad Mode

       ESC >                 (V)  Numeric Keypad Mode

       ESC # 8               (V)  Fill Screen with E's

       ESC \                 (A)  String Terminator

       ESC ^                 (A)  Privacy Message String (Message Line)

       ESC !                      Global Message String (Message Line)

       ESC k                      A.k.a. Definition String

       ESC P                 (A)  Device Control String.  Outputs a string di-
                                  rectly  to  the host terminal without inter-

       ESC _                 (A)  Application Program Command (Hardstatus)

       ESC ] 0 ; string ^G   (A)  Operating System Command (Hardstatus,  xterm
                                  title hack)

       ESC ] 83 ; cmd ^G     (A)  Execute  screen  command. This only works if
                                  multi-user support is compiled into  screen.
                                  The  pseudo-user ":window:" is used to check
                                  the access control list. Use  "addacl  :win-
                                  dow:  -rwx  #?"  to  create  a  user with no
                                  rights and allow only the needed commands.

       Control-N             (A)  Lock Shift G1 (SO)

       Control-O             (A)  Lock Shift G0 (SI)

       ESC n                 (A)  Lock Shift G2

       ESC o                 (A)  Lock Shift G3

       ESC N                 (A)  Single Shift G2

       ESC O                 (A)  Single Shift G3

       ESC ( Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G0

       ESC ) Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G1

       ESC * Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G2

       ESC + Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G3

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn H            Direct Cursor Addressing

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn f            same as above

       ESC [ Pn J                 Erase in Display

                                  Pn = None or 0             From  Cursor   to
                                                             End of Screen

                                  Pn = 1                     From Beginning of
                                                             Screen to Cursor

                                  Pn = 2                     Entire Screen

       ESC [ Pn K                 Erase in Line

                                  Pn = None or 0             From  Cursor   to
                                                             End of Line

                                  Pn = 1                     From Beginning of
                                                             Line to Cursor

                                  Pn = 2                     Entire Line

       ESC [ Pn X                 Erase character

       ESC [ Pn A                 Cursor Up

       ESC [ Pn B                 Cursor Down

       ESC [ Pn C                 Cursor Right

       ESC [ Pn D                 Cursor Left

       ESC [ Pn E                 Cursor next line

       ESC [ Pn F                 Cursor previous line

       ESC [ Pn G                 Cursor horizontal position

       ESC [ Pn `                 same as above

       ESC [ Pn d                 Cursor vertical position

       ESC [ Ps ;...; Ps m        Select Graphic Rendition

                                  Ps = None or 0             Default Rendition

                                  Ps = 1                     Bold

                                  Ps = 2                (A)  Faint

                                  Ps = 3                (A)  Standout     Mode
                                                             (ANSI:     Itali-

                                  Ps = 4                     Underlined

                                  Ps = 5                     Blinking

                                  Ps = 7                     Negative Image

                                  Ps = 22               (A)  Normal Intensity

                                  Ps = 23               (A)  Standout Mode off
                                                             (ANSI: Italicized

                                  Ps = 24               (A)  Not Underlined

                                  Ps = 25               (A)  Not Blinking

                                  Ps = 27               (A)  Positive Image

                                  Ps = 30               (A)  Foreground Black

                                  Ps = 31               (A)  Foreground Red

                                  Ps = 32               (A)  Foreground Green

                                  Ps = 33               (A)  Foreground Yellow

                                  Ps = 34               (A)  Foreground Blue

                                  Ps = 35               (A)  Foreground    Ma-

                                  Ps = 36               (A)  Foreground Cyan

                                  Ps = 37               (A)  Foreground White

                                  Ps = 39               (A)  Foreground    De-

                                  Ps = 40               (A)  Background Black

                                  Ps = ...

                                  Ps = 49               (A)  Background    De-

       ESC [ Pn g                 Tab Clear

                                  Pn = None or 0             Clear Tab at Cur-
                                                             rent Position

                                  Pn = 3                     Clear All Tabs

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn r       (V)  Set Scrolling Region

       ESC [ Pn I            (A)  Horizontal Tab

       ESC [ Pn Z            (A)  Backward Tab

       ESC [ Pn L            (A)  Insert Line

       ESC [ Pn M            (A)  Delete Line

       ESC [ Pn @            (A)  Insert Character

       ESC [ Pn P            (A)  Delete Character

       ESC [ Pn S                 Scroll Scrolling Region Up

       ESC [ Pn T                 Scroll Scrolling Region Down

       ESC [ Pn ^                 same as above

       ESC [ Ps ;...; Ps h        Set Mode

       ESC [ Ps ;...; Ps l        Reset Mode

                                  Ps = 4                (A)  Insert Mode

                                  Ps = 20               (A)  Automatic   Line-
                                                             feed Mode

                                  Ps = 34                    Normal     Cursor

                                  Ps = ?1               (V)  Application  Cur-
                                                             sor Keys

                                  Ps = ?3               (V)  Change   Terminal
                                                             Width to 132 col-

                                  Ps = ?5               (V)  Reverse Video

                                  Ps = ?6               (V)  Origin Mode

                                  Ps = ?7               (V)  Wrap Mode

                                  Ps = ?9                    X10  mouse track-

                                  Ps = ?25              (V)  Visible Cursor

                                  Ps = ?47                   Alternate  Screen
                                                             (old xterm code)

                                  Ps = ?1000            (V)  VT200       mouse

                                  Ps = ?1047                 Alternate  Screen
                                                             (new xterm code)

                                  Ps = ?1049                 Alternate  Screen
                                                             (new xterm code)

       ESC [ 5 i             (A)  Start relay to printer (ANSI Media Copy)

       ESC [ 4 i             (A)  Stop relay to printer (ANSI Media Copy)

       ESC [ 8 ; Ph ; Pw t        Resize the window to  `Ph'  lines  and  `Pw'
                                  columns (SunView special)

       ESC [ c                    Send VT100 Identification String

       ESC [ x                    Send Terminal Parameter Report

       ESC [ > c                  Send   VT220   Secondary  Device  Attributes

       ESC [ 6 n                  Send Cursor Position Report

       In order to do a full VT100 emulation screen has to detect that  a  se-
       quence of characters in the input stream was generated by a keypress on
       the user's keyboard and insert the VT100 style escape sequence.  Screen
       has  a very flexible way of doing this by making it possible to map ar-
       bitrary commands on arbitrary sequences  of  characters.  For  standard
       VT100  emulation  the  command will always insert a string in the input
       buffer of the window (see also command stuff  in  the  command  table).
       Because  the sequences generated by a keypress can change after a reat-
       tach from a different terminal type, it is possible to bind commands to
       the  termcap  name of the keys.  Screen will insert the correct binding
       after each reattach. See the bindkey command for further details on the
       syntax and examples.

       Here  is the table of the default key bindings. The fourth is what com-
       mand is executed if the keyboard is switched into application mode.

       |Key name        | Termcap name | Command  | App mode |
       |Cursor up       | ku           | \033[A   | \033OA   |
       |Cursor down     | kd           | \033[B   | \033OB   |
       |Cursor right    | kr           | \033[C   | \033OC   |
       |Cursor left     | kl           | \033[D   | \033OD   |
       |Function key 0  | k0           | \033[10~ |          |
       |Function key 1  | k1           | \033OP   |          |
       |Function key 2  | k2           | \033OQ   |          |
       |Function key 3  | k3           | \033OR   |          |
       |Function key 4  | k4           | \033OS   |          |
       |Function key 5  | k5           | \033[15~ |          |
       |Function key 6  | k6           | \033[17~ |          |
       |Function key 7  | k7           | \033[18~ |          |
       |Function key 8  | k8           | \033[19~ |          |
       |Function key 9  | k9           | \033[20~ |          |
       |Function key 10 | k;           | \033[21~ |          |
       |Function key 11 | F1           | \033[23~ |          |
       |Function key 12 | F2           | \033[24~ |          |
       |Home            | kh           | \033[1~  |          |
       |End             | kH           | \033[4~  |          |
       |Insert          | kI           | \033[2~  |          |
       |Delete          | kD           | \033[3~  |          |
       |Page up         | kP           | \033[5~  |          |
       |Page down       | kN           | \033[6~  |          |
       |Keypad 0        | f0           | 0        | \033Op   |
       |Keypad 1        | f1           | 1        | \033Oq   |
       |Keypad 2        | f2           | 2        | \033Or   |
       |Keypad 3        | f3           | 3        | \033Os   |
       |Keypad 4        | f4           | 4        | \033Ot   |
       |Keypad 5        | f5           | 5        | \033Ou   |
       |Keypad 6        | f6           | 6        | \033Ov   |
       |Keypad 7        | f7           | 7        | \033Ow   |
       |Keypad 8        | f8           | 8        | \033Ox   |
       |Keypad 9        | f9           | 9        | \033Oy   |
       |Keypad +        | f+           | +        | \033Ok   |
       |Keypad -        | f-           | -        | \033Om   |
       |Keypad *        | f*           | *        | \033Oj   |
       |Keypad /        | f/           | /        | \033Oo   |
       |Keypad =        | fq           | =        | \033OX   |
       |Keypad .        | f.           | .        | \033On   |
       |Keypad ,        | f,           | ,        | \033Ol   |
       |Keypad enter    | fe           | \015     | \033OM   |

       The following table describes all terminal capabilities that are recog-
       nized  by  screen  and are not in the termcap(5) manual.  You can place
       these capabilities in your termcap entries (in `/etc/termcap')  or  use
       them  with the commands `termcap', `terminfo' and `termcapinfo' in your
       screenrc files. It is often not possible to place these capabilities in
       the terminfo database.

       LP   (bool)  Terminal  has  VT100 style margins (`magic margins'). Note
                    that this capability is obsolete because screen  uses  the
                    standard 'xn' instead.

       Z0   (str)   Change width to 132 columns.

       Z1   (str)   Change width to 80 columns.

       WS   (str)   Resize  display. This capability has the desired width and
                    height as arguments. SunView(tm) example: '\E[8;%d;%dt'.

       NF   (bool)  Terminal doesn't need flow control. Send ^S and ^Q  direct
                    to  the  application.  Same as 'flow off'. The opposite of
                    this capability is 'nx'.

       G0   (bool)  Terminal can deal with ISO 2022 font selection sequences.

       S0   (str)   Switch charset 'G0' to the specified charset.  Default  is

       E0   (str)   Switch  charset  'G0' back to standard charset. Default is

       C0   (str)   Use the string as a conversion table for font '0'. See the
                    'ac' capability for more details.

       CS   (str)   Switch cursor-keys to application mode.

       CE   (str)   Switch cursor-keys back to normal mode.

       AN   (bool)  Turn  on autonuke. See the 'autonuke' command for more de-

       OL   (num)   Set the output buffer limit. See the  'obuflimit'  command
                    for more details.

       KJ   (str)   Set  the encoding of the terminal. See the 'encoding' com-
                    mand for valid encodings.

       AF   (str)   Change character foreground color in an ANSI conform  way.
                    This  capability  will  almost  always be set to '\E[3%dm'
                    ('\E[3%p1%dm' on terminfo machines).

       AB   (str)   Same as 'AF', but change background color.

       AX   (bool)  Does understand ANSI set default  fg/bg  color  (\E[39m  /

       XC   (str)   Describe  a translation of characters to strings depending
                    on the current font. More details follow in the next  sec-

       XT   (bool)  Terminal  understands  special xterm sequences (OSC, mouse

       C8   (bool)  Terminal needs bold to display high-intensity colors (e.g.

       TF   (bool)  Add  missing  capabilities to the termcap/info entry. (Set
                    by default).

       Screen has a powerful mechanism to translate  characters  to  arbitrary
       strings depending on the current font and terminal type.  Use this fea-
       ture if you want to work with a  common  standard  character  set  (say
       ISO8851-latin1) even on terminals that scatter the more unusual charac-
       ters over several national language font pages.

           <charset-mapping> := <designator><template>{,<mapping>}
           <mapping> := <char-to-be-mapped><template-arg>

       The things in braces may be repeated any number of times.

       A <charset-mapping> tells screen how to map characters in font  <desig-
       nator>  ('B':  Ascii,  'A':  UK,  'K': German, etc.)  to strings. Every
       <mapping> describes to what string a single character  will  be  trans-
       lated. A template mechanism is used, as most of the time the codes have
       a lot in common (for example strings to  switch  to  and  from  another
       charset).  Each  occurrence  of '%' in <template> gets substituted with
       the <template-arg> specified  together  with  the  character.  If  your
       strings  are  not  similar at all, then use '%' as a template and place
       the full string in <template-arg>. A quoting  mechanism  was  added  to
       make  it  possible to use a real '%'. The '\' character quotes the spe-
       cial characters '\', '%', and ','.

       Here is an example:

           termcap hp700 'XC=B\E(K%\E(B,\304[,\326\\\\,\334]'

       This tells screen how to translate ISOlatin1 (charset 'B')  upper  case
       umlaut characters on a hp700 terminal that has a German charset. '\304'
       gets translated to '\E(K[\E(B' and so on.  Note  that  this  line  gets
       parsed  *three* times before the internal lookup table is built, there-
       fore a lot of quoting is needed to create a single '\'.

       Another extension was added to  allow  more  emulation:  If  a  mapping
       translates the unquoted '%' char, it will be sent to the terminal when-
       ever screen switches to the corresponding <designator>. In this special
       case  the template is assumed to be just '%' because the charset switch
       sequence and the character mappings normally haven't much in common.

       This example shows one use of the extension:

           termcap xterm 'XC=K%,%\E(B,[\304,\\\\\326,]\334'

       Here, a part of the German ('K') charset is emulated on an  xterm.   If
       screen  has  to  change  to the 'K' charset, '\E(B' will be sent to the
       terminal, i.e. the ASCII charset is used instead. The template is  just
       '%',  so  the mapping is straightforward: '[' to '\304', '\' to '\326',
       and ']' to '\334'.

       COLUMNS        Number of columns on the terminal (overrides termcap en-
       HOME           Directory in which to look for .screenrc.
       LINES          Number  of  lines on the terminal (overrides termcap en-
       LOCKPRG        Screen lock program.
       NETHACKOPTIONS Turns on nethack option.
       PATH           Used for locating programs to run.
       SCREENCAP      For customizing a terminal's TERMCAP value.
       SCREENDIR      Alternate socket directory.
       SCREENRC       Alternate user screenrc file.
       SHELL          Default  shell  program  for  opening  windows  (default
                      "/bin/sh").  See also "shell" .screenrc command.
       STY            Alternate socket name.
       SYSSCREENRC    Alternate system screenrc file.
       TERM           Terminal name.
       TERMCAP        Terminal description.
       WINDOW         Window number of a window (at creation time).

       .../screen-4.?.??/etc/etcscreenrc Examples  in  the screen distribution
                                         package for private and  global  ini-
                                         tialization files.
       /etc/screenrc                     screen initialization commands
       $HOME/.screenrc                   Read in after /etc/screenrc
       /run/screen/S-<login>             Socket directories (default)
       /usr/tmp/screens/S-<login>        Alternate socket directories.
       <socket directory>/.termcap       Written by the "termcap" output func-
       /usr/tmp/screens/screen-exchange  or
       /tmp/screen-exchange              screen  `interprocess   communication
       hardcopy.[0-9]                    Screen images created by the hardcopy
       screenlog.[0-9]                   Output log files created by  the  log
       /usr/lib/terminfo/?/*             or
       /etc/termcap                      Terminal capability databases
       /run/utmp                         Login records
       $LOCKPRG                          Program that locks a terminal.

       termcap(5), utmp(5), vi(1), captoinfo(1), tic(1)

       Originally  created  by  Oliver Laumann. For a long time maintained and
       developed by Juergen Weigert, Michael Schroeder, Micah Cowan and Sadrul
       Habib  Chowdhury. Since 2015 maintained and developed by Amadeusz Slaw-
       inski <> and Alexander  Naumov  <alexander_naumov@open->.

       Copyright (c) 2018-2020
            Alexander Naumov <>
            Amadeusz Slawinski <>
       Copyright (c) 2015-2017
            Juergen Weigert <>
            Alexander Naumov <>
            Amadeusz Slawinski <>
       Copyright (c) 2010-2015
            Juergen Weigert <>
            Sadrul Habib Chowdhury <>
       Copyright (c) 2008, 2009
            Juergen Weigert <>
            Michael Schroeder <>
            Micah Cowan <>
            Sadrul Habib Chowdhury <>
       Copyright (C) 1993-2003
            Juergen Weigert <>
            Michael Schroeder <>
       Copyright (C) 1987 Oliver Laumann
       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
       under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published  by  the
       Free  Software  Foundation;  either  version 3, or (at your option) any
       later version.
       This program is distributed in the hope that it  will  be  useful,  but
       WITHOUT  ANY  WARRANTY;  without  even  the  implied  warranty  of MER-
       Public License for more details.
       You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along
       with this program (see the file COPYING); if not,  write  to  the  Free
       Software  Foundation,  Inc.,  59  Temple  Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA
       02111-1307, USA

       Maarten ter Huurne <>,
       Jussi Kukkonen <>,
       Eric S. Raymond <>,
       Thomas Renninger <>,
       Axel Beckert <>,
       Ken Beal <>,
       Rudolf Koenig <>,
       Toerless Eckert <>,
       Wayne Davison <>,
       Patrick Wolfe <, kailand!pat>,
       Bart Schaefer <>,
       Nathan Glasser <>,
       Larry W. Virden <>,
       Howard Chu <>,
       Tim MacKenzie <>,
       Markku Jarvinen <mta@{cc,cs,ee}>,
       Marc Boucher <marc@CAM.ORG>,
       Doug Siebert <>,
       Ken Stillson <>,
       Ian Frechett <frechett@spot.Colorado.EDU>,
       Brian Koehmstedt <>,
       Don Smith <>,
       Frank van der Linden <>,
       Martin Schweikert <>,
       David Vrona <>,
       E. Tye McQueen <>,
       Matthew Green <>,
       Christopher Williams <>,
       Matt Mosley <>,
       Gregory Neil Shapiro <gshapiro@wpi.WPI.EDU>,
       Johannes Zellner <>,
       Pablo Averbuj <>.

       The latest official release of screen available via anonymous ftp  from  or  any  other GNU distribution site. The home
       site of screen is  If  you  want  to
       help, send a note to

       o  `dm'  (delete mode) and `xs' are not handled correctly (they are ig-
          nored). `xn' is treated as a magic-margin indicator.

       o  Screen has no clue about double-high or double-wide characters.  But
          this is the only area where vttest is allowed to fail.

       o  It  is not possible to change the environment variable $TERMCAP when
          reattaching under a different terminal type.

       o  The support of terminfo based systems is very limited. Adding  extra
          capabilities to $TERMCAP may not have any effects.

       o  Screen does not make use of hardware tabs.

       o  Screen  must be installed as set-uid with owner root on most systems
          in order to be able to correctly change the owner of the tty  device
          file  for  each  window.  Special permission may also be required to
          write the file "/run/utmp".

       o  Entries in "/run/utmp" are not removed when screen  is  killed  with
          SIGKILL.   This will cause some programs (like "w" or "rwho") to ad-
          vertise that a user is logged on who really isn't.

       o  Screen may give a strange warning when your tty has no utmp entry.

       o  When the modem line was hung up, screen may not automatically detach
          (or  quit)  unless  the device driver is configured to send a HANGUP
          signal.  To detach a screen session use the -D or  -d  command  line

       o  If  a  password is set, the command line options -d and -D still de-
          tach a session without asking.

       o  Both "breaktype" and  "defbreaktype"  change  the  break  generating
          method  used by all terminal devices. The first should change a win-
          dow specific setting, where the latter should change  only  the  de-
          fault for new windows.

       o  When  attaching to a multiuser session, the user's .screenrc file is
          not sourced. Each user's personal settings have to  be  included  in
          the  .screenrc  file from which the session is booted, or have to be
          changed manually.

       o  A weird imagination is most useful to gain full advantage of all the

       o  Send bug-reports, fixes, enhancements, t-shirts, money, beer & pizza

4th Berkeley Distribution          Feb 2020                          SCREEN(1)
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